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Regional Infrastructure Systems

The Political Economy of Regional Infrastructure

Colin Turner

As the international economy globalises, there is a need for national infrastructure systems to adapt to form a global infrastructure system. This network of networks aids mobility between national systems as a means of supporting their territorial needs and preferences. This reflects a strategic approach to state infrastructuring as nations seek to utilise these physical systems to support and enhance their territoriality. Providing a thorough examination through the lens of economic infrastructure, the book addresses the forces of integration and fragmentation in global networks.
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Index

Colin Turner

abstract space 10

Abuja Treaty (1991) 117

access issues 11, 38, 44, 55, 57, 113–114, 124, 136, 140, 182, 201

Action Plan (CEC, 1990) 37

action plan (PIDA) 116–117

adaptive tensions 19, 21–23, 23–24, 31, 33–34, 159

Afghanistan 82, 84, 85

Africa 57

Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostics 116

African Development Bank (AfDB) 109, 116, 127

African Information Society Initiative 144

African infrastructure system (AfIS) 108–149, 205

China’s role in 115, 131, 146–148, 210

energy 139–143

imperative for 108, 109–117

information 143–146

maritime 134–139, 145, 146

regional integration 117–124, 137, 141

transport 124–133

African Railways Union 130

African Union (AU) 117, 121, 125, 131, 135, 141, 147

African Union Commission 116

Agnew, J. 17, 18, 202, 204

aid-driven infrastructure 147, 148, 208

Alden, C. 147

Algeria 56, 118, 122, 123, 141

Americas’ infrastructure system (AmIS) 157–193, 205, 210

Caribbean Community 157, 171–177

China’s role in 189–192

North American Free Trade Area 157–171

Union of South American Nations 157, 177–189

Ammermann, H. 48, 49

ANCOM (Andean Community) 177, 184

Angola 118, 129, 130, 146, 147

Angola mode 147, 191

anxiety, about infrastructure 3

Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) 118, 120, 122, 123, 127

Argentina 179, 181, 182, 183, 184, 186, 188

ASEAN Highway Network (AHN) 78

ASEAN power grid (AGP) 78

Asia 16, 56, 70

Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) 70, 71–74

Asian Development Bank (ADB) 71, 76, 79, 83, 84, 85, 91–93, 99

Asian Infrastructure Fund (AIF) 77, 92

Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) 94, 98–99

Asian infrastructure system (AIS) 70–100, 205

APEC connectivity agenda 71–74

Association of South East Asian Nations 75–79

China’s role in 70, 93–100

from sub-regional to pan-regional 90–93

Gulf Co-operation Council 86–90

South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation 80–85

aspirant territoriality 31, 32–37, 48, 50, 52, 53, 203

assessment of TENs projects 40

Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 70, 72, 75–79, 92, 93, 95, 98, 206

