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Petroleum Resource Management

How Governments Manage Their Offshore Petroleum Resources

John A.P. Chandler

This thought-provoking book examines how countries manage their offshore petroleum resources by comparing the different approaches to licensing and regulation taken by Australia, Norway and the UK. It is based on extensive research into their policies and management practices, including interviews with government regulators and companies. These countries all face similar challenges as their offshore petroleum basins mature which means smaller discoveries, marginal production and ageing infrastructure. John Chandler analyses how their petroleum policy, systems of regulation, and regulators developed up to the present, and how they are responding to these challenges, as well as how they deal with exploration, development, infrastructure sharing and production.
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Glossary of abbreviations and definitions

John A.P. Chandler

ACCACompetition and Consumer Act 2010 (Cth)
ACDOICommonwealth Department of Industry, Science and Tourism
ACIL Tasman ACIL Tasman, Review of Australia’s Offshore
Exploration Review Petroleum Exploration Policy (3 January 2012)
ACIL 2000 Review ACIL Consulting, National Competition Policy Review of the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Legislation (Report to the Petroleum (Submerged Lands) Review Committee, 2000)
AMPLAAustralian Resources and Energy Law Association
AOPGGSAOffshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage Act 2006 (Cth)
AOPRMR Review Department of Industry, Innovation and Science, Offshore Petroleum Resource Management Review (Interim Report, Australian Government November 2015)
APAAwards in Predefined Areas (Norway)
APPEAAustralian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association
APRRTPetroleum Resource Rent Tax Australia
APSLAPetroleum (Submerged Lands) Act 1967 (Cth)
ARER Offshore Petroleum and Greenhouse Gas Storage (Environment) Regulations 2009 (Cth)
ARMAROffshore Petroleum Greenhouse Gas and Storage (Resource Management and Administration) Regulations 2012 (Cth)
ARSROffshore Petroleum Greenhouse Gas and Storage (Safety) Regulations 2009 (Cth)
BCM of gasBillion cubic metres of gas
BOEBarrels of Oil Equivalent
BrownfieldsPILOT, Maximising Economic Recovery of
MER Report the UK’s Oil and Gas Reserves – Context for the Brownfields Challenge (Brownfields Studies, March 2005)
BunterMichael Bunter, The Promotion and Licensing of Petroleum Prospective Acreage (Kluwer Law International 2002)
CSAContinental Shelf Act 1964 (UK)
CSGCoal Seam Gas
Daintith and Chandler Terence Daintith and John Chandler, ‘Offshore petroleum regulation: theory and disaster as drivers for institutional change’ (2017) 39 Houston Journal of International Law 333
Daintith Discretion Terence Daintith, Discretion in the Administration of Offshore Oil and Gas A Comparative Study (AMPLA 2005)
Daintith, Willoughby and Hill TC Daintith, GDM Willoughby and ADG Hill (eds), United Kingdom Oil and Gas Law (3rd edn, loose leaf, Sweet & Maxwell 2000)
DCFdiscounted cash flow
DECCDepartment of Energy and Climate Change (UK)
DEFRADepartment for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (UK)
EIAEnvironmental Impact Assessment
E&PExploration and Production
EPBCEnvironmental Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (Cth)
ESGEnvironmental, Social and Governance
FDPField Development Plan
FormerOil and Gas Authority, Oil and gas: fields and
UKFDP Guidance field development (January 2013)
GDPGross Domestic Product
GRIGlobal Reporting Initiative
GSEGovernment Sponsored Enterprises
GSTGoods and Services Tax
GTLGas-to-liquids
Henry Tax Review Commonwealth of Australia, Australia’s future tax system – Report to the Treasurer (December 2009)
IEAInternational Energy Agency
IMFInternational Monetary Fund
Infrastructure Generally used to mean the wells, subsea pipelines, platforms, treatment and storage facilities, worker accommodation and other infrastructure and facilities required for production and storage of hydrocarbons in an offshore project; excluding ships and similar facilities
IOCInternational Oil Company
JOAJoint Operating Agreement
JVJoint Venture
KPIKey Performance Indicator
LNGLiquefied Natural Gas
LPGLiquefied Petroleum Gas
