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Shale Gas, the Environment and Energy Security

A New Framework for Energy Regulation

Ruven Fleming

This pioneering and in-depth study into the regulation of shale gas extraction examines how changes in the constitutional set-ups of EU Member States over the last 25 years have substantially altered the legal leverage of environmental protection and energy security as state objectives. As well as offering the first formal assessment of the legality of fracking bans and moratoria, Ruven Fleming further proposes a new methodology for the development of legally sound regulation of new energy technologies in the context of the energy transition.
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Table of legislation

A New Framework for Energy Regulation

Ruven Fleming

INTERNATIONAL TREATIES, UN DECISIONS AND AGREEMENTS

1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development222
pr 3222
pr 4222
pr 13217
pr 15190, 204
pr 16217
1998 UNECE Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters (Aarhus Convention), entry into force 30 October 2001225

EUROPEAN LEGISLATION

Treaties

Treaty on the European Union [2012] OJ C 326/135, 181, 190
art 3(3)183, 184, 222
art 3(5)222
art 5(2)51
art 21(2)(d)222
art 21(2)(f)183, 222
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union [2012] OJ C 326/475, 57, 181, 190, 193, 210
art 3(3)–(5)222
art 4(2)(e)183
art 5(3)104
art 5(4)105
art 11183, 184, 222
art 21(2)(d)–(f)222
art 26(1) and (2)51
art 11451, 52, 105
art 114(1)51, 546
art 114(3)54
art 114(3)–(5)183
art 122(1)184
art 140(1)222
arts 191–4183
art 191(1)222
art 191(2)183, 202, 210, 218, 222, 224, 228
art 19251, 52, 54, 55, 56, 57, 59, 66, 103, 105, 106, 107
art 192(2)589
art 192(2)(c)56, 57, 58, 184
art 19352, 53, 253
art 19451, 52, 54, 556, 57, 59, 103, 105, 106, 107, 184
art 194(1)33, 184
art 194(1)(b)184
art 194(2)567, 58, 103, 184
art 194(5)193
art 238(2)58
art 238(3)58
art 28843, 100
art 289(1)58
art 289(2)58
art 294(8)58
art 294(10)58
art 294(13)58