austerity 39, 41, 48, 49

Austria 43

aviation sector

the Americas 175–176, 179

Asia 83, 87, 88

Europe 40

Azerbaijan 60

‘backhaul’ problem 173

Badenoch, A. 52

Badie, B. 34

Bahamas 174, 176, 190

Bahrain 86, 87, 88, 89

Balkan states 32, 51, 61

Baltic states 32, 46, 47

Bangladesh 81, 82, 84, 85, 93, 96, 97

Barbados 174, 190

Bartolini, S. 34

Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation 85, 93

Behar, A. 136

Belarus 56, 61, 96

Belgium 43, 56

Belize 172, 174, 176

benchmarking methods

for NIS 204–205

see also individual national infrastructure systems

Benelux states 51, 53

Benin 118, 122, 138, 139, 141

Beyond the Border 163–164

Bhagwati, J. 13

Bhattacharyya, A. 81

Bhutan 81, 82, 83, 84, 85

Bialasiewicz, L. 35

bilateral agreements/deals 22, 202

Africa 146, 149

the Americas 158, 164, 166, 176, 182, 183, 190, 207

Asia 84

bilateral infrastructure integration (EU) 39, 52–54

biomass 139

blackouts 51, 170

Blank, S. 159

Boedeltje, F. 34

Bofinger, H. 111

Bolivia 179, 181, 182, 183, 186, 188, 189

border-crossing times, Africa 132, 133

border/gateway infrastructures 11, 12

Africa 112, 130, 131

the Americas 11, 159, 160–164, 168, 169, 187, 203–204

Botswana 118, 132, 137, 138

Bouzarovski, S. 55

Bowker, G. 4

Brazil 177, 179, 180, 182, 183, 184, 187, 188, 191, 192

Brenner, N. 6, 18, 202

broadband 42, 44, 73, 77, 143, 144, 145, 146

Brunei 75, 76

Bulgaria 32

Burkina Faso 118, 123, 137, 139

Burundi 118, 122, 130, 137, 138

business interests 15

Calderón, C. 109, 113

Cambodia 72, 75, 76, 78, 79, 96, 100

Cameroon/Douala 118, 123, 139, 141, 145

Canada 157, 158, 160, 163–164, 166, 167, 168, 170–171, 190, 206

Caribbean Community (CARICOM) 157, 171–177, 190, 192

cascade effects 44, 51, 207

Central African Republic 118, 123, 130, 137, 139, 145

Central American Integration System 157

Central Bi-Oceanic Railway 192

central and eastern Europe 16, 32, 40, 46, 57, 59, 60, 61

Chad 118, 123, 128, 130, 137, 139, 145, 147

Chakraborty, D. 81

cheap loans 147

Chile 177, 178, 179, 182, 183, 184, 186, 187, 188, 189

China 110

and the African infrastructure system 115, 116, 124, 130, 131, 146–148, 210

and the America’s infrastructure system 189–192

and the Asian infrastructure system 70, 93–100

electricity co-operation 79

EU integration as counterweight to hegemonic power of 13

as a force for integration 209

investment in Piraeus 62

national infrastructure system 76, 178

China Development Bank 98

Christopherson Group Report (1996) 40

civil wars 109, 111

co-operation 19, 20

the Americas 164, 170–171, 181, 185, 191, 192–193

Asia 75, 78–79, 84, 85, 93, 94

Europe 42, 51, 52, 60

regionalism and 16, 17

co-operative forums 73, 91

co-ordination 20, 203, 204

Africa 119

Asia 92

Europe 37, 38, 50, 51, 52, 57, 58, 61

UNASUR states 181, 185

coastal countries

African 136

see also Caribbean Community

cohesion 3, 6, 10, 12, 35, 36, 39, 88, 125, 209

Cohesion Fund 48, 49

Cold War 16

collaboration 13, 52–53

collective power 13, 14

Collier, P. 137

Colombia 179, 183, 184, 188

colonial infrastructure 94, 109–110, 111, 128, 208

colonial power(s) 117, 120, 208

Commission of the European Communities (CEC) 33, 39, 46, 48, 49, 50, 58, 60

Committee on Foreign Investment 190

commodity cycle 148

commodity-driven investment 191

Common Economic Maritime Zone of Africa (CEMZA) 135

Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA) 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 127, 138

common standards 38, 44, 133

Common Transport Policy 38, 39

community of practice 4

Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD) 118, 120, 122, 123, 127

competition 14, 16, 80, 89–90, 99, 119, 175

competition state(s) 12, 13, 19, 74, 115, 201, 205, 208

competitiveness 14, 15, 36, 91, 143

complexity catastrophe 7

‘comprehensive’ network, EU corridors 42

concessional loans 192

Congo 118, 122, 123, 130, 136, 138, 140, 141, 142, 146

Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) 48

contagion effects 16

container infrastructure 124, 134, 135, 173, 175, 181

control 204

infrastructuring and 5, 8–10, 18, 20, 44–45, 54, 57, 95, 115, 160

of resources, Africa 111

see also price controls; territorial control

‘core’ network, EU corridors 42

corruption 100, 111

COSIPLAN 181, 185–189

costs

EU ‘core’ network 42

infrastructural link, SAARC and ASEAN 93

of a pan-African rail system 129

procuring energy, Africa 140

of the TAH 126

TENS-E 46

see also trade costs; transaction costs; transit costs; transport costs

Côte d’Ivoire/Abidjan 118, 122, 123, 134, 138, 139

critical infrastructure 9

Africa 116

Europe 50–52, 56, 204

United States 11, 190

cross-border infrastructure see border/gateway infrastructures

cross-border trade/flows 22

Africa 120, 126, 142, 143

Europe 38

NAFTA 160, 161, 162, 166, 167, 170, 171

crude oil 55, 85, 166, 167, 168, 169

Customs and Border Protection (US) 162

cyber systems 3–4, 116

Czech Republic 32, 56

data protection 44

De, P. 85

debt/debt relief 148

degeneration of infrastructure 7

deterritorialisation 20, 36, 116

Detroit-Windsor border crossing 163

development agencies 21, 208

development divide (ASEAN) 75, 76

Digital Agenda for Europe (DAE) 44

Djankov, S. 94

Djibouti 97, 118, 130, 134, 146

Doha 88

domestic energy strategy, NAFTA states 166

Dominican Republic 176

Dubai 88, 89

Dülffer, J. 53

dynamics

infrastructural 3, 6

of regionalism 16–17

Ease of Doing Business Index 85, 114

East African Community (EAC) 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 127, 128, 131, 133, 138, 139, 146

