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Shale Gas, the Environment and Energy Security

A New Framework for Energy Regulation

Ruven Fleming

This pioneering and in-depth study into the regulation of shale gas extraction examines how changes in the constitutional set-ups of EU Member States over the last 25 years have substantially altered the legal leverage of environmental protection and energy security as state objectives. As well as offering the first formal assessment of the legality of fracking bans and moratoria, Ruven Fleming further proposes a new methodology for the development of legally sound regulation of new energy technologies in the context of the energy transition.
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Index

A New Framework for Energy Regulation

Ruven Fleming

accidents, major industrial
Seveso I–III Directives 75, 98
affordability 32, 34, 4041
Agenda 21, 225
air pollution 49, 98, 99, 206, 208
Air Quality Directive 889
EIA 65, 67
Environmental Liability Directive 88
Alexy, R. 181, 189
availability and reliability 32, 34, 3540
import dependency 359
NIMBY 3940
bans or moratoria 23, 1089, 11214
national law and shale gas see separate entry
baseline studies 153
Belgium 109, 161
benchmarking 153
best available techniques
EU 735, 98, 229, 230
greenhouse gases 229, 230
main function of EC-BREFs 73
Germany 133, 152, 153
best available technology 689, 153, 215, 229
biocidal products 856
biodiversity 28
Brexit 132, 169, 185
Bulgaria 3, 108, 115
burden of proof
reversal of 133, 154, 220221, 230
carbon capture and storage 2313, 2545
Directive 2348, 252, 253
EIAs 68
Emissions Trading Scheme 90
France 233, 250251, 2545
no exemptions 2524
priorities in land use 2512
Germany 233, 2447, 2545
best available technology 153
quantitative restrictions 248
registry 24950
spatial planning restrictions 2478
precautionary principle: analogy 207
transposition of CCS Directive
France 233, 250255
Germany 153, 233, 24450, 2545
United Kingdom 233, 23844, 2545
UK 233, 23840, 2545
devolved powers 240241
offshore 2414
chemical products: REACH 76, 815, 99, 153
cinema 2
civil law system 113
climate change 2830, 445, 50, 167, 230
Air Quality Directive 889
best available techniques 229, 230
bridge fuel 30
EIA 67
Emissions Trading Scheme 8990
Environmental Liability Directive 88, 100
green completion 153
precautionary principle 2056, 208, 21314
rectification at source 229
specific European shale gas regulation 96
see also carbon capture and storage
Committee of the Regions 945
common law system 113
comparative law 11314
constitutional and quasi-constitutional
objectives 46, 17983, 200, 260
competing objectives: solutions 1915
conclusions 25962
energy security and environmental protection 188
anchorage of both in EU law 1835, 188
France 185, 1868
Germany 1856, 188
trias of objectives, principles, rules 18891
meta principles 195, 199200, 261
practical concordance and optimization 1969, 200, 261
unity of the constitution and harmonization 1956, 197, 200, 261
critical chain approach 192, 193
Czech Republic 1089, 161
Denmark 109, 161
developing countries 30
diffuse pollution 21920
drinking water 23
France 252
Germany 139, 141, 144, 152, 153
priority 252
US
baselines studies 153
EPA 212
pollutants 206
Water Framework Directive 77
water protection zones
precautionary principle 217
see also groundwater contamination/well integrity; water protection areas
Dworkin, R. 181, 189
earth tremors 1, 23, 1589, 1645, 173
eco-friendly fracturing fluids 21517, 230
economic development 423, 124, 223
EU: social and 184
France: social progress and 187
electricity generation 2930
electricity storage 263
Emissions Trading Scheme 8990
energy efficiency 445
energy interconnectors 263
energy security 34, 48, 223, 25962
