Show Less
Open access

Living Wages Around the World

Manual for Measurement

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

This manual describes a new methodology to measure a decent but basic standard of living in different countries and how much workers need to earn to afford this, making it possible for researchers to estimate comparable living wages around the world and determine gaps between living wages and prevailing wages, even in countries with limited secondary data.
Show Summary Details
Open access

Bibliography

Richard Anker and Martha Anker

Anker, M. 1991. Epidemiological and statistical methods for rapid health assessment. World Health Statistics Quarterly. (44), 94–7.
Anker, R. 2005. A new methodology for estimating internationally comparable poverty lines and living wage rates. Working paper no. 72. Policy Integration Department, Statistical Development and Analysis Group. Geneva: ILO.
Anker, R. 2006. Living wages around the world: A new methodology and internationally comparable estimates. International Labour Review. 145(4), 309–38.
Anker, R. 2006a. Poverty lines around the world: A new methodology and internationally comparable estimates. International Labour Review. 145(4), 279–307.
Anker, R. 2011. Estimating a living wage: A methodological review. Conditions of Work and Employment Series No. 29. Geneva: ILO.
Anker, R. 2011a. Engel’s law around the world 150 years later. Political Economy Research Institute (PERI) working paper 247. Amherst, Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts.
Anker, R. and Anker, M. 1989. Measuring the female labour force in Egypt. International Labour Review. 128(4), 511–20.
Anker, R. and Anker, M. 2013. A shared approach to estimating living wages: A short description of the shared methodology. London: ISEAL Alliance. Available at www.isealalliance.org/sites/default/files/Descripton%20of%20Living%20Wage%20Methodology%2020131124.pdf [Accessed 14 December 2014].
Anker, R. and Anker, M. 2013a. Living wage for rural Dominican Republic with focus on banana growing area of the North. Fairtrade International, Social Accountability International. Available at www.isealalliance.org/sites/default/files/LivingWageReportEnglish_DomRep.pdf [Accessed 5 January 2016].
Anker, R. and Anker, M. 2013b. Living wage for rural South Africa with focus on wine grape growing area in Western Cape Province. Fairtrade International. Available at www.isealalliance.org/sites/default/files/LivingWageReport_SouthAfrica.pdf [Accessed 5 January 2016].
Anker, R. and Anker, M. 2013c. Living wage for Nagpur India. Unpublished report. 343
Anker, R. and Anker, M. 2014. Living wage for Kenya with focus on fresh flower farm area near Lake Naivasha. Fairtrade International, Sustainable Agriculture Network/Rainforest Alliance and UTZ. Available at www.isealalliance.org/sites/default/files/LivingWageReport_Kenya.pdf [Accessed 5 January 2016].
Anker, R. and Anker, M. 2014a. Living wage for rural Malawi with focus on tea growing area of southern Malawi. Fairtrade International, Sustainable Agriculture Network/Rainforest Alliance and UTZ. Available at www.isealalliance.org/sites/default/files/LivingWageReport_Malawi.pdf [Accessed 5 January 2016].
Anker, R. and Anker, M. 2015. In kind benefits as partial payment of wages: A review of laws around the world. Unpublished.
Anker, R., Khan, M. E., and Gupta, R. B. 1987. Biases in measuring the labour force: Results of a methods test in Uttar Pradesh, India. International Labour Review. 126, 151–67.
Asia Floor Wage. 2015. What is the Asia Floor wage? Available at www.asia.floorwage.org/what [Accessed 23 January 2016].
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2010. Appendix 4. Owner-occupied housing. Outcome of the 16th Series Australian Consumer Price Index Review, Dec 2010. Available at www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/6469.0Appendix4Dec%202010?opendocument&tabname=Notes&prodno=6469.0&issue=Dec%202010&num=&view= [Accessed 8 February 2016].
Australian Bureau of Statistics. 2011. Position paper ABS review of counting homeless methodology. Available at http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Latestproducts/D27107E6A3B6EAF3CA2578E20019328F?opendocument [Accessed 5 January 2016].
Banco Central de la Republica Dominicana. 2011. Metodologia indice de precios al consumidor (IPC) base diciembre 2010. Santo Domingo. Available at www.bancentral.gov.do/publicaciones_economicas/otros/metodologia_IPC_base_diciembre_2010.pdf.
Bangladesh National Nutrition Council. (2013). Food composition tables for Bangladesh. BNNC Dhaka.
Barbosa, A., Barbosa e Silva, M., Veiga, J., and Zacareli, M. 2016. Living wage report rural Brazil Minas Gerais South/Southwestern region coffee growing industry. Unpublished. Available at www.isealalliance.org/sites/default/files/Living_Wage_Benchmark_Report_Brazil.pdf [Accessed 12 August 2016].
BBC News. 2010. Bangladesh increases garment worker minimum wage. Available at www.bbc.com/news/world-south-asia-10779270.
Beals, R. K. 2012. Look at maintenance costs before leaping into homeownership. US News and World Report (29 May).
Bender, A. 1992. Meat and meat products in human nutrition in developing countries. FAO food and nutrition paper 53. Rome: FAO.
Bilsborrow, R. E., DeGraff, D., and Anker, R. 1998. Poverty monitoring and rapid assessment surveys. Geneva: ILO.
