The Global Factory
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The Global Factory

Networked Multinational Enterprises in the Modern Global Economy

Peter J. Buckley

This key new book synthesises Peter Buckley's work on ‘the global factory’ – the modern networked multinational enterprise. The role of interfirm networks, entrepreneurship and cooperation in the creation and management of global factories leads to a discussion of their governance, internal knowledge transfer strategies and performance, including their role in potentially combating societal failures. Emerging country multinationals are examined as a special case of global factories with a focus on Indian and Chinese multinationals, their involvement in tax havens and offshore financial centres, the performance and processes of their acquisition strategies – all seen as key aspects of globalisation.
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Chapter 8: A Linguistic and Philosophical Analysis of Emic and Etic and their Use in International Business Research

Networked Multinational Enterprises in the Modern Global Economy

Peter J. Buckley, Malcolm Chapman, Jeremy Clegg and Hanna Gajewska-De Mattos


The purpose of this paper is to examine ways in which cross-cultural research in international business can use emic-etic approaches more effectively. The majority of research conducted in the field has been etic, while the cross-cultural data used by the researchers have been emic in nature. This resulted in producing ethnocentric results which are biased towards Western perspectives. We call for a re-evaluation of the importance of in-depth qualitative analysis in international business research. We go back to the origins of emic and etic in linguistics and conduct a linguistic and philosophical analysis of these termes to demonstrate that the emic-etic distinction is not helpful for adequately studying cross-cultural data.

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