Directives

Council Directive (EC) 78/176 of 20 February 1978 on waste from the titanium dioxide industry as amended by Council Directive 82/883/EEC (further amended by Council Regulation 807/2003/EC), 83/29/EEC and 91/692/EEC (further amended by Council Regulation 1882/2003/EC)54
Council Directive (EC) 82/501 of 24 June 1982 on the major-accident hazards of certain industrial activities [1982] OJ L 230/175, 98
Council Directive (EC) 85/337/EEC of 27 June 1985 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment [1985] OJ L 175/4060, 61
Council Directive (EEC) 91/689 of 12 December 1991 on hazardous waste [1991] OJ L 377/2069, 73
Council Directive (EC) 92/43 of 21 May 1992 on the Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora [1992] OJ L 206/790
art 3–1191
art 6(3)91
art 6(4)91
art 12–1691
art 1291
art 1391
art 1591
art 1691
Council Directive (EC) 94/22 of 30 May 1994 on the conditions for granting and using authorizations for the prospection, exploration and production of hydrocarbons OJ L 164/392, 100
art 1(1)254
art 2(1)92
art 492
art 5(1)92
art 6(2)93
art 6(4)254
Council Directive (EC) 96/82/EC of 9 December 1996 on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances [1997] OJ L 1375
Council Directive (EC) 97/11 of 3 March 1997 amending Directive 85/337/EEC on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment [1997] OJ L 73/561
Council Directive (EC) 98/08 of 16 February 1998 concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market [1998] OJ L 12385
Council Directive (EC) 2000/60 of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy [2000] OJ L 32776, 81, 87, 88, 98, 234
art 176
art 1(d)77
art 2(2)76
art 480
art 4(1)(b)(i)77
art 4(3)(b)80
art 677
art 6(1)77
art 777
art 7(1)–(3)77
art 877
art 8(1)77
art 11(3)(j)7780, 81
art 13(7)80
Annex V, para 2(4)(3)80
Council Directive (EC) 2001/42 of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment [2001] OJ L 197/30
Preamble61
art 160
art 260
art 360, 61
art 3(2)61
art 3(2)(a)61
art 3(3)62
art 4(1)61
art 5(1)60
art 861
Annex I(f)61
Council Directive (EC) 2003/4 of 28 January 2003 on public access to environmental information and repealing Council Directive 90/313/EEC [2003] OJ L 41/26225
Council Directive (EC) 2003/35 of 26 May 2003 providing for public participation in respect of the drawing up of certain plans and programmes relating to the environment and amending with regard to public participation and access to justice Council Directives 85/337/EEC and 96/61/EC [2003] OJ L 156/1761, 225
Council Directive (EC) 2003/55 of 26 June 2003 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas and repealing Directive 98/30/EC [2003] OJ L 176/5743
Council Directive (EC) 2003/87 of 13 October 2003 establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance trading within the Community and amending Council Directive 96/61/EC [2003] OJ L 275/3289, 234
art 289
art 1289
Annex I89, 90
Annex I No 390
Council Directive (EC) 2004/35 of 21 April 2004 on environmental liability with regard to the prevention and remedying of environmental damage [2004] OJ L 143/5686, 99100, 219, 234
Preamble 2220
Preamble 18220
art 187, 220
art 3(1)87
art 3(1)(a)87
art 3(1)(b)87
art 4 No 4221
art 4(5)87
Annex III87
Annex III, para 187
Annex III, para 587
Annex III, para 1387
Council Directive (EC) 2004/67 of 26 April 2004 concerning measures to safeguard security of natural gas supply [2004] OJ L 12746
Council Directive (EC) 2006/21 of 15 March 2006 on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC [2006] OJ L 102/1570, 74, 86, 87, 88, 98
art 171
art 3(1)71
art 4(2)73
art 572
art 5(2)(a)(iii)72
art 5(3)(a)72
art 7(1)71
art 7(2)712
art 7(4)73
art 11(2)73
art 11(3)73
art 1273
art 1587
art 21(3)73
Annex III72
Council Directive (EC) 2006/118 of 12 December 2006 on the protection of groundwater against pollution and deterioration [2006] OJ L 372/1976, 81, 98
art 3767
art 4767
art 677
art 6(a)77
Council Directive (EC) 2008/1 of 15 January 2008 concerning integrated pollution prevention and control [2008] OJ L 24/868, 70, 87, 98, 234
art 168, 69
arts 4–1569
Annex I69
Annex I(1.1)69
Annex I(5.1)69
Council Directive (EC) 2008/50 of 21 May 2008 on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe [2008] OJ L 152/188
Chpt IV89
art 188
art 1388
art 1488
art 19889
art 2389
art 2489
Annex XI88
Annex XII88
Council Directive (EC) 2008/98 of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives [2008] OJ L 312/369, 71, 234
art 3(2)6970
art 41(b)69
Annex III70
Annex III(H6)70
Annex III(H7)70
Council Directive (EC) 2009/29 of 23 April 2009 amending Directive 2003/87/EC so as to improve and extend the greenhouse gas emission allowance trading scheme of the Community [2009] OJ L 140/6389
Council Directive (EC) 2009/31 of 23 April 2009 on the geological storage of carbon dioxide and amending Council Directive 85/337/EEC, European Parliament and Council Directives 2000/60/EC, 2001/80/EC, 2004/35/EC, 2006/12/EC, 2008/1/EC and Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 [2009] OJ L 140/6386, 233, 2346, 245, 250, 251, 253
Preamble 18252
Preamble 19237, 247
Preamble 23251
art 1246
art 1(1)251
art 2(2)252
art 4(1)237, 247
art 5(4)251
art 6(1)251
art 6(3)251
art 10237
art 13236
art 14236
art 15236
art 15(2)236
art 15(3)236
art 15(4)236
art 15(5)236
art 16236
art 19237
art 27(1)237
art 38237
art 39(1)237
Council Directive (EC) 2009/73 of 13 July 2009 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas and repealing Directive 2003/55/EC [2009] OJ L 211/9443, 934
art 1(1)94
art 3(1)43
art 3(2)43
art 3(7)43
art 25(1)43
Council Directive (EC) 2009/147 of 30 November 2009 on the conservation of wild birds [2009] OJ L 20/79091
Council Directive (EC) 2010/75 of 24 November 2010 on industrial emissions (integrated pollution prevention and control) (Recast) [2010] OJ L 334/1768, 70, 98
Preamble68, 69
Chpts II–IV68
art 168
art 1069
arts 11–2069
art 32(2)68
art 33(1)(c)68
art 8168
art 82(2)68
art 82(5)68
art 82(7)–(9)68
Annex I69, 98
Annex I(1.1)69
Annex I(5.1)69
Council Directive (EC) 2011/92 of 13 December 2011 on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment [2012] OJ L 26/161, 97, 234
Preamble66
art 1(1)60, 66
art 1(2)(a)62
art 2(1)62
art 363, 67
art 3(a)67
art 3(b)67
art 4(1)63
art 4(2)63, 65, 66
art 1460
Annex I61, 65, 68, 978
Annex I, 1463
Annex I, 14a64
Annex I, 14b64
Annex II 6165
Annex II(d)61
Annex II(e)62
Annex II(2)(d)65
Annex II(2)(e)66
Annex III65
Council Directive (EU) 2012/18 of 4 July 2012 on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances, amending and subsequently repealing Council Directive 96/82/EC OJ L 197/175, 98
art 175
art 275
art 3(1)75
art 3(10)75
Annex I, Pt 175
Annex I, Pt 275
Annex I, Pt 2, No 1875
Council Directive (EU) 2013/30 of 12 June 2013 on safety of offshore oil and gas operations and amending Directive 2004/35/EC [2013] OJ L 178/6686
Council Directive (EU) 2014/52 of 16 April 2014 amending Directive 2011/92/EU on the assessment of the effects of certain public and private projects on the environment [2014] OJ L 124/160, 64
Annex (2)65