Blades, D. 2010. Owner occupied housing: Housing in ICP 2011 issues to be resolved: Second technical advisory group meeting (February 17–19, 2010) Page 13. World Bank. Available at http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/700381468149399250/pdf/904480WP001-05010Box0385317B0PUBLIC.pdf [Accessed 8 June 2016].
Blake, K. S., Kellerson, R. L. and Simic, A. 2007. Measuring overcrowding in housing. Washington DC: US Department of Housing and Urban Development. Available at www.huduser.gov/publications/pdf/measuring_overcrowding_in_hsg.pdf [Accessed 6 February 2016].
Bongaarts, J. 2001. Household size and composition in the developing world. Population Council working paper 2001 No. 144. New York: Population Council. Available at www.popcouncil.org/uploads/pdfs/wp/144.pdf [Accessed 24 December 2014].
Bray, M. 1999. Private costs of public schooling: Household and community financing of public primary education in Cambodia. Paris: UNESCO. Available at www.datatopics.worldbank.org/hnp/files/edstats/KHMpub99.pdf [Accessed 20 January 2016].
Bray, M. 2007. The shadow education system: Private tutoring and its implications for planners (2nd edition). Paris: UNESCO.
Bray, M. and Bunley, S. 2005. Balancing the books: Household financing of basic education in Cambodia. Washington DC: World Bank.
Bureau of Indian Standards. 2002. Method of measurement of plinth, carpet and rentable areas of buildings (2nd revision). New Delhi: BIS.
Butte, N. and King, J. C. 2002. Energy requirements during pregnancy and lactation. Energy background paper prepared for the joint FAO/WHO/UNU Consultation on Energy in Human Nutrition.
CABE. 2010. Mapping standards for the home. Available at http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20110118095356/http:/www.cabe.org.uk/publications/housing-standards [Accessed 8 March 2016].
Cambodia National Institute of Statistics. 2009 (special tabulation, unpublished). Cambodia socio-economic survey 2009.
Carlson, A., Lino, M., Juan, W-Y., Hanson, K., and Basiotis, P. P. 2007. Thrifty food plan, 2006. (CNPP-19). US Department of Agriculture, Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.
CDC. 2006. Healthy housing reference manual. Available at www.cdc.gov/nceh/publications/books/housing/cha02.htm [Accessed 5 January 2016].
CDC. 2013. State indicator report on fruits and vegetables 2013. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Available at www.cdc.gov/nutrition/downloads/State-Indicator-Report-Fruits-Vegetables-2013.pdf [Accessed 5 January 2016].
CDC. 2013a. Nutrition for everyone: Basics protein. Available at www.comenius.susqu.edu/biol/010/tobin-janzen/nutrition%20for%20everyone_%20basics_%20protein%20_%20dnpao%20_%20cdc.pdf [Accessed 5 January 2015].
Center for Social Concern. 2016. The basic needs basket surveys. Available at www.cfscmalawi.org/bnb.html [Accessed 23 January 2016].
Center on Wisconsin Strategy. 2013. Living wage ordinances: Experiences, evidence and best practice. Available at http://www.cows.org/_data/documents/1556.pdf [Accessed 1 January 2016].
Centre for Affordable Housing Finance in Africa. 2015. 2015 Yearbook. Parkview, South Africa: Centre for Affordable Housing Finance in Africa.
Centro de Estudios Sociales y Demográficos (CESDEM) y Macro International Inc. 2008. Encuesta Demográfica y de Salud 2007. Santo Domingo, República Dominicana: CESDEM y Macro International Inc. Spanish document. Available at http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR205/FR205.pdf [Accessed 19 November 2016].
Chastre, C., Duffield, A., Kindness, H., LeJeune, S., and Taylor, A. 2007. The minimum cost of a healthy diet: Findings from piloting a new methodology in four study locations. Save the Children. June. Available at www.savethechildren.org.uk/sites/default/files/docs/The_Minimum_Cost_of_a_Healthy_Diet_Final_1.pdf [Accessed 19 November 2016].
China CDC, Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety. 2009. China Food Composition. Beijing, China CDC.
Clugston, G. A. undated. Food and nutritional needs in emergencies. WHO. Available at www.who.int/nutrition/publications/en/nut_needs_emergencies_text.pdf [Accessed December 2014].
Committee for Population, Family and Children, Hanoi and ORC Macro. 2003. Vietnam Demographic and Health Survey 2002. Calverton, Maryland, USA: ICF Macro.
Connecticut Department of Labor, Minimum Wage Regulations, Sec. 31-60-3. Deductions and allowances for reasonable value of board and lodging. Available at https://www.ctdol.state.ct.us/wgwkstnd/laws-regs/adminregs.htm#31-60-3 [Accessed 19 November 2016].
COSATU. 2009. 10th National Congress Declaration. Johannesburg. Available at www.cosatu.org.za/ [Accessed 1 March 2010].
Cox, A. 2008. Innovative ways sought to house Alex residents. The Star Newspaper. 28 April, p. 6.
Deaton, A. 1989. Savings in developing countries: Theory and review. Proceedings of the World Bank annual conference on development economics, pp. 61–96.
Diewert, E. 2010. Notes on the treatment of housing in the national accounts and the ICP. Washington DC: International Comparison Program.
Dominican Today. 2013. Dominican Republic president admits wages of misery. 1 August. Available at www.dominicantoday.com/dr/poverty/2013/8/1/48489/Dominican-Republic-president-admits-wages-of-misery [Accessed 23 January 2016].
Economic Policy Institute (EPI). 2008. Basic family budget calculator. Available at www.epi.org. [Accessed 16 January 2016].