affordability 32, 34, 4041
availability and reliability 32, 34, 3540
import dependency 359
NIMBY 3940
constitutional or quasi-constitutional objective see objectives and shale gas
critical chain approach 192, 193
definition 324, 437, 48
France 11617, 131
imbalance 1745
import dependency 121
pre-existing licences 122, 124
research 125, 126, 127, 128
primary EU law 512, 53, 54, 559, 103, 1056
quasi-constitutional objectives 56, 181, 1838, 188, 1934
socio-economic development 34, 413
specific European shale gas regulation 96
United Kingdom 1634, 1734
Northern Ireland 1678
Scotland 1723, 174
see also trias methodology
environmental damage
Environmental Liability Directive 868, 99100, 219, 220, 221
environmental impact assessments
(EIAs) 60, 618, 978, 215, 2234, 230
Germany: fracking activities 133, 137, 153, 1556
Northern Ireland 1667, 168
public participation 226, 228
environmental protection 4, 48, 25962
constitutional or quasi-constitutional objective see objectives and shale gas
definitions
energy security: including environmental protection 437, 48
environment 22
France 116, 117, 121, 122, 124, 126, 131
precautionary principle 124, 12930, 1745
NIMBY 3940
potential threats 223, 30, 2545, 260
climate change 2830, 445
earth tremors 1, 23, 1589, 1645, 173
‘flow back’ disposal 256
groundwater contamination/well integrity issues 235, 26
land use 268
primary EU law 513, 54, 55, 569, 103, 1056
quasi-constitutional objectives 56, 181, 1838, 1934
specific European shale gas regulation 96
United Kingdom 1634, 1734
Northern Ireland 1668
Scotland 1723, 174
see also trias methodology
Estonia 36
EU law and shale gas 4951, 1057
primary 103, 1056, 253, 260
Art 114 TFEU 536
Art 192 or Art 194 TFEU 569
dual legal basis 57, 59, 103, 107
polluter pays principle 21819
possible legal basis 513
precautionary principle 210
preventive principle 210
quasi-constitutional objectives 56, 181, 1838, 1934
rectification at source 228
sustainable development 222
secondary 5960, 102, 106, 225, 260
Air Quality Directive 889
Biocidal Products Directive and Regulation 856
CCS Directive 2348, 252, 253
Emissions Trading Scheme 8990
environmental impact assessment 628, 978, 2234
Environmental Liability Directive 868, 99100, 219, 220, 221
Groundwater Directive 757, 81, 989
Habitats Directive 9091
Hydrocarbons Licensing Directive 923, 100
Internal Gas Market Directive 934
IPPC Directive and IED 6879, 98
Mining Waste Directive 7075, 98
REACH 76, 815, 99, 153
Seveso I–III Directives 75, 98
strategic environmental assessments 6062, 97
Water Framework Directive 756, 7781, 989
secondary specific shale gas regulation 94100, 1067
critical assessment 100105
European Chemicals and Health
Agency 82, 83, 845, 99
European Commission 3, 6, 50, 198
biocidal products 86
BREF 745, 98
CCS Directive 2367
EIA Directive 65, 66, 978
Emissions Trading Scheme 90
energy security
affordability 40
definition 434, 46
import dependency 36
‘flow back’ disposal 789
fracking fluids 70
public consultation 226
REACH 81
specific shale gas regulation 949, 100, 101, 103
European Union
Brexit 132, 169, 185
burden of proof, reversal of 221
Commission see European Commission
energy security
definition 33, 40, 437
EU law and shale gas see separate entry
European Council 589, 64, 105
Parliament 58, 64, 945, 1034
quasi-constitutional objectives 56, 181, 1838, 188
energy security 1835, 1934
environmental protection 183, 1934
practical concordance 197
films 2
Flanders 109, 161
‘flow back’ disposal 256, 50, 59, 104
EIA 67
Germany 155
Environmental Liability Directive 87, 88
hazardous waste 6970, 723
IPPC Directive and IED
hazardous waste 6970
Mining Waste Directive 715
precautionary principle 205, 210, 213, 214
re-surfacing of fluids 1920, 80
Water Framework Directive 756, 7780, 81
fracturing fluids 19, 24, 25, 789, 80