Regulations

Regulation (EC) 1367/2006 of 6 September 2006 on the application of the provisions of the Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters to Community institutions and bodies [2006] OJ L 264/13225
Regulation (EC) 1907/2006 of 18 December 2006 concerning the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH) [2006] OJ L 396/176, 81, 99, 153
art 3(32)82
art 3(34)82
art 6(1)82
art 782
art 7(1)82
art 10(a)82
art 10(b)82
art 14(1)82
art 14(2)82
art 37(4)83
art 37(5)83
art 38(1)83
art 11783
art 118(1)83
art 118(2)83, 86
art 12783
Regulation (EU) 994/2010 of 20 October 2010 concerning measures to safeguard security of gas supply and repealing Council Directive 2004/67/EC [2010] OJ L 295/1467
Preamble 747
Preamble 1447
Regulation (EU) No 528/2012 of 22 May 2012 concerning the making available on the market and use of biocidal products [2012] OJ L 167/185
art 485
art 4(1)85
art 17(1)85
art 19(1)(b)(iv)856
art 65(1) and (2)86
art 65(3)86
art 66(1)86
art 66(2)86
art 66(3)86

Decisions

Council Decision 2000/532/EC of 3 May 2000 replacing Decision 94/3/EC establishing a list of wastes pursuant to Article 1(a) of Council Directive 75/442/EEC on waste and Council Decision 94/904/EC establishing a list of hazardous waste pursuant to Article 1(4) of Council Directive 91/689/EEC on hazardous waste (notified under document number C (2000) 1147) [2000] OJ L 226/371
Council Decision 2002/1600/EC of 22 July 2002 laying down the Sixth Community Environment Action Programme [2002] OJ L 242/1222
Council Decision 2005/370/EC of 17 February 2005 on the conclusion, on behalf of the European Community, of the Convention on access to information, public participation in decision-making and access to justice in environmental matters [2005] OJ L 124/1225

Communications

Commission ‘Communication on the precautionary principle’ (Communication) COM (2000) 1203, 209, 248
Commission ‘Towards a European Strategy for the Security of Energy Supply (Green Paper)’ (Communication) COM (2000) 769 final43
Commission ‘Energy Road Map 2050’ (Communication) COM (2011) 0885 final434
Commission ‘Communication on the exploration and production of hydrocarbons (such as shale gas) using high volume hydraulic fracturing in the EU’ (Communication) COM (2014) 23 final/24, 6, 27, 40, 42, 51, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 107, 179, 226, 227, 231
Commission ‘European Energy Security Strategy’ (Communication) COM(2014) 330 final36, 46