Ecuador Ministry of Labor. 2015. The living wage in Ecuador and other wage policies.
Ergon Associates. 2012. Wage ladders introduction and overview. Presentation to World Banana Forum, Guayaquil, February 2012. Available at www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/banana/documents/WGs_outputs/WG02/WBF_WG02_Wages_Overview_Ergon__1_.pdf [Accessed 19 August 2016].
Ethical Tea Partnership (ETP). 2015. Malawi 2020 tea revitalisation programme. Available at www.ethicalteapartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/Malawi-2020-Factsheet_final3.pdf [Accessed 16 April 2016].
Ethical Tea Partnership and Oxfam. 2013. Understanding wages in the tea industry. Available at http://policy-practice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/understanding-wage-issues-in-the-tea-industry-287930 [Accessed 19 August 2016].
ETU. 2014. Housing subsidies and support services. Available at www.etu.org.za/toolbox/docs/government/housing.html [Accessed 27 February 2016].
EUFIC (European Food Information Council). 2012. Fruit and vegetable consumption in Europe – do Europeans get enough? EUFIC REVIEW 01/2012. Available at www.eufic.org/article/en/expid/Fruit-vegetable-consumption-Europe/ [Accessed 24 July 2014].
EUROSTAT. July 2014. Housing conditions. Available at www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Housing_conditions [Accessed 27 February 2016].
Fair Labor Association (FLA). 2016. Guide for collection of compensation data. Unpublished.
Fairtrade International. Fairtrade standard for hired labour. Version: 15.01.2014_v1.0. Available at http://www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/2009/standards/documents/generic-standards/2015-01-19_HL_EN.pdf [Accessed 19 November 2016].
FAO. 2012. FAO/INFOODS Databases: Analytical food composition database version 1.0 data base AnFooD1.0. Available at www.fao.org/infoods/infoods/tables-and-databases/faoinfoods-databases/en/ [Accessed 20 January 2016].
FAO. 2013. Dietary protein quality evaluation in human nutrition. FAO food and nutrition paper 92. Rome: FAO.
FAO. 2014. Definition and classification of commodities. Available at www.fao.org/waicent/faoinfo/economic/faodef/faodefe.htm [Accessed 10 November 2014].
FAO. 2014a. Milk and dairy products in human nutrition: Questions and answers. Available at www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/newsroom/docs/Milk%20and%20Dairy%20Q&A.pdf [Accessed 6 August 2014].
FAO/INFOODS. 2014. Online food composition database. Available at www.fao.org/infoods/infoods/tables-and-databases/international-databases/en/ [Accessed 5 January 2016].
Feng, S., Hu, Y., and Moffitt, R. 2015. Long run trends in unemployment and labor force participation in China. Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research.
GLA Economics. 2015. A fairer London: The 2015 living wage in London. London: Greater London Authority.
Glickman, L. 1997. A living wage: American workers and the making of consumer society. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Global Living Wage Coalition (GLWC). 2016. Available at www.isealalliance.org/sites/default/files/GLWC_who_we_are.pdf [Accessed 21 September 2016].
Goldschmidt-Clermont, L. 1982. Unpaid work in the household: A review of economic evaluation methods. Geneva: ILO.
Goldschmidt-Clermont, L. 1987. Economic evaluations of unpaid household work: Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceana. Geneva: ILO.
GoodWeave International. 2014. Generic international standard for rug producers. Draft version 2.5.1 May 2014. Available at www.goodweave.org/uploads/GoodWeave-Standard-First-Stage-v-2-5-1-May-2014.pdf [Accessed 27 February 2016].
Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs. 2010–2011. Census terms. Available at www.censusindia.gov.in/Data_Products/Library/Indian_perceptive_link/Census_Terms_link/censusterms.html [Accessed 3 February 2016].
Government of India, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation. 2012. Press release 2012. Income criteria for EWS & LIG revised upwards for defining beneficiaries under government schemes for housing. Available at www.pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=89039 [Accessed 27 February 2016].
Government of India, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation. 2013. Affordable housing in partnership: Scheme guidelines. Available at www.mhupa.gov.in/writereaddata/AHP-Guidelines.pdf [Accessed 27 February 2016].
Government of India, Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (JNNUM Directorate). 2013a. Prototype interactive public questions and answers. Available at www.mhupa.gov.in/writereaddata/nbo.pdf [Accessed 27 February 2016].
Government of India, National Institute of Nutrition. 2010. Dietary guidelines for Indians: A manual. Hyderabad, India: National Institute of Nutrition. Indian Council of Medical Research. Available at http://ninindia.org/dietaryguidelinesforninwebsite.pdf [Accessed 23 September 2016].
Government of Maharashtra, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Planning Department. 2011. A report on household consumption expenditure based on data collected in state sample of 63rd round of national sample survey (July, 2006–June, 2007). Mumbai: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Planning Department, Government of Maharashtra, Mumbai.
Government of Maharashtra. undated. A report on “housing condition” based on data collected in state sample of 65th round of national sample survey (July, 2008–June, 2009) Vol 1. Mumbai: Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Planning Department, Government of Maharashtra.
Government of Malawi, National Statistical Office (NSO) and ICF Macro. 2011. Malawi demographic and health survey 2010. Zomba, Malawi and Calverton, Maryland, USA: NSO and ICF Macro.
