Show Less
You do not have access to this content

How Far to Nudge?

Assessing Behavioural Public Policy

Peter John

This book addresses the wave of innovation and reforms that has been called the nudge or behavioural public policy agenda, which has emerged in many countries since the mid-2000s. Nudge involves developing behavioural insights to solve complex policy problems, such as unemployment, obesity and the environment, as well as improving the delivery of policies by reforming standard operating procedures. It reviews the changes that have taken place, in particular the greater use of randomised evaluations, and discusses how far nudge can be used more generally in the policy process. The book argues that nudge has a radical future if it develops a more bottom up approach involving greater feedback and more engagement with citizens.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

Index

Assessing Behavioural Public Policy

Peter John

academics 5, 55, 57, 61, 65, 78, 106

in behavioural public policy 61–3

role of 64

alcoholism 26–7, 30

Anderson, Joel H. 111–13

Ariely, Dan 66, 76, 96

backfire effect 30

Barber, Michael 78

Becker, Gary S. 42, 142

Becoming a Man (BAM) programme 130

The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy (Shafir) 61

‘A behavioral model of rational choice’ (Simon) 43–4

Behavioral Science and Policy Association (BSPA) 61, 85

behaviour change 24–5

critiques of rational model 43–5

and nudge 4–7

policies 12–13, 26–8, 75, 125

rational action and 28–9

reactance 29–30

reformers 36

social science and 39–40

behavioural economics

‘anchoring’ 46

books for 64–6

changes in 49–50

diffusion of 52

mainstream 47–9

‘mental accounting’ 46

in 1980s and 1990s 47

policy problems 51–2

simplification of 56

sophistication of 50–51

Behavioural Economics Team of the Australian Government (BETA) 84

behavioural errors 136

behavioural ideas 7, 17, 64, 77, 82, 85, 106

behavioural insights 9, 10, 79–80, 89–90, 93, 107, 146

application of 130

in Britain 74–6

in France 84

in Netherlands 83–4

translation 82–5

in UK 82–3, 85

in USA 82–4

Behavioural Insights Team (BIT) 5, 72–3, 76–9, 90

achievement 78

behavioural ideas 81–2

critics 78

innovation 80

rules and regulations 81

from special unit to international not-for-profit 80–82

work on error and debt 96

‘behavioural market failure’ 116

behavioural problems

cause of 30

crime and 30–31

from food and diet 22–3

behavioural public administration 52

behavioural public policy 5, 9–10, 34–5, 85, 136

academics 61–3

assessing 142–6

entrepreneurial public administration 9–10

radical approach 145–6

success of 55

behavioural revolution in social sciences

behavioural economics see behavioural economics

brain sciences 40

interdisciplinarity 41

rational model 41–3

critiques of 43–5

behavioural sciences, public criticism 66–7

behavioural spillover 132

behaviourism 39

Benartzi, Shlomo 52, 88, 105

beneficial behaviours

in health 23–4

during pregnancy 34

Benz, Matthias 57

Blair, Tony 57, 58

blame attribution 34–5

Blattman, Christopher 130

Blume, Toby 128

boomerang effect 30

bounded rationality 16

Bovens, Mark 137

brain sciences 40

Brest, Paul 136

Brighton, Henry 138

Britain, behavioural insights in 74–6

Broockman, David 91

Brookings Foundation 63

Bruns, Hendrik 134

Bryce, Cindy 134

bureaucratic innovation 79–80, 86

Cameron, David 76, 83, 100

Campbell Collaboration 97

Cartwright, Edward 50

CBST see Social and Behavioral Sciences Team (CBST)

