Market Instruments and the Protection of Natural Resources
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Market Instruments and the Protection of Natural Resources

Edited by Natalie P. Stoianoff, Larry Kreiser, Bill Butcher, Janet E. Milne and Hope Ashiabor

Only through a concerted global effort can we protect our natural resources, save our precious natural environment, and indeed our future. But pressures on natural resources come from many directions such as overuse, mismanagement and contamination. This much-needed book reviews and evaluates the use of market and fiscal instruments in protecting our natural resources, from rural to marine environments. Market instruments that are designed to protect the global atmosphere are evaluated, along with carbon instruments and environmental tax incentives. Meanwhile, consideration is given to shifting the tax burden to achieve environmentally responsible outcomes, balancing sustainable use and natural resource protection, and protecting water resources.
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Chapter 2: A bottom-up approach to developing REDD+ programs in Brazilian states and California

Ana Carolina Cerqueira Duque


This paper analyzes the opportunity to develop Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) programs in Brazilian states through negotiations with the State of California after its recently enacted cap-and- trade program. The proposed discussion is of great importance as the 2015 Paris Agreement recognized the need to implement policies and created incentives for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. In view of this, a bottom-up approach in which states from different countries join forces to promote reductions in deforestation could be a golden opportunity to motivate other countries to reduce carbon emissions and include similar frameworks in their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, as foreseen in the Paris Agreement. To enlighten readers on the current scenario, an overview of recent events and the mechanisms to reduce carbon emissions is included. Owing to the focus on REDD+, California’s cap-and- trade program will be described with an emphasis on the sections that pertain to this program. As for Brazil, the current legislation and adopted mitigation solutions, specifically those in the states of Acre and Mato Grosso, will be discussed in order to set the scene for the importance of a REDD+ program in the country.

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