Government of Sri Lanka, Department of Census and Statistics, Ministry of Policy Planning Economic Affairs, Child Youth and Cultural Affairs. 2015. Household income and expenditure survey 2012/13 final report. Available at www.statistics.gov.lk/HIES/HIES2012_13FinalReport.pdf [Accessed 23 September 2016].
Government of Vietnam, National Institute of Nutrition. 2014. Minimum living subsistence for common areas 2013–2020. In Vietnamese. Unpublished.
Gyourko, J. and Tracy, J. 2005. Using home maintenance and repairs to smooth variable earnings. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Available at www.newyorkfed.org/medialibrary/media/research/economists/tracy/home_maintenance.pdf [Accessed 8 February 2016].
Habitat for Humanity, Africa and Middle East Office. 2008. A right to a decent home: Mapping poverty housing in the Africa & Middle East Region. Pretoria. Available at www.downloads.habitatforhumanity.org.uk/MappingPovertyHousingInAME.pdf [Accessed 23 September 2016].
Hadi, A. N. B. A. 2014. Housing policy and housing program in Malaysia. Gelugor, Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Hall, J., Moore, S., Harper, S. and Lynch, J. 2009. Global variability in fruit and vegetable consumption. Am J Prev Med. 36(5), 402–9.
Heston, A. 2013. Chapter 12 Dwelling services. In: Measuring the real size of the world economy. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 319–42.
House of Commons Library. 2011. Housing: Overcrowding. SN/SP/1013.
Howden, D. 2014. Kenyan parents sue ministers over illegal school fees. The Guardian. 24 January.
Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC). 2003. Understanding the 2000 low income statistics based on market basket measure. Ottawa: Government of Canada.
ILO. 1919. Constitution, Geneva. Available at www.ilo.org/ilolex [Accessed 16 December 2010].
ILO. 1928. Methods of compiling housing statistics. Studies and reports. Series N (Statistics). No. 13. Geneva: ILO. Available at http://staging.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ilo/ILO-SR/ILO-SR_N13_engl.pdf [Accessed 15 January 2016].
ILO. 1935. Resolution of the committee of statistical experts of the International Labour Office, Second session, Geneva, 16–18 December 1935, in International Labour Office, The International Standardization of Labour Statistics. A review of the statistical work of the International Labour Office and various international statistical conferences Studies and Reports, Series N (Statistics) No. 25. (Revision of No. 19).
ILO. 1944. Declaration concerning the aims and purposes of the International Labour Organisation (Declaration of Philadelphia). Available at www.ilo.org/ilolex [Accessed 16 December 2010].
ILO. 1949. Protection of Wages Convention, No. 95. Available at www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_INS TRUMENT_ID:312240 [Accessed 22 January 2016].
ILO. 1951. Equal Remuneration Convention No. 100. Available at www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C100 [Accessed 21 January 2016].
ILO. 1958. Plantations Convention, No. 110. Available at www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C110 [Accessed 15 August 2016].
ILO. 1961. Recommendation No. 115 Concerning Worker’s Housing. Available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312453 [Accessed 15 August 2016].
ILO. 1962. Social Policy (Basic Aims and Standards) Convention. No 117. Available at www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:1210 0:0::NO:12100:P12100_INSTRUMENT_ID:312262:NO [Accessed 15 August 2016].
ILO. 1970. Minimum Wage Fixing Convention No. 131. Available at www.ilo.org/ilolex [Accessed 16 December 2010].
ILO. 1982. 13th International Conference of Labour Statisticians. Geneva: ILO.
ILO. 1992. Minimum wages: Wage fixing machinery, application and supervision. Report III (Part 4B) for International Labor Conference 79th Session. Geneva: ILO.
ILO. 2003. Protection of wages. Report for International Labor Conference 91st Session. Geneva: ILO.
ILO. 2006. Tripartite declaration of principles concerning multinational enterprises and social policy (MNE declaration). Available at www.ilo.org/empent/Publications/WCMS_211136/lang--en/index [Accessed August 2016].
ILO. 2008. Declaration on social justice for fair globalization. Available at www.ilo.org/ilolex [Accessed 16 December 2010].
ILO. 2008a. Global wage report 2008/09. Geneva: ILO.
ILO. 2011. C189 – Domestic Workers Convention, 2011 (No. 189). Available at www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C189 [Accessed 31 January 2016].
ILO. 2013. Growth, employment and social cohesion in the Dominican Republic. ILO background paper for ILO-IMF tripartite consultation on job-rich and inclusive growth in the Dominican Republic. Santo Domingo. 30 January.
ILO. 2013a. Key indicators of the labour market (KILM). Geneva: ILO. Available at www.ilo.org/empelm/what/WCMS_114240/lang--en/index.htm [Accessed December 2014].
ILO. 2014. General survey on minimum wage systems 2014. International Labor Conference 103rd session. Geneva: ILO.
ILO. 2014a. Viet Nam wage policy in the context of market economy and economic integration. Hanoi: ILO. Available at www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-hanoi/documents/publication/wcms_322656.pdf [Accessed 23 September 2016].
ILO/IMF/OECD/UNECE/Eurostat/The World Bank. 2004. Consumer price manual. Geneva: ILO.
ILO, LABORSTA, HIES. undated. Household income and expenditure survey database. Available at http://laborsta.ilo.org/STP/guest [Accessed 14 January 2016].
IMF. undated. World economic outlook database. Available at www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2015/01/weodata/index.aspx [Accessed 29 February 2016].