Chabris, Christopher 66

Change4Life programme 27

‘choice architectures’ 6

Cialdini, Robert B. 65

citizen intelligence and feedback, neglecting 104–6

cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) 130

collective action failure 94

collective behaviours 31–3

COM-B (‘capability,’ ‘opportunity,’ ‘motivation’ and ‘behaviour’) 63

commitment 128–9, 133

communication flows 5–6

Conly, Sarah 113

costs and benefits 28–9, 41–2

Couturier, Dominique-Laurent 118

criticism of nudge

don’t always work 95–7

limited range 81–91

limits to incrementalism 101–2

neglecting citizen intelligence and feedback 104–6

neoliberalism 102–5

potentially harmful 98–9

temporary effects 93–5

weak effects 91–3

weak external validity 95

weak knowledge base 97–8

Cutts, Dave 92

Dalton, Russell J. 29

Dawney, Emma 57

deception 119

decision-makers 16

decision-making 46, 108, 117, 136, 138, 139, 141

hasty 124

incremental 101–2

rapid 123

deliberation 125–6

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills 73

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) 74

depression 34

diet 22–3, 127, 132, 140

in pregnancy 33

see also exercise

diverting public attention 99–100

Dobson, Andrew 103

Dolan, Paul 76

Downs, Anthony 123

Duckworth, Angela L. 131

Dworkin, Gerald 111

Education Endowment Foundation 73

educative nudges 13

effective motivation 131

‘elite experiments’ 139

embedded behaviours 30–31

entrepreneurial public administration 9–10

epigenetic inheritance 33

epigenetic marks 33–4

The Ethics of Influence (Sunstein) 116

ethics of nudge 144

freedom 114–15

libertarian paternalism 108–13

moving beyond 118–20

psychological state 114–15

public opinion 117–18

The European Nudging Network (TEN) 84

Executive Order 1370783

exercise

for beneficial effects 22–4, 32

lack of 26–7

experimental public administration 10, 18

‘experiments on institutions’ 139

Farrell, Henry 105

Fieldhouse, Ed 92, 95

food 22–3

Foucault, Michel 67, 104

France, behavioural insights 84

Fraud, Error and Debt: Behavioural Insights Team Paper77

Freakonomics64

freedom 114–15

freedom of choice, libertarian paternalism 110, 113

Frey, Bruno S. 57

Friedman, Milton 44

Galbraith, John Kenneth 64

Gallagher, Rory 130

game theory 49–50

Gardner, Frances 31

Gerber, Alan S. 93

Get Out the Vote (GOTV) experiments 71–2

Gigerenzer, Gerd 138

Gneezy, Urim 50

Goldstein, Daniel 56

Gollwitzer, Peter M. 90

Goodin, Robert E. 101

Government Economic and Social Research (GESR) 74–5

Government Social Research (GSR) 58

Green, Donald P. 93

Grether, David M. 48

grit idea 131

Grose, Christian 139

Guryan, Jonathan 130

habits 25–6

Hagmann, David 134

Hallsworth, Michael 127

Halpern, David 57–8, 76, 80

Harford, Tim 65

Hargreaves-Heap, Shaun 104

harmful nudges 98–9

Haslam, S. Alexander 133

healthy eating 23

Heller, Sara B. 130

Hertwig, Ralph 13, 131–2

Highway Code14–15 , 133

HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) 72, 74, 81

Hollands, Gareth J. 118

‘homo heuristicus’ 138

House of Lords Select Committee on Behaviour Change 75

‘hyperbolic discounting’ 48

Ideas4264, 85

ideological public policy, criticism of nudge 102–5, 143

incremental decision-making 101–2

Initiative for Science, Society and Policy (ISSP) 84

innovation

bureaucratic, 79–80, 86

translating nudge into practice 79–80

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (Smith) 64

interdisciplinarity 41

internet politics 139

Irrationally Yours: On Missing Socks, Pickup Lines, and Other Existential Puzzles (Ariely) 66