East African Trade and Transport Facilitation Project 133

Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) 118, 120, 123, 127

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 118, 120, 122, 123, 127, 146

economic geography 12, 112

economic infrastructures 2, 147

economic integration 13, 21, 22, 23, 205

Africa 117–124, 137

the Americas 177, 189

Asia 70, 72, 75, 80, 86, 90

Europe 31, 33

economic interactions 19, 82

economies of scale 14, 15, 16, 74, 111, 112, 129, 201

Ecuador 179, 188

Egypt 61, 97, 118, 123, 124, 134, 142, 147

Electricity and natural gas transmission infrastructures in the community (CEC) 45–46

electricity sector

Africa 113–114, 121, 122, 123, 140–141, 141–142, 147

the Americas 166, 170–171, 179, 182, 184, 187–189, 191, 210

Asia 78–79, 84, 88, 90

Europe 45–46, 47, 51, 52

embeddedness 2, 3, 4, 5, 15

empowerment 4

Enabling Trade Index 132

Energy Charter Treaty 58, 60

energy corridors

Africa 123

Asia 79

Europe 46, 47, 56, 57

OBOR program 96

energy demand 55, 90, 140, 166, 171, 183, 184

energy exports 86, 114, 139, 166, 167, 168, 169, 172, 183

energy imports 55, 147, 166, 167, 183

Energy Information Agency 169

energy infrastructure

Africa 113–114, 121, 122, 123, 139–143, 207

the Americas 166–171, 178–179, 182–184, 187–188

Asia 78–79, 83, 84–85, 90, 93

Europe 51, 52

energy integration 206

Africa 140, 141

the Americas 170

Europe 46

resistance to 207

UNASUR 182, 183–184, 187–189

energy PENs (E-PENS) 55–60

energy poverty 114

energy security 45, 55, 57, 58, 90, 94, 97, 98, 141, 142, 183, 207

Energy TENs (TENS-E) 45–47

Eritrea 118, 134

Estache, A. 86

Estonia 32, 43, 47

Ethiopia 118, 130, 137, 138, 140, 141, 142, 146

Etihad line 88–89

Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) 70, 98

European Bank for Reconstruction and Development 99

European Fund for Strategic Investment 49

European infrastructure system (EIS) 31–62, 205, 206

aspirant territoriality 32–37

bilateral integration 52–54

coordination of critical infrastructure 50–52, 204

pan-European network 54–62

policy debates 32–33

trans-European network initiative 37–50

European integration 13–14, 16, 31, 33, 53, 54, 55, 62

European Investment Bank (EIB) 33, 38, 48, 49

European Union

aspirant territoriality 31, 32–37, 48, 50, 52, 53, 203

energy relations, Russia 59

hydrocarbon deficit (2015) 55

infrastructure failure 207

see also individual countries

Europe–Asia Transport Links 61–62

Exel, J. van 40

Export Import Bank of China 98

external trade 119, 172, 180

extra-territoriality 13, 18, 20, 22, 93, 94–95, 98, 146, 208, 209

failure see infrastructural failure; market failure; state failure

Fickers, A. 52

financial institutions 92, 94, 98, 115, 191–192

Finland 32, 43

foreign direct investment (FDI) 148, 185, 191, 208

foreign policy (Chinese) 99, 147

formal control 9

formal integration 22, 23, 38, 53, 71, 72, 202, 205, 206

formal regionalism 23

Foucaultian perspective 12

fragmentation

industrial structures 14

see also infrastructural fragmentation; territorial fragmentation

France 43, 47, 51, 159

free information flows 44

free trade 54, 119, 205

free trade areas 60, 72, 80, 92, 138, 144

see also North American Free Trade Area

functional complexity 3–4

Gallagher, K. 191

Gallup, J. 136

Gambia 118, 122

gas sector see oil and gas sector

gateways see border/gateway infrastructures

Gazprom 57, 59

geography 16, 35, 115, 135

geopolitics 51, 58, 59, 80, 99–100, 117, 177, 189

geostrategy 54, 99, 177, 191, 201, 209

geothermal resources 139

Germany 43, 49, 56, 59, 60, 96

Ghana 118, 122, 138, 139, 141

Glassman, J. 19

global hub ports 174

global positioning 12, 15, 16, 117, 136, 185, 201, 205

Goldthau, A. 57

governance

EU-level 52

limiting of African soft infrastructure 133

of OBOR projects 100

regionalism as a tool of 15

Graham, S. 6, 11

Great Uhuru Railway 113, 130, 131

Greater Mekong region 79

Greece 32, 51, 97

greenfield investment 49, 99

gross domestic product (GDP) 77, 80, 86, 109, 175, 179

Group of Experts (EU) 41, 50

growth/development 12–13, 204, 205–206

Africa 115, 119, 125, 147, 148–149

the Americas 158, 177

Asia 70, 74

Europe 36

and investment 208–209

Guinea 122, 139, 141

Guinea Bissau 118, 122

Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) 70, 86–90, 97, 98, 100, 205, 206