Recommendations

Commission Recommendation 2014/70/EU of 22 January 2014 on minimum principles for the exploration and production of hydrocarbons (such as shale gas) using high-volume hydraulic fracturing [2014] OJ L 39/7250, 95, 106, 107, 226, 231
Recital 596
Recital 798
Recital 996, 102
Recital 11103
pt 196
pt 2(a)179
pt 3.197
pt 3.299
pt 3.397
pt 4100
pt 5100
pt 5.499
pt 699
pt 9.198
pt 9.299
pt 9.399
pt 10.1(a)99
pt 10.1(b)99, 215
pt 10.299, 216
pt 11.299
pt 11.399
pt 1299
pt 12.199
pt 13100
pt 1599
pt 16.1103
pt 16.2103
pt 16.3103
pt 16.4103
Council Recommendation 75/436/Euratom, ECSC, EEC of 3 March 1975 regarding cost allocation and action by public authorities on environmental matters [1975] OJ L 194/1218, 219

Protocols

Protocol (No 2) on the application of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality [2008] OJ L 115/206104
Protocol (No. 26) on services of general interest [2008] OJ C 115/308104

NATIONAL LEGISLATION

Bulgaria

2012 Decision to ban the application of hydraulic technology according to the break-in, study and / or extraction of oil and gas in the Republic of Bulgaria published in (2012) No 7 Official Journal of Bulgaria 13/14 (РЕШЕНИЕ за забрана върху прилагането на технология-та хидравлично разбиване при проучване и/или добив на газ и нефт на територията на Република България published in (2012) БРОЙ 7, ДЪРЖА ВЕНВЕСТНИК 13/14)3, 108, 116

France

1948 Law no. 48-1268 of 17 August 1948187
art 71878
Constitution1234, 186
2004 Charter for the Environment1867
art 2187
art 61245, 187
2004 Charter for the Environment1867
art 2187
art 61245, 187
2012 Environmental Code (Code de l’environnement) (consolidated version)250
art L110-1131
art L229-27251
art L229-27 et sqq250
art L229-28251
art L229-30251
art L229-32251
art L229-37251, 252, 253
art L229-38251
art L512-1250
2011 Law No. 2011-835 of 13 July 2011 to ban the exploration and mining of hydrocarbon liquids and gases by hydraulic fracturing and repealing the exclusive licenses to include projects using this technique (1) (LOI n° 2011-835 du 13 juillet 2011 visant à interdire l’exploration et l’exploitation des mines d’hydrocarbures liquides ou gazeux par fracturation hydraulique et à abroger les permis exclusifs de recherches comportant des projets ayant recours à cette technique (1))108, 115
art 1115, 117, 118, 119, 120121, 124, 131
art 2116, 1258
art 3117, 122, 123, 124, 125
art 3(1)122
art 3(2)122
art 4117, 1258
Decree No. 2012-385 of 21 March 2012 related to the creation of a national commission of guidance, monitoring and evaluation of the techniques used for the exploration and exploitation of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons126

