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The Sale of Misattributed Artworks and Antiques at Auction

Anne L. Bandle

The glamour and mystery of the art auction, gathering interested buyers from across the globe, makes it one of the most fascinating marketplaces in existence. ‘Sleepers’, artworks or antiques that have been undervalued and mislabelled due to an expert’s oversight and consequently undersold, appear regularly. This fascinating new book provides the first extensive study of the phenomenon of sleepers through an in-depth analysis of the contractual relationships, liability and remedies that arise in the context of auction sales.
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References

Anne L. Bandle

BOOKS AND ARTICLES

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FURTHER REFERENCES

Art Libraries Society of North America. “Attribution Qualifiers for Artists’ Names.” Website (Organizations, Cataloguing Section). Accessed February 7, 2016. https://www.arlisna.org/images/committees/catadv/attribution_qualifiers.pdf.
Art Resolve Mediation. “Agreements.” Website. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.artresolve.org/services/agreements.
Artprice. “Art Market Trends 2010.” Accessed February 7, 2016. http://imgpublic.artprice.com/pdf/trends2010_en.pdf.
ATG Reporter. “Private Treaty Sales and the Web Take Centre Stage at Christie’s.” Antiques Trade Gazette. February 8, 2012. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.antiquestradegazette.com/news/2012/feb/06/private-treaty-sales-and-the-web-take-centre-stage-at-christie’s/.
BBC News. “Pig Swill Estate Wins Poussin War.” February 4, 2002. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/1800588.stm.
BIS Guidance. Consumer Contracts (Information, Cancellation and Additional Charges) Regulations, Implementing Guidance. December 2013. Accessed February 7, 2016. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/429300/bis-13-1368-consumer-contracts-information-cancellation-and-additional-payments-regulations-guidance.pdf.
Bonhams. Conditions of Sale for Buyers UK. Accessed February 7, 2016. https://www.bonhams.com/legals/6321/.
Bonhams. Conditions of Sale for Sellers UK. Accessed February 7, 2016. https://www.bonhams.com/legals/6321/.
Bonhams. Conditions of Sale US, New York. Accessed February 7, 2016. https://www.bonhams.com/legals/6323/.
Bonhams. “Services – Auction Estimates.” Website. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.bonhams.com/services/VAL-AUC/.
Christie’s. “Estates, Appraisals & Valuations.” Website. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.christies.com/services/estates-appraisals/estates-overview/.
Christie’s. “Features Archives – The Ultimate Connoisseur.” Website, December 5, 2011. Accessed July 4, 2014. http://www.christies.com/fea-tures/the-ultimate-connoisseur-2014–1.aspx.
Daily Mail Reporter. “Christie’s Auction House Sold £4 Million Titian Painting for just £8,000.” February 25, 2010. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1253512/Christies-auction-house-accused-selling-6million-Titian-painting-just-8–000.html#ixzz0gW9Opfej.
Design Party. “La Factory d’Andy Warhol: Entre décadence et génie.” April 2012. Accessed July 4, 2014. http://www.design-party.com/2012/04/la-factory-dandy-warhol-entre-decadence-et-genie/.
Economist, The. “Rug Rave.” April 21, 2010. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.economist.com/node/15944327.
Fischer Auktionen. Auction Conditions (Fine Art & Antiques Auction Sales). Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.fischerauctionen.ch/downloads/independent.aspx?type=Formulare.
Jean Bourdette’s Workshop. “L’histoire d’André-Charles Boulle.” Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.atelier-jean-bourdette.com/en/andr%C3%A9-charles-boulle.
Koller Auktionen. “About Us.” Website. Accessed February 7, 2016. https://www.kollerauktionen.ch/de/ueber-uns/koller-auktionen.
Phillips de Pury & Company. “Simon de Pury steps down as chairman of Phillips de Pury & Company.” Press Release, January 1, 2013. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.phillips.com/Xigen/file.ashx?path=\\diskstation\website\Media\Press\pdf_SIMON_de_PURY_STEPS_DOWN.pdf.
Reuters. “Chinese Bowl Found at Garage Sale Fetches over $2.2 Million at Auction.” Reporting by Chris Michaud. Editing by Patricia Reaney and Paul Simao. March 19, 2013. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/19/us-art-chinesebowl-idUSBRE92I17H20130319.