International Code Council. 2009. International Residential Code R304 for one and two family dwellings. Minimum room area. Available at https://law.resource.org/pub/us/code/ibr/icc.irc.2009.html [Accessed 23 September 2016].
International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers’ Federation. 2008. Bargaining for a living wage: A trade union guide. Available at www.cleanclothes.org/resources/recommended-reading/bargaining-for-a-living-wage-a-trade-union-guide [Accessed 12 April 2016].
Ireland, Office of the Attorney General. 1966. Housing Act 1966. Part IV, Section 63. Overcrowded and unfit houses.
Kenya Revenue Authority, Domestic Taxes Department. 2009. Employers guide to pay as you earn in Kenya, revised edition, form P.7. Available at www.revenue.go.ke/incometax/pdf/PAYRuide2009.pdf.
Khan, M. E., Anker, R., Anker, M. and Barge, S. 2016. Living wage report, Dhaka, Bangladesh and satellite cities: Context the garment industry. Available at http://www.isealalliance.org/sites/default/files/Dhaka_Living_Wage_Benchmark_Report.pdf [Accessed 17 September 2016].
KNBS (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics). 2007. Basic report on well-being in Kenya based on Kenya Integrated Household Budget Survey 2005/06). Nairobi: Kenya National Bureau of Statistics.
KNBS (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics). 2015. Consumer price indices, CPI and inflation rates, Table 3: National Average Prices of Selected Commodities. Available at www.knbs.or.ke/index.php?option=com_phocadownload&view=category&id=14:cpi-and-inflation-rates-2013& Itemid=599 [Accessed 20 January 2016].
KNBS (Kenya National Bureau of Statistics) and MEASURES DHS. 2010. Kenya demographic and health survey 2008–09. Calverton, Maryland, USA: ICF Macro.
Labowitz, S. and Bauman-Pauly, D. 2015. Beyond the tip of the iceberg: Bangladesh’s forgotten apparel workers. New York: New York University, Stern Center for Business and Human Rights. Available at http://people.stern.nyu.edu/twadhwa/bangladesh/maps.html [Accessed 10 February 2016].
Lally, A. 2011. Wage ladder background study. Fair Wear Foundation. Available at www.fairwear.org/ul/cms/fck-uploaded/documents/fwfpublications_reports/wageladderbackgroundstudy.pdf [Accessed 23 January 2016].
Living Wage Foundation. Living wage employers. Available at www.livingwage.org.uk/employers [Accessed 5 March 2016].
Luce, S. 2004. Fighting for a living wage. Ithaca: ILR Press.
Luers, W. M., 1998. Workfare wages under the Fair Labor Standards Act. Fordham Law Review. 67 (1), 203–38.
Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADHA). 2014. Affordable housing in joint partnership with private land owners/developers. Available at https://mhada.maharashtra.gov.in/?q=affordablehousing [Accessed 10 September 2014].
Mathenge, M. and Tschirley, D. 2006. Seasonal analysis of selected fresh fruit and vegetable prices at wholesale level in key urban markets of Kenya, Working paper 22. Tegemeo Institute/Egerton University and the Department of Agricultural Economics at Michigan State University. Available at http://fsg.afre.msu.edu/kenya/WPS22.pdf [Accessed 9 January 2016].
McMullen, A. and Maher, S. 2011. Let’s clean up fashion 2009: The state of pay behind the high street. Labour Behind the Label. Available at www.women-ww.org/documents/LBL-LCUF2011.pdf [Accessed 5 January 2016].
McMullen, A., Luginbühl, C., Nolan, K., Crabbé, C. and Ajaltouni, N. 2014. Tailored wages: Are the big brands paying the people who make our clothes enough to live on? Labour Behind the Label. Available at www.cleanclothes.org/livingwage/tailoredwages/tailored-wage-report-pdf [Accessed 5 January 2016].
Millward, D. J. 2013. The use of protein: Energy ratios for defining protein requirements, allowances and dietary protein contents. Public Health Nutrition. 16(5), 763–8.
Moolla, R., Kotze, N. and Block, L. 2011. Housing satisfaction and quality of life in RDP houses in Braamfischerville, Soweto: A South African case study. Ubaani izziv. 22(1), 138–43.
Muehlhoff, E., Bennett, A. and McMahon, E., 2013. Milk and dairy products in human nutrition. Rome: FAO.
Nadeau, C. A. with Schultheis, E., prepared for Glasmeier, A. K. 2014 update. Living wage calculator: User’s guide/technical notes. Cambridge: Department of Urban Studies and Planning. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
National Statistical Office (NSO) and ICF Macro. 2011. Malawi demographic and health survey 2010. Zomba Malawi and Calverton, Maryland, USA: NSO and ICF Macro. Available at http://dhsprogram.com/pubs/pdf/FR247/FR247.pdf [Accessed 23 September 2016].
NICUS (Nutrition Information Center University of Stellenbosch, South Africa). 2007. How to eat correctly. Available at www.sun.ac.za/english/faculty/healthsciences/nicus/how-to-eat-correctly/nutrients/dri [Accessed 23 September 2016].
OECD. 2002. Glossary of statistical terms, payments in kind. Available at http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=2026 [Accessed 31 January 2016].
OECD and Statistics Norway. 2010. User cost for rents of dwellings in the West Balkan Countries. Washington DC: International Comparison Program.
OECD/WHO. 2012. Health at a glance: Asia/Pacific 2012. Paris: OECD Publishing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264183902-en.
Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1991. Sixth session, General Comment 4. The Right to Adequate Housing (Article 11 (1) of the Covenant Document E/1991/23.
Oficina Nacional de Estadistica. (Special tabulation unpublished) 2007. Encuesta nacional de Ingresos y gastos de los hogares: Resultados generals 2007. Santo Domingo.
Oficina Nacional de Estadistica and Ministero de Economia, Planificacion y Desarrollo. 2012. IX Censo nacional de poblacion y vivienda 2010. Characteristicas de la vivienda y del hogar volumen II. October 2012. Santo Domingo: Oficina Nacional de Estadistica and Ministero de Economia, Planificacion y Desarrollo.
Pindyck, R. S. and Rubinfield, D. L. 2012. Micro Economics, 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Pope Leo XIII. 1891. Rerum Novarum: Encyclical on human work on capital and labour. Available at http://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_15051891_rerum-novarum.html [Accessed 5 January 2016].
Pottie, D. 2003. Housing the nation: The politics of low-cost housing policy in South Africa since 1994. Politeia. 22(1), 119–43.
Prentice, A. M. and Prentice, A. 1988. Energy costs of lactation. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 8, 63–79.
Ravaillon, M. 1998. Poverty lines in theory and practice. Living standards measurement study working paper No. 133. Washington DC: World Bank.
Republic of Kenya, Ministry of Housing. 2004. Sessional paper No. 3 of 2004 on national housing policy for Kenya. Nairobi.
Republic of Kenya, National Building and Planning Authority. 2009. Planning and Building Regulations 2009. Volume A. Republic of Kenya, National Building and Planning Authority. Nairobi. Available at https://law.resource.org/pub/ke/ibr/ke.building.2009.html.
Republic of Malawi. 2005. Integrated Household Survey 2004–2005. Zomba: National Statistical Office.
Republic of Malawi, National Statistical Office. 2010b. Population and housing census 2008. Analytical report: Volume 10. Economic activity. December 2010. Zomba, Malawi: Republic of Malawi, National Statistical Office.
Republic of Malawi. 2012. Third Integrated Household Survey (IHS-3) 2010–2011. Household socio-economic characteristics report. Zomba: National Statistical Office.
Republic of Mauritius, Ministry of Housing and Lands. undated. Available at http://housing.govmu.org/English/Pages/default.aspx [Accessed 8 March 2016].
Republic of South Africa. 1997. South African Basic Conditions of Employment Act No. 75 of 1997 for Farm Worker Section. Capetown
Republic of South Africa. 1998. Government Gazette, Housing Consumer Protection Act No. 95 1998. Capetown.
Riddell, A. 2003. The introduction of free primary education in sub-Saharan Africa. UNESCO. Available at http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001469/146914e.pdf [Accessed 20 January 2016].
Rockefeller, J. D. 1921. Co-operation in industry. International Labour Review, 2(1).
Roosevelt, F. D. 1944. State of the Union message to Congress. Available at www.presidency.uscb.edu/ws/index.php?pid-16518 [Accessed 31 March 2010].
Ruel, M., Minot, N. and Smith, L. 2005. Patterns and determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in sub-Saharan Africa: A multi-country comparison. Geneva: WHO. Available at www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/f&v_africa_economics.pdf?ua=1 [Accessed 24 July 2014].
Ryan, J. 1906. A living wage: Its ethical and economic impacts. New York: Macmillan Co.
Seale, J. L. and Regmi, A. 2006. Modeling international consumption patterns. Review of Income and Wealth. 52(4), 603–24.
Schappert, S. and Rechsteiner, E. 2008. Ambulatory medical care utilization estimates for 2006. NHSR Number 8. CDC.
Schoenfeldt, H. C. and Hall, N. G. 2012. Dietary protein quality and malnutrition in Africa. British Journal of Nutrition. 108, Supplement S2, S69–S76.
Schwartz, M. and Wilson, E. undated. Who can afford to live in a home? A look at data from the 2006 American Community Survey. US Census Bureau. Available at www.census.gov/housing/census/publications/who-can-afford.pdf [Accessed 8 April 2016].
Shaheen, N., Rahim, A. T., Banu, M., Bari, L., Tukun, A. B., Mannan, M. A., Bhattacharjee, L., and Stadlmayr, B. 2013. Food composition tables for Bangladesh. Institute of Nutrition and Food Science, Centre for Advanced Research in Sciences, University of Dhaka, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Smith, A. 1776 (1982 edition). The wealth of nations. London: Penguin Books.
Social Accountability International (SAI), personal communication. 2014. Codes of practice.
State Bank of Mauritius. Loan calculator. Available at www.sbmgroup.mu/loan_calculator.php?lang=en [Accessed 30 March 2016].
Statistics Mauritius. Ministry of Finance and Economic Development. 2015. Household budget survey 2012. Analytical report. Port Louis.
Statistics South Africa. 2008. Housing in the Consumer Price Index. Pretoria, p. 3. Available at www.statssa.gov.za/cpi/documents/Housing%20in%20the%20SA%20CPI%201%20July%2008%20final.pdf [Accessed 12 August 2016].
Statistics South Africa. 2009. Consumer Price Index (CPI) 2008 weights (primary urban areas) Statistical release P0141.5. Pretoria.