Gupta, G. 137

Guyana 172, 174, 177, 179, 188

Haiti 173, 174

Hämmerli, B. 51

hard infrastructure 2

Africa 112, 114, 120, 124, 144

the Americas 163, 173

Asia 77, 88, 92

Europe 60

hard territoriality 35, 37

hegemonic power 14, 17

hegemonic pressures 22–23

hegemonic-driven strategies 208–210

Herbst, J. 116

Hettne, B. 15, 17, 19

hidden integration 52, 54, 55

high speed rail 40, 62, 96, 100, 131, 146, 209, 210

Hommels, A. 52

Hong Kong 78, 96

Houtum, H. van 34, 35

Howe, C. 6

Huawei 190

hub and spoke infrastructure 97–98, 131, 175, 176

Hughes, T. 3

Hugill, P. 5

Hungary 43, 56

hydro power

Africa 122, 123, 140, 141, 142, 147

the Americas 170, 182, 184, 189, 191, 210

hyper-connectivity 100

hyper-regionalism 17

Iceland 32

‘ideology of circulation’ 5

illegal trade flows 11, 162, 163, 165

implementation deficit 172

import-substitution strategy 119

India 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 92, 96, 100

Indonesia 75, 76, 78, 97

industrial structures, fragmentation 14

informal control 9

informal integration 22, 55, 202

information and communication technology (ICT) 114, 116, 143, 145

Information Development Indicators (ITU) 143

information infrastructures 3–4

Africa 113, 121, 122, 143–146

the Americas 179, 190

Europe 42–45

infrastructural complexity 3–4, 5, 7, 11, 58, 207

infrastructural failure 3, 7, 51, 207

infrastructural fragmentation 10, 36, 52, 81–82, 111, 112, 130

infrastructural ideal 10

infrastructural investment

Africa 110, 111, 116–117, 120, 124, 133, 139, 142

the Americas 164, 178, 179–180, 187–189

Asia 76–77, 87–88, 89, 90, 91

Europe 33, 38–39, 44, 48–49, 209–210

and growth/development 12, 208–209

see also China; foreign direct investment; private finance; required expenditure; state finance; underinvestment

infrastructural mandate(s) 6, 8–13, 18, 19, 20, 21, 23

Africa 109, 115

Asia 71, 74

Europe 31, 36, 37, 38, 39, 44, 50, 58

regional infrastructure systems 204–208

see also control; growth/development; integration; security

infrastructural power 8, 9, 18, 116, 208

infrastructural relations 4–5, 6, 9, 11, 18, 20, 33, 59, 202

infrastructural violence 8, 9

infrastructural warfare 11

infrastructure(s) 1–5, 6–7

Infrastructure Consortium for Africa (ICA) 112, 116, 121, 124

Infrastructure Growth Strategy (2011) 36

Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility 121

‘infrastructure for resource model’ see Angola mode

Infrastructure for a seamless Asia 91

infrastructuring

national infrastructure systems 8–13

the regional imperative 17–23

state territoriality 5–7, 8, 23

supranational 31

Initiative for the Integration of the Regional Infrastructure of South America (IIRSA) 181, 185, 192