BEST-PRACTICE GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS

American Society of Appraisers. The International Society of Professional Valuers. Principles of Appraisal Practice and Code of Ethics. Revised April 2012. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.appraisers.org/docs/default-source/education/the-asa-principles-of-appraisal-practice-and-code-of-ethics.pdf?sfvrsn=4.
Art Dealers Association of America (ADAA). Code of Ethics and Professional Practices. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.artdeal-ers.org/about/code-of-ethics-and-professional-practices.
Authentication in Art, Art and Law Work Group. The Technical Requirements for Valid Written Expert Opinion Reports on the Authenticity of Paintings for Use by the International Art Community Privately and in Judicial Proceedings Determining the Authenticity of Paintings as a Matter of Law. May 7–9, 2014, The Hague. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://authenticationinart.org/pdf/Authentication-In-Art-Congress-May-2014_Recommendations-of-Art-and-Law-Work-Group_Official-Release.pdf.
Basel Institute of Governance. Basel Art Trade Guidelines. In: Thomas Christ and Claudia von Selle. “Basel Art Trading Guidelines, Intermediary Report of a Self-Regulation Initiative.” Working Paper Series 12 (2012).
Catalogue Raisonné Scholars Association. Guidelines for Issuing Scholarly Opinions about Authenticity, April 2010. Accessed February 7, 2016. www.catalogueraisonne.org/CRSAGuidelines.pdf.
College Art Association of America (CAA). Standards and Guidelines – Authentications and Attributions. Adopted by the CAA Board of Directors on October 25, 2009. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.collegeart.org/guidelines/authentications.
European Confederation of Conservator-Restorers’ Organisations (ECCO). Professional Guidelines. Adopted by the ECCO General Assembly, Brussels, March 1, 2002. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.ecco-eu.org/about-e.c.c.o./professional-guidelines.html.
International Association of Dealers in Ancient Art (IADAA). Code of Ethics and Practice. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.iadaa.org/en/about-us.
Swiss Association of Dealers in Antiques and Art (SADAA). Code of Ethics. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.vsak.org/pdf/ethiccode.pdf.

AUCTION SALE CATALOGUES

Auktionshaus Georg Rehm Sale. “229. Kunstauktion.” October 9, 2009. Christie’s Sale. “Art of the Islamic and Indian Worlds.” October 7, 2008, London King Street, Sale n. 7615.
Christie’s Sale. “Important English, Continental, and American Silver.” May 17, 2012, New York, Lot n. 69 and 104.
Christie’s Sale. “Interiors.” January 24, 2012, London South Kensington, Sale n. 4102, Lot n. 261.
Christie’s Sale. “Old Masters & British Paintings.” May 4, 2012, London South Kensington, Lot n. 111.
Christie’s Sale. “Oriental Rugs and Carpets.” April 15, 2010, London King Street, Sale n. 7845, Lot n. 100.
Christie’s Sale. “The Exceptional Sale 2014.” July 10, 2014, London King Street, Sale n. 1541.
Koller Auktionen Sale. “Gemälde des 19. Jahrhunderts.” March 30, 2012, Zurich, Lot n. 3256.
Koller Auktionen Sale. “Möbel, Pendulen, Bronzen, Spiegel, Tapisserien und Dekorative Kunst.” March 29, 2012, Zurich, Lot n. 1001, 1005, 1052 and 1053.
Sotheby’s Sale. “Fine Chinese Ceramics & Works of Art.” March 19–20, 2013, New York, Sale n. 08974, Lot n. 94.
Sotheby’s Sale. “Important Old Master Paintings, Including European Works of Art.” January 29–30, 2009, New York, Sale n. 08516, Lot n. 33.

VIDEOS AND PODCASTS

Cahill, John. “For Real? Legal and Economic Perils of Art Authentication.” Kernochan Center Conference New York, November 29, 2011. Podcast. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://web.law.columbia.edu/kernochan/symposia/art-authentication.
“Van Dyck: What Lies Beneath.” Fake or Fortune? BBC, Series 2. Episode 3. September 30, 2012. Video Series. Accessed February 7, 2016. http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b01n62dw.