Sustainable Agricultural Network/Rainforest Alliance. 2005. Sustainable Agriculture Standard. Available at www.rainforest-alliance.org/business/agriculture/documents/standards_indicators_2005.pdf [Accessed 4 March 2016].
Tabatabai, H. 1996. Statistics on poverty and income distribution: An ILO compendium. Geneva: ILO.
Tariq, F. undated. Facilitating community development with housing microfinance: Appraising housing solutions for Pakistan after disasters. Available at http://web.mit.edu/incrementalhousing/articlesPhotographs/pdfs/TARIQ-COMMUNITY=PAKISTAN.pdf [Accessed 29 February 2016].
Thale, T. 2001. New plan for better housing, City of Johannesburg. 16 November. Available at www.joburgnews.co.za/november/housing.stm [Accessed 10 August 2008].
The Economist. 2014. Education in Kenya, classroom divisions: Paid-for private schools are better value for money than the “free” sort. The Economist. 22 February. Available at www.economist.com/news/middle-east-and-africa/21596981-paid-private-schools-are-better-value-money-free-sort-classroom [Accessed 12 January 2016].
Theobald, H. E. 2005. Dietary calcium and health. Nutrition Bulletin. 30(3), 237–77.
Thibbotuwawa, M. 2016. Personal communication.
Thiele, B. 2002. The human right to adequate housing: A tool for promoting and protecting individual and community health. American Journal of Public Health. 92(5), 712–15.
Thom, K. 2013. Escom tariff hike. . . Malawi to become highest in the region. BNL Times. 12 December.
Thorpe, V. 2007. Executive summary of the final report of the Jo-In project in Turkey. Available at http://www.jo-in.org/english/resimler/080623_JO-IN_Final_Report.pdf [Accessed 4 October 2014].
United Kingdom Housing Act. 1985. Housing Act 1985: Part X – Definition of Overcrowding.
UN-Habitat. 2003. The challenge of slums. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.
UN-Habitat. 2003a. Slums of the world: The face of urban poverty in the new millennium? Nairobi: UN-Habitat.
UN-Habitat. 2006. State of the world’s cities report 2006/07. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.
UN-Habitat. 2009. Urban indicators guidelines. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.
UN-Habitat. 2013. State of the world’s cities 2012/13. Nairobi: UN-Habitat.
United Nations. 1948. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Available at www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/ [Accessed 5 January 2016].
United Nations. 1957. Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, Economic and Social Council Resolution 663 C I (XXIV) and 2076 (LXII). New York: United Nations. Available at www.unodc.org/pdf/criminal_justice/UN_Standard_Minimum_Rules_for_the_Treatment_of_Prisoners.pdf [Accessed 15 January 2016].
United Nations. 1959. Declaration of the Rights of the Child: General Assembly Resolution 1386(XIV). New York: United Nations.
United Nations. 1966. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: General Assembly Resolution 2200A (XXI). New York: United Nations.
United Nations. 1998. Principles and recommendations for population and housing censuses. Rev 1. New York: United Nations. Available at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/sconcerns/housing/housingmethods.htm [Accessed 4 February 2016].
United Nations. 2015. 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. Available at www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/ [Accessed 5 January 2016].
United Nations. 2016. UNDATA glossary. Available at http://data.un.org/Glossary.aspx?q=total+fertility+rate [Accessed 3 February 2016].
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Statistical Division. 2008. Principle and recommendations for population and housing censuses, Revision 2. Statistical papers. Series M No.67/Rev.2. New York: United Nations.
United Nations, Population Division. 2000. Charting the Progress of Populations. Chapter XII: Floor area per person. ST/ESA/SER.R/151.
United Nations Statistics Division. 1999. Classification of Individual Consumption according to Purpose (COICOP). Available at http://unstats.un.org/unsd/cr/registry/regcst.asp?Cl=5 [Accessed 1 February 2014].
United Nations Statistics Division. 2016. UNdata. Available at http://data.un.org/Glossary.aspx?q=Total+fertility+rate+(TFR) [Accessed 15 August 2016].
United Nations. undated. Official list of MDG indicators. Available at http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/host.aspx?Content=indicators/officiallist.htm [Accessed 5 January 2016].
UNESCO. 2014. Data Centre. Regional and country profiles. Available at http://www.uis.unesco.org/DataCentre/Pages/regions.aspx [Accessed 20 January 2016].
UNHCR. 2007. Handbook for emergencies, 3rd edition. Geneva: UNHCR.
UNICEF. 2014. The Children: Primary School Years. Available at http://www.unicef.org/kenya/children_3795.html [Accessed 20 January 2016].
UNICEF. 2015. Current status + progress: Rapid acceleration of progress is needed to achieve universal primary education by 2015. Available at http://data.unicef.org/education/primary [Accessed 12 January 2016].
United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. 2007. Measuring overcrowding in housing, 2007. Washington DC.
United States Department of Labor, Wage and Hour Division (WHD). undated. Davis-Bacon and related acts. Available at http://www.dol.gov/whd/programs/dbra/faqs/fringes.htm [Accessed 22 January 2016].
United States Federal Government. 1938. Wage payments under the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (29 C.F.R. 531) §531.30 “Furnished” to the employee.
United States Institute of Medicine. 1991. Nutrition during lactation. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
USDA. 2007. The low-cost, moderate-cost, and liberal food plans. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion. CNPP-20. Washington DC.
USDA NAL (National Agricultural Library). 2014. National nutrient database for standard reference release 27. Available at http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ [Accessed 14 December 2014].