biocidal products 856
eco-friendly 21517, 230
hazardous waste 69
Mining Waste Directive 71, 73
product standards 55
site-specific 47, 59, 70, 79, 104
France 6, 108, 112, 11416, 131, 1745, 176, 264
art 1: prohibition 11721
art 3: pre-existing licences 1225
arts 2 and 4: research as back door 1258
CCS: transposition of Directive 233, 250251, 2545
no exemptions 2524
priorities in land use 2512
constitutional objectives 182, 185, 188
energy security 1868
environmental protection 1867
precautionary principle 124, 125, 12831, 1745
fundamental rights 182, 2634
France 1245, 264
Germany 144, 145
geology 1115, 22, 47, 59
earth tremors 158
fracking fluids 19, 70
Germany 139, 140143
groundwater-bearing aquifers 23, 25
subsidiarity 104
geothermal energy 252
Germany 142, 143, 144, 146, 147, 148, 155
depth below surface 142, 143
EIA 65, 155
hydraulic fracturing 20, 21, 142, 144, 155
Germany 6, 108, 109, 112, 1314, 1567, 174, 176
apprehension principle 1467
ban or moratorium 14751, 161
best available techniques (BAT) 133, 152, 153
burden of proof, reversal of 133, 154, 220221
CCS: transposition of Directive 233, 2447, 2545
best available technology 153
quantitative restrictions 248
registry 24950
spatial planning restrictions 2478
constitution, conflict with 133, 1447, 156
constitutional objectives 182, 188
energy security 1856, 1945
environmental protection 185, 1945
Federal Constitutional Court 1945
Je-desto-Formel 198
practical concordance 1978
social state principle (Sozialstaatsprinzip) 186
conventional and unconventional fracking 133, 13944, 156
EIAs for fracking activities 133, 137, 153, 1556
Energiewende412, 48
energy security
import dependency 356
evolution of fracking package 1349
‘flow back’ disposal 26, 72, 213
fracturing fluids 216
hydraulic fracturing 20
mining damage presumption 154
nuclear power 412
opinion polls 1456
polluter pays principle 220221
reserves of shale gas 312
spatial resistance 27
town and country planning 62
(un)conventional fracking 133, 13944
waste from extraction 70
water protection areas 133, 1523
globalization of gas market 4041
grammatical interpretation 114, 11819, 122, 1267
green completion 153
greenhouse gases see climate change
groundwater contamination/well
integrity 235, 26, 50
chemical products: REACH 825
EIA 65, 67
Environmental Liability Directive 87
polluter pays principle 21920
precautionary principle 205, 206, 208, 210, 21113, 214
Water Framework and Groundwater Directives 757, 8081, 989
habitats, natural 28, 87
Germany 152
Habitats Directive 9091
harmonization
maximum or minimum 523, 59, 667
unity of the constitution and 1957, 200, 261
hazardous waste 6970, 723
healing/thermal water springs 1523
Hesse, K. 197
historical interpretation 114, 120121
horizontal drilling 1516
hydraulic fracturing see under technological process of extraction
import dependency 359, 94, 121
independence, energy 38
industrial accidents, major
Seveso I–III Directives 75, 98
information 99, 161, 226, 227, 249
biocidal products 86
chemical products: REACH 83, 84, 99, 153
consultation and prior 215
Germany 153, 249
interconnectors, energy 263
internal market 516, 923, 105
interpretation
grammatical 114, 11819, 122, 1267
historical 114, 120121
systematic 114, 127
teleological 114, 120, 123, 127
Italy 109, 115
Je-desto-Formel 1989
Kristl, K.T. 225, 227
land use 268, 50, 2545
EIA 67
Environmental Liability Directive 88, 100
France: priorities in 2512
Germany: spatial planning restrictions 2478
precautionary principle 205, 206, 208, 21314
spatial resistance 27
UK: offshore CCS 241
shale gas 243
Latvia 36
learning society 176
licences
Hydrocarbons Licensing Directive 923, 10
Lithuania 36
marine spatial planning 243
marketing 94
meta principles 195, 261
practical concordance and optimization 1969, 200, 261