inland waterways

Africa 135–136

Europe 40, 42

SAARC states 83

UNASUR states 181, 186

innovative financing 48, 50

Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW) 88

institutional connectivity 73

integrated maritime strategy (AU) 135

integration 10, 19, 202, 204

cascade effects 51, 207

and competitiveness 14

and erosion of gateways 160

resistance to 203–204, 207

see also individual regions

interconnection 1, 2, 7, 21, 203, 204

see also individual regions

interdependence 3–4, 166

Intergovernmental Authority of Development (IGAD) 118, 120, 123, 127

intergovernmentalism 13, 16, 17, 19, 20, 52–53, 73, 75, 185, 203, 206

Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act 1991 (US) 164–165

internal conflict, Africa 109, 128

Internal Energy Market (IEM) 55, 57, 58

International Energy Agency (IEA) 55, 78, 90, 113–114, 139, 140

international political economy 1, 20

International Telecommunications Union (ITU) 143, 144

international treaties, and EU territoriality 35

internet 44

interoperability 1, 21

Africa 110, 133

the Americas 162, 166, 173

Europe 38, 42, 44, 47, 53, 54

interstate agreements 13, 53, 184, 202

see also bilateral agreements/deals

Interstate Natural Gas Association of America 169

intra-regional trade

Africa 111, 119, 120, 131–132, 140, 142

the Americas 158, 160, 172, 173, 178

Asia 75, 80, 81, 86, 89, 92

Europe 33–34

investment

in economies, Africa 119

see also infrastructural investment

Investment Growth Strategy 36

‘inward-looking’ strategy 117

Ireland (Republic of) 32, 53

Islamic Development Bank 76

island economies

African 114

see also Caribbean Community

Italy 43, 56

Jamaica 173, 174, 176, 190

Japan 76, 99

Japanese Bank for International Co-operation 92

Johnson, D. 7, 8, 37, 53, 204

Jouanjean, M.-A. 113, 132

Kaijser, A. 52, 53

Kandiyoti, R. 59

Kashmir 96, 100

Keating, M. 18

Kenya/Mombasa 97, 112, 118, 122, 124, 130, 132, 134, 136, 138, 139, 141, 146

Khanna, P. 94

Konoplyanik, A. 58

Korean Import-Export Bank 92

KPMG 140, 142

Kuwait 86, 87, 88, 89

La Porte, T. 2

Lagendijk, V. 52

land bridge infrastructure 88, 92, 93, 96

landlocked states 207

African 108, 110, 114, 117, 121, 124, 125, 127, 132, 134–139

Asian 73, 74, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 91, 93, 94

South American 181

Laos 72, 75, 76, 78, 79, 96

Latin America 32, 180

Latin American Integration Agreement (LAIA) 177

Lesotho 118, 137

Libya 118, 123, 130, 141

Liner Shipping Connectivity Index (LSCI) 130, 134, 174, 181

liquefied natural gas (LNG) 46, 56, 57, 59, 85, 167, 169, 183

logical interdependence 4

logistics, GCC states 87

Logistics Performance Index

Africa 112, 132, 137

the Americas 158, 179

Asia 82, 88, 89

Europe 32

‘Look East’ policy 81, 92

low income states 112, 113

Lowe, M. 129

Maastricht Treaty 34, 36

Maghreb 134

Malawi 118, 122, 137, 138

Malaysia 76, 78, 97, 178

Maldives 82

Mali 118, 122, 130, 137, 139

Mamadouh, V. 35

Mann, M. 5, 8, 18

maquiladores 160

maritime infrastructure

Africa 111, 122, 127, 134–139, 145, 146

the Americas 173–175, 179, 180–181, 187, 190

Asia 78, 83, 87–88, 93, 94, 96, 98

Europe 40, 42, 61–62, 209–210

maritime Silk Road 95, 97

market access 55, 182, 201

market failure 6, 39

market-driven infrastructure 10, 22, 39, 41, 147, 202

market-driven integration 76

Martinique 176

Marvin, S. 6

masterplan (ASEAN, 2025) 76, 77

Mauritius 112, 114, 118, 132, 143

Mercosur (Southern Common Market) 177, 182, 184, 186, 187

meta-geography 35

Mexico 11, 157, 158–159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 166, 167, 168, 169, 171, 190

Middle East 56, 57, 61, 86, 96, 97, 147

middle income states 112, 113, 178

Milner, H. 161

Miner, S. 94

mobility 38, 39, 45, 60, 61, 73, 76, 81, 203

Modernisation Agenda 2063 (AU) 131

monopoly control 110

Morocco/Tangiers 51, 56, 118, 123, 134, 135

‘motorways of the seas’ 42, 61

Mozambique 118, 138, 141, 142

multilateral agreements 16, 23, 202

multilateral development banks (MDBs) 76, 92, 98, 109

see also individual banks

multimodal infrastructure

Africa 138, 139

the Americas 187

Europe 40, 41–42, 43

multispeed Europe 35

multistate corridors 93

Murphy, A. 20, 35

Myanmar 72, 75, 76, 78, 79, 83, 84, 85, 92, 93, 96, 97, 100

Namibia 118, 130, 131, 138

narratives of infrastructure 5, 7, 11, 12

Africa 109, 115, 143

the Americas 162, 165, 204

Asia 71, 82, 87, 91

national energy champions 57

national infrastructure systems (NIS)

adaptation/adaptive tension 7, 18, 19, 21–23, 23–24

Africa 108, 110, 112, 137

the Americas 158, 159, 160, 173, 178, 179

Asia 74, 75, 76, 81, 82, 86, 87

China 95

complexity and challenges for 7–8

Europe 32

infrastructural mandate 8–13

and regional infrastructural systems 1, 20, 202

regionalism and 18, 21–23

nationalism 17, 183, 189

natural monopoly 3

Naudé, W. 136

Neighbourhood Policy 60

neo-colonialism 148

neo-functionalist ‘spillover’ 16

neo-liberalism 9, 15, 16, 54, 71, 118–119, 148, 189, 205

neo-mercantilism 15

neo-Weberian state 8, 19

Nepal 81, 82, 83, 84, 85

Netherlands 43, 96

network effects 3, 4

Network Readiness Index (NRI) 143

network relations 18

networked infrastructures 2–3

Neuman, M. 4

New Development Bank 98

New Partnership for Africa’s Development 116, 121

new regionalism 15, 17, 19, 22, 172

Niger 118, 122, 125, 130, 137, 139, 141, 147

Nigeria 110, 118, 122, 134, 138, 141, 147

Nijkamp, P. 173

nodes, failing 7

Nord Stream 58, 59, 60

North Africa 61

see also individual countries

North American Electric Reliability Corporation 166

North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) 157–171, 190, 192, 206, 207