Uttar Pradesh Housing and Development Board (UPAVP), Architectural and Planning Section. 2014. Plans and development for affordable housing: Designs for EWS houses. Lucknow.
UTZ, personal communication. 2014. Code of conduct.
Van der Hoeven, R. and Anker R. (eds.). 1994. Poverty monitoring: An international concern. New York: St Martins Press.
Vietnam General Confederation of Labor, Institute of Workers and Trade Unions. 2013. Report on minimum living needs of employees in enterprises in 2013. Hanoi. Unpublished.
Vietnam Government. 2005. Housing Law 2005; Section 4 Social housing development article 47 (2). Hanoi.
Vietnam Government, General Statistics Office. 2012. Data result of the Viet Nam household living standards survey 2010. Hanoi.
Vietnam National Wage Council Technical Division. 2014. Report: Identifying minimum living needs of workers. Hanoi. Unpublished.
Wang, S., Wang, Y., Gu, F., and Lu, D. 2016. Living wage for Shenzhen with focus on manufacturing industrial parks.
Weaver, C. M, Proulx, W. R. and Heaney, R. 1999. Choices for achieving adequate dietary calcium with a vegetarian diet. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 70 (3 Suppl), 543S–548S.
WHO. 1985. Energy and protein requirements: Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series No. 724. Geneva: WHO.
WHO. 1989. Health principles of housing. Geneva: WHO.
WHO. 2003. Joint WHO/FAO expert consultation on diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. Geneva: WHO.
WHO. 2004. Human energy requirements: Report of a joint FAO/WHO/UNU expert consultation, Rome, Italy, 17–24 October 2001. Available at http://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/nutrientrequirements/9251052123/en/ [Accessed 6 September 2016].
WHO. 2013. Technical notes on drinking-water, sanitation and hygiene in emergencies: How much water is needed in emergencies? Geneva: WHO.
WHO. 2015. Guideline: Sugars intake for adults and children. WHO, Geneva.
WHO. undated. Website on nutrition. Available at http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/5_population_nutrient/en/index1.html [Accessed 7 August 2016].
WHO/FAO. 2003. Diet, nutrition and the prevention of chronic disease: Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO technical report series 916. Geneva: WHO. Available at http://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/trs916/en/gsfao_introduction.pdf?ua=1 [Accessed 19 November 2016].
WHO/FAO/UNU. 2007. Protein and amino acid requirements in human nutrition: Report of a WHO/FAO/UNU expert consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 935. Geneva: WHO.
Wikipedia Average height around the world. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Average_height_around_the_world [Accessed 14 December 2014].
Williams, F. M., Steibling H. K., Swisher, I. G., and Weiss, G. S. 1937. Family living in Knott County, Ky. U.S. Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 576. Department of Agriculture. Washington DC.
Wodon, Q. and Beegle, K. 2006. Labor shortages despite underemployment? Seasonality in time use in Malawi, in Blackden, M. and Wodon, Q. (eds.). Gender, time use and poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa. Working paper 73. Washington DC: World Bank.
Woetzel, J., Ram, S., Mishke, J., Garemo, N., and Sankhe, S. 2014. A blueprint for addressing the global affordable housing challenge. McKinsey Global Institute.
Worker Rights Consortium. 2010. Living wage analysis for the Dominican Republic. Washington DC: Worker Rights Consortium. Available at http://ciee.typepad.com/files/wrc-living-wage-analysis-for-the-dominican-republic-2.pdf [Accessed 15 August 2016].
World Bank. 2007. Malawi poverty and vulnerability assessment: Investing in our future, synthesis report. Washington DC: World Bank. Available at https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/7557. License: CC BY 3.0 Unreported.
World Bank. 2014. The face of poverty in Europe and Central Asia. Available at http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/02/10/faceof-poverty-in-europe-and-central-asia [Accessed 23 January 2016].
World Bank. 2015. Latin America’s poverty gains due more to higher wages than better job. Available at http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/pressrelease/2015/06/03/latin-america-poverty-gains-higher-wages-better-jobs [Accessed 23 January 2016].
World Bank. 2015a. GINI index (World Bank estimates). Available at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.GINI [Accessed 29 January 2016].
World Bank. 2015b. Millennium development goals. Available at http://data.worldbank.org/data-catalog/millennium-development-indicators [Accessed 12 January 2016].
World Bank. 2016. Net enrollment rate, secondary, both sexes (%). Available at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SE.SEC.NENR/countries/1W-ZF-4E-8S?display=graph [Accessed 20 January 2016].
World Bank. 2016a. PPP conversion factor, private consumption (LCU per international $). Available at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/PA.NUS.PPP [Accessed 23 January 2016].
World Bank. 2016b. World Development Indicators. Available at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator [Accessed 3 February 2016].
World Bank. undated. Poverty and equity data FAQs. Available at http://data.worldbank.org/indicator [Accessed 7 September 2015].
Wozniak, L. 2015. Taking stock of 13th month and 14th month bonus requirements in Latin America, Europe, and Asia. Available at https://www.radford.com/home/insights/articles/2015/taking_stock_of_13th_14th_month_bonuses_in_latam_europe_asia.asp [Accessed 4 March 2016].
Zhou, Z., Tian, W., Wang, J., Liu, H. and Cao, L. 2012. Food consumption trends in China. Report for the Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.
Zimmerman, C. 1932. Ernst Engel’s law of expenditures for food. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 47(1), 78–101.