unity of the constitution and harmonization 1957, 200, 261
methodology see trias methodology
migration 45
monitoring 99, 24950, 2545
aquifers 8081
baseline studies 153
biocidal products 86
CCS Directive 2356
climate change/insufficient 22, 2830
Germany 153, 1556
Groundwater Directive 77, 8081
IPPC Directive and IED 69
Mining Waste Directive 72, 73
United Kingdom 159
Water Framework Directive 77, 81
moratoria or bans 23, 1089, 11214
national law and shale gas see separate entry
multi-well pad drilling 16
national courts
Recommendations 101
national law and shale gas 107, 10814, 1746
ban by law: example of France 112, 11416, 131, 1746
art 1: prohibition 11721
art 3: pre-existing licences 1225
arts 2 and 4: research as back door 1258
precautionary principle 12831
constitutional objectives 46
moratorium by law: Germany 112, 1314, 1567, 174, 176
ban or moratorium 14751
conflict with constitution 1447
EIAs for fracking activities 1556
evolution of fracking package 1349
mining damage presumption 154
(un)conventional fracking 13944
water protection and BAT 1523
political moratorium: UK 11213, 15762, 1736
balancing concerns and interests 1634
Northern Ireland 1669
outlawing shale gas extraction 1623
precautionary principle 1646, 1756
Scotland 166, 16973, 174
national parks 152
national security 45
Natura 2000 sites 91, 152
Netherlands 108, 109, 1612, 234
NIMBY and availability of energy supplies 3940
non-governmental organizations (NGOs) 2, 73, 145
Northern Ireland 109, 157, 1669
CCS 240241
nuclear power 412, 166
storage of waste material 65
objectives and shale gas 46, 17983, 200, 260
competing objectives: solutions 1915
conclusions 25962
energy security and environmental protection 188
anchorage of both in EU law 1835, 188
France 1858
Germany 1856, 188
trias of objectives, principles, rules 18891
meta principles 195, 199200, 261
practical concordance and optimization 1969, 200, 261
unity of the constitution and harmonization 1957, 200, 261
offshore
France: CCS 251
grid in North Sea 263
reserves 2434
UK
CCS 239, 2414
shale gas extraction 2434
oil and gas platforms
re-use of abandoned 243
opportunity costs 175, 176
optimization and practical
concordance 1969, 200, 261
ordinary legislative procedure 58
Poland
reserves of shale gas 312
spatial resistance 27
polluter pays principle 202, 21721, 230
pollution control regime: IPPC
Directive and IED 6879, 98
combustion installations 69
practical concordance and
optimization 1969, 200, 261
precautionary principle 111, 1756, 190, 2015, 230
France 1245, 12831, 1745
lower margin 2045
plausibility of potential threats 2058
polluter pays principle and 218
precautionary measures 21417
eco-friendly fracturing fluids 21517, 230
water protection areas 215, 217, 230
rectification at source 229
Rio Declaration 204
United Kingdom 1646, 1746
Northern Ireland 168
upper margin 205
precaution v prevention 20814
preventive principle 130131, 20814, 229
prices 4, 146
affordability 32, 34, 4041
France 121
oil 144
principles and shale gas 2012, 230
polluter pays principle 202, 21721, 230
precautionary principle see separate entry
public participation 2248, 230
rectification at source 2289, 230
sustainable development 2224, 230
trias of objectives, principles, rules 18891
principles, meta 195, 261
practical concordance and optimization 1969, 200, 261
unity of the constitution and harmonization 1957, 200, 261
product standards
fracturing fluids 55
production costs 41
proportionality 103, 1045, 107, 165, 199, 261
public opinion 1, 1456, 1712
public participation 2248, 230, 249
qualified majority vote 58
quasi-constitutional objectives see objectives and shale gas
race to the bottom 102
REACH 76, 815, 99, 153
rectification at source 2289, 230
refugees 45
registry/registration 230