North American Inland Ports Network 165

North American Super Corridor Coalition 165

Northern Ireland 53

Norway 32, 56, 61

Nye, J. 19

obsolescence 7, 33, 178

oil and gas sector

Africa 122, 139–140, 141

the Americas 166–167, 168–169, 172, 182–183

Asia 78, 84, 85, 97

Europe 46, 47, 51, 56, 57, 58–59

old regionalism 15, 19

Oman 86, 87, 88, 89, 135

‘One Belt, One Road’ (OBOR) initiative 60, 62, 93–100, 146, 147, 191, 209, 210

‘one-stop’ border posts 133

O’Neill, B. 9

open and competitive markets 38

opportunism 16, 209

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 33, 126, 132, 180

ownership of infrastructure 9, 57, 190

Painter, J. 18

Pakistan 80, 81, 82, 84, 85, 96, 97, 100

Palan, R. 13, 15, 201

pan-African regionalism 108

pan-American highway 157

pan-Asian regional infrastructure 90–100

pan-European networks (PENs) 45, 53, 54–62

paradoxes of infrastructure 6–7

Paraguay 179, 181, 183, 184, 186, 188

Parfomak, P. 168

patch-and-mend strategy 129–130

path dependencies 7, 59, 175

people-to-people connectivity 73, 75–76, 81

peripherality 22, 41, 95, 134, 136, 147, 172, 173, 175, 181, 192, 201, 207

Peru 179, 182, 183, 186, 188, 192

Philippines 75, 76

physical connectivity 73

physical interdependence 3

pipeline systems

Africa 141

the Americas 168–169, 182–183

Asia 84

Europe 56, 58–59

Piraeus 62

Poland 32, 43, 51, 56, 59, 96

policies

infrastructural, UNASUR states 185–189

regionalism as a set of 15

and territorial integration 10

political economy 1, 16, 20, 112, 161

political integration 15, 31, 33, 131

polycentric systems 9, 11

population densities 93, 110–111, 125, 129

port infrastructure

Africa 111, 122, 134, 135

the Americas 173–175, 179, 180–181

Asia 78, 87–88, 93, 95, 97, 98

Europe 61–62, 209–210

Port of Laredo 161

Porter, M. 14

Portugal 32, 51

post-colonialism 110, 117, 208

power

of business interests 15

see also colonial power(s); empowerment; soft power; state power

power asymmetries 10

price controls, African public transport 111

Priemus, H. 42

private finance

Africa 116, 117, 148

Asia 73, 84

Europe 39, 41, 44, 48–49, 53

pro-activism

Africa 124, 131, 144, 145

the Americas 191, 203

Asia 81, 83, 84, 91, 93

Chinese 62, 70, 91

Europe 44, 48

of regional development banks 202

Programme for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA) 116, 121, 125, 145

Project Bond programme 49

protectionism 16, 80, 206

proximity syndrome 136

public good(s) 10, 22, 73, 74, 121

public-private partnerships 138, 186

Puerto Rico 176

Qatar 56, 86, 87, 88, 89, 100

rail infrastructure

Africa 111, 113, 122, 123, 127, 128–131, 146, 147

the Americas 159, 160, 165, 179, 180, 187, 192

Asia 78, 82, 83, 88–89, 93, 96, 100

Europe 40, 42, 53, 61

Raineri, R. 189

Ratner, M. 168

realism 14–15, 20

refined petroleum 166, 167, 169

reform, investment without conditional 148

regional agreements 16, 157

regional development banks 202–203

regional economic communities (RECs) 111, 116, 117–118, 123, 127–128, 133, 138, 144, 145, 146