Jackson, Tim 65

Jamison, Julian C. 130

Jetten, Jolanda 133

John, Peter 13, 62, 92, 96, 128, 138

Johnson, Eric 56

Jones, Bryan 44

Jones, Rhys 103, 104

Jung, Janice Y. 117

justification 115–16

Kahneman, Daniel 45–7, 49, 51, 58, 129, 131, 137

Kalla, Joshua 91

Kallgren, Carl A. 65

Kantorowicz-Reznichenko, Elena 134

Kelly, Dennis R. 131

Kelly, Michael P. 26, 89, 91, 95, 97, 98, 106

Keynes, John Maynard 64

Klement, Katharina 134

Larimer, Christopher W. 93

Lewis, Michael 46

libertarian paternalism 67, 108–13

defence of 115, 118, 119

freedom of choice 110, 113

moving beyond 118–20

light-touch nudges, 59, 89, 93, 98, 110, 121

light-touch policies 110

limited range, criticism of nudge 81–91

linked behaviours 30

List, John A. 48, 50

Loewenstein, George 48, 134

London Schools Excellence Fund 73

long-term behaviour change 131

Ludwig, Jens 130

Luistro Jonsson, Marijane 134

mainstream economics, changes in 49–50

Marteau, Theresa M. 26, 89, 91, 95, 97, 98, 106, 118

Matthews, Michael D. 131

May, Theresa 83, 100

McConnell, Allan 137

Mellers, Barbara A. 117

‘mental accounting’ 46

Michie, Susan, 63

‘Mind, Society, and Behavior’ report 64

Mindless Eating (Wansink) 66

MINDSPACE report 60

Mols, Frank 133

More or Less program 65

Mullainathan, Sendhil 130

multi-causal behaviours 30–31, 34

neglecting citizen intelligence and feedback 104–6

neoliberalism, criticism of nudge 102–5

Netherlands, behavioural insights 83–4

New Economics Foundation 57

Ng, Yin-Lam 118

Ni Chonaire, Aisling 129

nudge 117–18

advantages of 139

behaviour change and 4–7

belief 136

to change health behaviour 128

commitment device 128–9

controlling elites with 136–40

criticism and limitation

don’t always work 95–7

limited range 81–91

limits to incrementalism 101–2

neglecting citizen intelligence and feedback 104–6

neoliberalism 102–5

potentially harmful 98–9

temporary effects 93–5

weak effects 91–3

weak external validity 95

weak knowledge base 97–8

dispersion of power 140

ethics of 144

deception 119

freedom 114–15

libertarian paternalism 108–20

psychological state 114–15

public opinion 117–18

public policies 118–20

as form of decision-making 141

goal of 133

implementation of public policies 8–9

personal 130

think 123–6

thought-provoking 129

translating into practice

behavioural insights 79–80

behavioural insights in Britain 74–6

Behavioural Insights Team 76–9

innovation 79–80

randomised controlled trial (RCT) 79–80

from special unit to international not-for-profit 80–82

testing and experimentation 70–74

translation to other contexts 82–5

Nudge: Improving Decisions about Health, Wealth, and Happiness (Thaler and Sunstein) 58–60