chemical products: REACH 82, 85, 99
Germany: CCS 24950
public participation 227
special groundwater protection areas 77
reliability and availability 32, 3440
import dependency 359
NIMBY 3940
renewable energy 44, 167, 170
research as back door: France 1258
reserves of shale gas 312, 389
offshore 244
Romania 109, 161
rule of law 194, 261
rules and shale gas 2313, 2545
CCS Directive 2348, 2523
transposition of CCS Directive
France 233, 250255
Germany 153, 233, 24450, 2545
United Kingdom 233, 23844, 2545
trias of objectives, principles, rules 18891
Russia 367, 39
Savigny, Friedrich Carl von 114, 161
Scotland 109, 157, 166, 16973, 174
CCS 240241
separation of powers 194, 261
Seveso I–III Directives 75, 98
smart grids 263
soft law 100101, 103
sovereignty clause 567, 92
Spain 109
spatial planning, marine 243
spatial resistance 27, 247
state objectives see objectives and shale gas
strategic environmental assessments (SEAs) 6063, 97
strict liability 87, 88, 100, 220, 221, 230
subsidiarity 1035, 107
subsidies 215
sustainable development 2224, 230
systematic interpretation 114, 127
taxation 215
United Kingdom 159, 160, 166
technological process of extraction 1315, 478
fracturing fluids see separate entry
geology 1115, 22, 47, 59
earth tremors 158
fracking fluids 19, 70
Germany 139, 140143
groundwater-bearing aquifers 23, 25
subsidiarity 104
hydraulic fracturing 1821, 24
flow back 1920, 80
high volume (HVHF) 97, 140
productive potential of well 21
innovative drilling and well integrity 1518
potential energy security effects 3035, 260
affordability 32, 34, 4041
availability and reliability 32, 34, 3540
environmental sustainability 34, 417
socio-economic benefits 34, 413
potential environmental threats 223, 30, 260
climate change 2830, 445
earth tremors 1, 23, 1589, 1645, 173
‘flow back’ disposal 256
groundwater contamination/well integrity issues 235, 26
land use 268
teleological interpretation 114, 120, 123, 127
terminology
shale play 15
trilemma 32
thermal water springs 1523
tight gas 1413, 144, 146, 147
tourism 28
transparency 226, 227
trias methodology 67, 180181, 2545, 259, 2625
objectives, principles, rules 18891
objectives and shale gas see separate entry
principles and shale gas see separate entry
rules and shale gas see separate entry
trilemma 32, 45, 2645
Ukraine 37
unanimity v qualified majority vote 589
unconventional gas 1213
United Kingdom 6, 108, 11213, 15760, 1734, 1756
access rights to land 15960
balancing concerns and interests 1634
Brexit 132, 169, 185
CCS: transposition of Directive 233, 23840, 2545
devolved powers 240241
offshore 2414
earth tremors 1, 23, 1589, 1645, 173
Northern Ireland 109, 157, 1669
CCS 240241
offshore shale gas extraction 2434
outlawing shale gas extraction 1623
precautionary principle 1646, 174, 1756
Northern Ireland 168
Scotland 109, 157, 166, 16973, 174
CCS 240241
taxation 159, 160
trespass 159
United States 1, 2, 22, 31, 47
coal 30
EPA 212
‘flow back’ disposal 213
study: hydraulic fracturing of Coal Bed Methane 21112
flow back 256
fracking fluids 70
gas-exporter 34
groundwater reserves 23, 25
horizontal drilling 16
hydraulic fracturing 20, 47, 1412
high volume (HVHF) 97, 140
monitoring and baseline studies 153
precautionary principle and evidence from 206, 210, 21112, 213
production costs 41
public participation 227
socio-economic development 42
unity of the constitution and harmonization 1957, 200, 261
waste
‘flow back’ disposal see separate entry
hazardous 6970, 723
Mining Waste Directive 7075, 98
nuclear 65
water protection areas 99, 215, 217, 230, 252
Germany 133, 1523
Water Framework Directive 77
water springs, healing/thermal 1523
well integrity 15, 1718
groundwater contamination and see groundwater contamination/well integrity
three casing system 17, 153
World Energy Council 32