see also individual communities

regional hubs, UNASUR 185–186

regional infrastructure systems

composite nature of 1

emergence of 1, 13, 18, 19, 20

infrastructural mandate 204–208

as a network of national infrastructure systems 20

the state and 201–204

two main forms 21

regional institutions 15, 16, 53

Regional Multimodal Transport Study (SAARC) 83

regional power pools 141, 142

regionalism

Africa 108, 148

Asia 72

and infrastructuring 17–23, 24

rise of 1, 13–17, 201

regulation 6, 8, 9, 133

regulatory reform 119, 143

Renda, A. 51

required expenditure

Africa 116, 140

the Americas 162, 180

Asia 71, 76, 78, 86, 93

Europe 33

resilience of infrastructure 51, 52, 171

resistance to integration 55, 203–204, 207

resource-focused infrastructure 146–147, 148, 192

resource nationalism 183, 189

responsibility 9, 54

reterritorialisation 20, 36

Rinaldi, S. 3

risk(s) 7, 50, 51, 84, 133, 183, 207

risk-averse climate 49

road infrastructure

Africa 113, 122, 123, 125–128, 129, 133, 147

the Americas 157, 158–159, 160, 165, 179, 180, 185, 187

Asia 78, 81–82, 83, 96

Europe 42, 61

Rodgers, D. 9

Romania 32

Romanova, T. 60

‘run to the Pacific’ 187

rural population, Africa 114, 125

Russia 51, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 96, 97

Rwanda 110, 118, 122, 125, 130, 132, 137, 138, 143, 146

Sassen, S. 18

Saudi Arabia 86, 87, 88, 89, 167

scaling up 36, 45, 117, 119, 141–142

Schipper, F. 54

Scott, J. 35

sea-locked states 172, 207

secretariats (REC) 133

security 6, 9, 11–12, 52, 54, 75, 175, 185, 204, 206, 208

see also energy security

self-interest 17, 53, 147

self-sufficiency 52

Senegal 118, 122, 128, 130, 139

senescence 7, 33, 178

Serven, L. 113

services, liberalisation of 38

shale energy 168, 169, 183

shared responsibility 54

Sichelschmidt, H. 40

Silk Road economic belt (SREB) 95

Silk Road Fund 98

Simuyemba, S. 110

Singapore 75, 76, 78, 100

Singapore–Kunming rail link (SKRL) 78

Single European Market (SEM) 35, 37, 38, 39–40

Sitter, N. 57

Slovak Republic 32, 43, 56

small island developing states (SIDS) 172

small-sized states/economies, Africa 110, 117, 120–121, 207

social solidarity 10

socio-economic systems 2, 5, 7

Söderbaum, F. 19

soft infrastructure 2, 4, 7, 21, 23

Africa 110, 112, 114, 120, 124, 131–133, 135, 144, 147

the Americas 163, 165, 173, 185

Asia 73, 74, 77, 85, 88, 92

Europe 37, 38, 46, 49, 50, 58, 60, 61, 62, 206

soft power 59

Somalia 112, 118

South Africa/Durban 118, 128–129, 134, 135, 138, 139, 142–143, 146

South American Energy Council 189

South Asia 125

South Asia Sub-regional Economic Cooperation 93

South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation (SAARC) 70, 80–85, 92, 93, 98

South Asian Economic Co-operation 85

South Korea 76, 110, 178

South Stream pipeline 57

Southern African Development Community (SADC) 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 127, 131, 138, 143

Southern Cone states 182

southern and south-eastern Europe 32, 45, 57, 61

sovereignty 8, 15, 19, 86, 177

Soviet Union 32, 55, 60, 61

Spain 43, 47, 51, 56, 113, 135

spatial complexity 4

spillovers 16, 23, 36, 98, 120, 187

splintering 6, 10

Sri Lanka 80, 81, 82, 84, 97, 100

stability/instability 9, 11, 15, 22, 62, 95, 109, 116, 183

standardised interfaces 5

standards 21, 38, 44, 133

Starr, S. 4

state(s)