Nudge, Nudge, Think, Think105–6, 125, 126

nudge plus 10–14, 127–34

‘Nudges that fail’ (Sunstein) 96

‘nudging the S-curve’ 94

Obama, Barack 83

obesity 23, 24

O’Donnell, Gus 60, 76, 80

OECD report see Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report

Ogilvie, David 26, 89, 91, 95, 97, 98, 106

Oliver, Adam 8, 45–6

open nudges 127–34

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) report 82, 84–5

Ostrom, Elinor 49, 50, 105

Park, Andreas 50

peer review 72

pension scheme 52

personal nudges 130

persuasion effects 91

Peters, B. Guy 137

Peterson, Christopher 131

Petrescu, Dragos C. 118

planned behaviour 25

Plott, Charles R. 48

policy failures and successes 137

policy-makers 16–17

and behavioural agenda 56–8

challenge for 12

policy-making 136–9

policy punctuations 44

Pollack, Harold A. 130

poverty, impact of 33–4

poverty-reinforcing behaviours 33–4

‘preference reversal’ 48

Pressman, Jeffery L. 62

psychological state 114–15

public administration 18, 44, 52, 97, 136, 144

behavioural, 52

entrepreneurial 9–10

public criticism, behavioural sciences 66–7

public goods 6, 32, 134

public opinion and nudging 117–18

public policy 118–20, 134

behavioural see behavioural public policy

implementation of 8–9

issues 12

Pykett, Jessica 103, 104

Rabin, Matthew 48

radical behaviourism 39, 145–6

radical incrementalism 101–2

radical nudges 10

radicalism 103–4

Rahali, Bilel 134

Rajpal, Sachin 134

randomised controlled trial (RCT) 5, 9, 26, 71–3, 79–80, 105, 107, 130

rational action 143

and behaviour changes 28–9

rational bureaucracy 114

rational ignorance 123

rational model 41–3, 60, 138

critiques of 43–5

reactance 29–30

Reagan, Ronald 82

Reckoning with Risk: Learning to Live with Uncertainty66

Reno, Raymond R. 65

resistance to behaving well 24–5

Richardson, Liz 138

Roland, Martin 26, 89, 91, 95, 97, 98, 106

Sabourian, Hamid 50

Sanders, Michael 81, 127, 129

Sartori, Giovanni 8

Scarcity: Why Having Too Little Means So Much64

Schmidt, Andreas T. 114

Schwartz, Barry 44

self-nudges 130

Service, Owain 130

Seven Principles for Policy-Makers57

Shaefer, Tamir 137

Shah, Anuj K. 130

Shah, Hetan 57

Shalizi, Cosma 105

Shaw, Daniel S. 31

Sheffer, Lior 137

Sheridan, Margaret 130

Silva, Antonio 96, 129

Simon, Herbert A. 16, 43

Simons, Daniel 66

Slovic, Paul 137

The Small Big66

Smith, Adam 64

smoking 24–6, 28

banning 15, 27–8

during pregnancy 30, 34

Social and Behavioral Sciences Team (CBST) 5, 83

Social Innovation Partnership (TSIP) 73

social marketing 40

social media politics 139

social science

and behaviour change 39–40

behavioural revolution in see behavioural revolution in social sciences

soft paternalism 116

Soroka, Stuart 137

Steffens, Niklas K. 133

Stoker, Gerry 13

Stutzer, Alois 57

substance abuse 31

Sugden, Robert 47, 103, 104, 118–19

Suhrcke, Marc 26, 89, 91, 95, 97, 98, 106

Sunstein, Cass R. 6, 8, 58–9, 62, 96, 109, 111–19, 121, 133–5

system 1 thinking 51, 117, 122–3, 127–9

system 2 thinking 51, 117, 122–3, 127, 129

system-wide changes 14–16

tax change 7, 13, 62, 118

taxation 52, 97

temporary policies of nudge 93–5

Thaler, Richard H. 6, 8, 47–9, 51, 52, 56, 58–9, 88, 105, 109, 111–15, 133, 135

‘t Hart, Paul 137

thought-provoking nudges 129

tools of government 7–8

Transforming Behaviour Change 66

translating nudge into practice

behavioural insights 79–80

in Britain 74–6

Behavioural Insights Team 76–9

innovation 79–80

randomised controlled trial 79–80

from special unit to international not-for-profit 80–82

testing and experimentation 70–74

translation to other contexts 82–5

translation phenomenon 63–6

Trump, Donald 82–3, 100

Tversky, Amos 48, 58, 131, 137

UK, behavioural insights 82–3, 85

USA, behavioural insights 82–4

Van de Vyver, Julie 96

van Stralen, Maartje M. 63

Walgrave, Stefaan 137

Wallace, George 82

weak effects, criticism of nudge 91–3

weak external validity, criticism of nudge 95

weak knowledge base 97–8

West, Robert 63

Whitehead, Mark 103, 104

Why Nudge? (Sunstein) 115–17

Widdop, Paul 92

Wildavsky, Aaron 62

World Bank 84

World Development Report 201533, 52, 64, 82