MBEISMinistry for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (UK)
MCModel Clauses (UK)
McDonaldStephen L McDonald, Petroleum Conservation in the United States: An Economic Analysis (The Johns Hopkins Press 1971)
MERUKSOil and Gas Authority, The Maximising Economic Recovery Strategy for the UK (Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy March 2016)
MMbblOne million barrels
MontaraDavid Borthwick AO PSM, Report of
Inquiry Report Montara Commission of Inquiry (June 2010)
NCSAContinental Shelf Act 1963 (Norway)
NCSNorwegian Continental Shelf
NESNew Energy Solutions
NGLNatural Gas Liquids
NMPENorwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy
NMPE 2011 Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and
Industry Review Energy, An industry for the future – Norway’s Petroleum activities (Meld. St. 28 (2010-2011) Report to the Storting (white paper))
NOCNational Oil Company
NOKNorwegian Krone
NOPSEMA National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority (Cth)
NOPTANational Offshore Petroleum Titles Administrator (Cth)
NPAPetroleum Act 1996 (Norway)
NPDNorwegian Petroleum Directorate
NPDOPlan for Development and Operation (Norway)
NPDO Guideline The Ministry of Petroleum and Energy and the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Guidelines for plan for development and operation of a petroleum deposit (PDO) and plan for installation and operation of facilities for transport and utilisation of petroleum (PIO) (June 2017)
NPRPetroleum Regulations (Norway)
OCSOffshore Constitutional Settlement
OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
OECD Regulation OECD, The Governance of Regulators (Best
Governance Practice Principles for Regulatory Policy, OECD Publishing 2014)
OECD Risk OECD, Risk and Regulatory Policy
Governance Improving the Governance of Risk (OECD Reviews of Regulatory Reform, OECD Publishing, 2010)
OGAOil and Gas Authority (UK)
OGA AssetOil and Gas Authority, Asset
Stewardship Expectations Stewardship Expectations (October 2016)
OGA Asset Stewardship StrategyOil and Gas Authority, Asset Stewardship Strategy October 2016)
OGPInternational Association of Oil and Gas Producers
OPECOrganization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
PGERAPetroleum and Geothermal Energy Resources Act 1967 (WA)
PIOPlan for installation and operation of facilities for transport and utilisation of petroleum
PPAPetroleum (Production) Act 1998 (UK)
PRTpetroleum revenue tax
PSCProduction Sharing Contract
RegulatoryAustralian Productivity Commission, Review
Burden Review of Regulatory Burden on the Upstream (Oil and Gas) Sector (2009)
RFCTRing Fence Corporation Tax
Roggenkamp Martha Roggenkamp, Catherine Redgewell, Inigo del Guayo and Anita Ronne (eds), Energy Law in Europe (3rd edn, Oxford University Press 2016)
RyggvikHelge Ryggvik, ‘The Norwegian Oil Experience: a toolbox for managing resources’. http://www.sv.uio.no/tik/forskning/publikasjoner/tik-rapportserie/Ryggvik.pdf
SECRSatisfactory expected commercial return
SECR Consultation Oil and Gas Authority, Consultation on the approach to“satisfactory expected commercial return” in the MER UK Strategy (13 December 2017)
SmithE Smith, J Dzienkowski, O Anderson, L Lowe, B Kramer and J Weaver, International Petroleum Transactions (3rd edn, Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Foundation 2013)
TaverneBernard Taverne, Petroleum, Industry and Governments (3rd edn, Wolters Kluwer 2013)
UKCACompetition Act 1998 (UK)
UKCSUnited Kingdom Continental Shelf
UKEAEnergy Act 2016 (UK)
UKEA 2011 Energy Act 2011 (UK)
UKFDPField Development Plan (UK)
UKFDP Guidance Oil and Gas Authority, Guidance on the preparation and content of offshore oil and gas field development plans (June 2017)
UKIAInfrastructure Act 2015 (UK)
UKPAPetroleum Act 1998 (UK)
UKPLPSRPetroleum Licensing (Production) (Seaward Areas) Regulations 2008 (UK)
UKPRTPetroleum Revenue Tax (UK)
UKSR Guidance Oil and Gas Authority, Stewardship Review Guidance (March 2017)
UNCLOSUnited Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea 1982
Wood Review Sir Ian Wood, UKCS Maximising Recovery Review: Final Report (24 February 2014)
World Bank Paper 179 Silvano Tordo, David Johnston and Daniel Johnston, Petroleum Exploration and Production Rights Allocation Strategies and Design Issues (World Bank Working Paper No. 179, 2010)