animosity/suspicion between 111, 142, 181–182, 189

control see control

infrastructuring 4, 5–6

see also infrastructural mandate

and regional infrastructure systems 1, 201–204

and territoriality see territoriality

see also competition state(s); neo-Weberian state

state enterprises, Africa 111

state failure 8, 109, 115, 142

state finance 9, 203

Africa 116–117, 138, 149

the Americas 178

Asia 88, 89

Europe 41, 48

state monopolies 53–54

state power 8, 13–14, 15, 17–18, 57, 59, 163

see also infrastructural power

state primacy 1, 16, 18, 20, 23

state restructuring 15

state-level institutional barriers 159

strategic influence 94

strategies (state) 5–6, 9, 13, 14, 23, 84, 172, 177

‘strings of pearl’ policy 95–96, 209

structured projects (COSIPLAN) 187

sub-regional hub ports 174

Sub-Saharan Africa 112, 113, 114, 116, 129, 132, 134, 135, 139, 140

see also individual states

submarine cable system (Africa) 144, 145

subsidiarity 49, 51

Sudan 97, 118, 123, 125, 130, 138, 142, 146, 147

sunk investments/costs 59, 121

super-highway, NAFTA 165, 206

supplier states 57–58

supranational institutions 17, 20, 36, 37, 62, 203

supranationalism 31, 36, 206

suprastructures 11, 163

Suriname 172, 177, 179, 188

Swaziland 118, 137

Sweden 43

Switzerland 32, 43, 61

systemic nature, of infrastructures 2–4

Tanzania/Dar es Salaam 97, 118, 122, 124, 130, 131, 134, 138, 139, 141, 146

Taylor, A. 115

Taylor, P. 17

TAZARA 131

Te Velde, D.W. 132

technical issues, limiting of African soft infrastructure 133

telecommunications 113, 144, 145, 179

Telecommunications TENs (TENs-Telecom) 42–45, 48

terrestrial information networks, Africa 144, 145

territorial control 6, 9, 20, 208

territorial exclusions 35

territorial fragmentation 110

territorial integration 10, 95, 115

territorial integrity 82

territoriality 13, 202

border infrastructures and 11

conventional analyses 18–19

E-PENS and shifting 55

infrastructuring and 5–7, 8, 23, 178

post-colonial 110

regionalism and 17

RIS and 1, 203

security and 11

the state as unit of 18

see also aspirant territoriality; extra-territoriality

territory 18

Thailand 75, 76, 78, 79, 96, 100

Third Energy Package 57

threats 10, 11–12, 51, 58

Three Gorges Group 191

‘tightly-coupled’ infrastructures 2–3

Togo 122, 138, 139, 141

trade costs 38, 73, 124, 131–132, 136, 165

trade deficits, CARICOM states 173

trade enablement 71, 132

trade facilitation 21, 205

Africa 131–132, 133, 139, 144

Asia 72, 73, 81, 85, 88, 95

trade flows

trade facilitation and 132

see also cross-border trade/flows; intra-regional trade

trade liberalisation 72, 80, 157, 166

trade theory 16

Trans-African Highway (TAH) 125–128

trans-African rail systems 128–131

Trans-African Railway (TAR) 131

trans-ASEAN gas pipeline (TAGP) 78

trans-European networks (TENs) 31, 37–50, 53, 62, 203, 206

trans-national flows 21, 53

trans-regionalism 17, 208–210

trans-shipment/relay ports (CARICOM) 173, 175

transaction costs 11, 12, 15, 54, 73, 115, 119, 120, 158, 162, 165

transformative capacity, infrastructures 4

transit costs, Africa 136, 137

transit disputes (Russia/Ukraine) 51, 55

transit states 57, 58, 59, 136

transport corridors

Africa 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 130, 137–139

Asia 83, 87, 92, 93, 95, 96, 100

Europe 41–42, 43, 60

NAFTA states 164–165

transport costs 120, 124, 125, 173, 175, 180

transport infrastructure

Africa 111, 113, 114, 121, 122, 123, 124–133, 146–147

the Americas 158–159, 160, 172–177, 178–179, 180–182, 185, 186, 187

Asia 78, 81–82, 83, 85, 88–89, 93, 98

Europe 38–39, 53

Transport PENs (T-PENS) 54, 60–62

Transport TENs (TENS-T) 39–42, 48, 49, 50

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union 36

Trinidad and Tobago 172, 173, 174, 176, 190

Tunis Declaration on E-Commerce 144

Tunisia 118, 123, 141

Turkey 56, 57, 61, 178

Turkmenistan 60, 85

Turner, C. 7, 8, 37, 53, 204

Twenty-First Century Border Initiative 161, 162

Twin Ocean Railroad 192

Uganda 118, 123, 129, 130, 136, 137, 138, 141, 146

Ukraine 51, 55, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61

underinvestment 33, 36, 162, 204

Union of South American Nations (UNASUR) 157, 177–189, 191, 192

United Arab Emirates/Abu Dhabi 86, 87, 88, 89

United Kingdom 49, 56

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 86, 130, 173

United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) 116, 117, 121, 122–123, 132, 136, 138

United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) 61

United Nations Economic Commission on Latin American Countries (UNECLAC) 180, 191

United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) 74, 91

United States

2016 campaign rhetoric, illegal flows 163

border infrastructure 11, 161, 162, 163–164, 203–204, 206

Chinese investment 190

energy sector 168, 170–171, 207

EU integration as counterweight to hegemonic power of 13

NAFTA trade 158, 160, 162, 167

national infrastructure system 158

position on regional integration 16

resistance to E-PENS 55

road infrastructure 159

as signatory to NAFTA 157

universal access 44, 115

universal infrastructure 4

Unwin, B. 40

urban populations 110, 114, 180

urbanisation, Africa 111, 145

Uruguay 179, 182, 183, 184, 188

users/usage of infrastructure 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10

value chains 16, 18, 115, 119, 160

Vanheukelom, J. 110

Venables, A. 136

Venezuela 179, 183, 188

vested interests 133

Vietnam 75, 76, 78, 79, 96

Vitale, A. 34

Vleuten, E. van der 5, 52, 53, 54

vulnerability of infrastructure 11, 51, 52, 58, 139

Walters, W. 54

wasteful investment 111

Weiss, L. 19

welfare 6, 8, 10, 12, 115, 192

‘whipsaw effect’ 158

White Paper on Growth Competitiveness and Employment (CEC) 40

Wood, D. 166, 169

World Bank 76, 92, 109, 121, 125, 129, 148

see also Ease of Doing Business Index; Liner Shipping Connectivity Index; Logistic Performance Index

World Economic Forum (WEF) 109, 114, 132, 133, 181

infrastructural rankings see national infrastructure systems

see also Enabling Trade Index; Network Readiness Index

XL pipeline 168–169

Yang, Y. 137

Zambia 118, 122, 123, 130, 131, 137, 138, 141

Zimbabwe 113, 123, 137, 138, 146

Zonneveld, W. 42

ZTE 190