Germany

Energy Industry Act (Gesetz über die Elektrizitäts- und Gasversorgung (Energiewirtschaftsgesetz - EnWG))
art 140
Environmental Impact Assessment Law (Gesetz über die Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung) Annex I155
Environmental Information Act (Umweltinformationsgesetz) (UIG)
art 3(1)249
Federal Act concerning the demonstration and application of technologies for the capture, transport and permanent storage of carbon dioxide (Gesetz zur Demonstration und Anwendung von Technologien zur Abscheidung, zum Transport und zur dauerhaften Speicherung von Kohlendioxid)2456
art 1245, 246
art 2(2) No 2248
art 2(2) No 3248
art 2(5)247
art 6249
art 6(2) No 1249
art 6(2) No 5249
art 6(2) No 6249
art 6(3)249
art 8(5) No 2 b)247
art 13(1) No 4153
Federal Building Code (Baugesetzbuch) (BauGB)
art 262
Federal Mining Law (Bundesberggesetz) (BBergG)1367, 150
art 120154
art 120(1)(2) No 2154
Federal Spatial Planning Law (Raumordnungsgesetz) (ROG)
art 862
art 8(4)247
art 8(5)247
Federal Water Act (Wasserhaushaltsgesetz) (WHG)1367
art 3 No 11153
art 6(1) No 4139
art 9(1) and (2)146
art 9(2) No 3 and 4146
art 13a(1)152
art 13a(2)14950
art 13a(4) No 2, (5), (6)153
art 13a(6)150
art 13a(7)148, 149
art 13b(1) and (2)153
art 13b(1)–(5)153
art 19(2) and (3)136
art 48(1)(1)146
art 48(1)(2)146
art 51 I152
art 51 I No 1152
art 51(2)152
art 52152
art 53(5)152
German Constitution (Grundgesetz) (GG)
art 12145
art 14145
art 20(1)1856
art 20(3)194
art 20a185, 203, 219, 228
art 2862
art 28(1)186, 194
art 72(1)134
art 72(3) No 2 and 5134
art 74 No 24, 29 and 32134
art 74(1) No 11134
German Federal Environment Protection Act (Bundesnaturschutzgesetz)
art 1152
art 23152
art 24152
art 33152
Ordinance on environmental impact assessment in mines (Verordnung über die bergrechtliche Umweltverträglichkeitsprüfung)
art 1 No 2(a)155
art 1 No 8 and 8(a)155
Ordinance for all mining plants (Bergverordnung für alle bergbaulichen Bereiche) (ABBergV)
art 22b155
art 22c156

Italy

Italian Parliament ‘Article 38 No 11-quarter of LAW 11 November 2014, n. 164 Converting, with amendments, of Decree-Law 11 September 2014, n. 133, Urgent measures for the opening of the sites, the construction of public works, the digitization of the country, the bureaucratic simplification, the emergence of the hydrogeological and for the resumption of productive captivity’ (LEGGE 11 novembre 2014, n. 164 Conversione, con modificazioni, del decreto-legge 11 settembre 2014, n. 133, Misure urgenti per l’apertura dei cantieri, la realizzazione delle opere pubbliche, la digitalizzazione del Paese, la semplificazione burocratica, l’emergenza del dissesto idrogeologico e per la ripresa delle cattività produttive)’ available at: http://www.bosettiegatti.eu/info/norme/statali/2014_0164.htm [accessed 14 July 2016]110

Netherlands

2012 Motion of the Boxtel council in public meeting on March 5, 2012 (Motie De raad van de gemeente Boxtel in openbare vergadering bijeen op 5 maart 2012)111, 116

Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland Assembly Deb 6 December 2011, Vol 69 No 62, 42, 110, 116, 166, 167, 168, 169

Spain

Parliament of Cantabria ‘Act of independent region Cantabria to regulate a ban on the hydraulic fracturing technique and unconventional gas exploration and extraction on the territory of Cantabria No 8L/1000-0011’ (‘Ley de Cantabria por la que se regula la prohibición en el territorio de la Comunidad Autónoma de Cantabria de la técnica de fractura hidráulica como técnica de investigación y extracción de gas no convencional, número 8L/1000-0011’) available at: http://www.parlamento-cantabria.es/sites/default/files/bop/1000-0011-7.pdf [accessed 28 April 2014]111, 116
Act No 1/2013111
Act No 7/2013111
Act No 30/2013111

United Kingdom

Crown Estate Act 1961
s 1242
Energy Act 2008239
Pt 1, chpt 3239
s 17(1)242
s 17(2) and (3)242
s 17(3A) and (4)239, 242
Energy Act 2008 (Storage of Carbon Dioxide) (Scotland) Regulations 2011240, 242
Energy Act 2010
Pt 1240
s 1243
Energy Act 2011
s 30A(2) and (3)242
s 107240, 242
s 107(2)242
s 108240, 242
Energy Act 2013
s 58240
Energy Act 2016 240
Infrastructure Act 2015
s 43160
Northern Ireland Act
Sch 2, paras 9 and 18166
Petroleum Act 1998
s 9(2)160
Planning Act 2008239
Scotland Act 1998
Sch 5 Head D169
Sch 5 Head D 2 a)169
Energy Act 2008 (Consequential Modifications) (Offshore Environmental Protection) Order 2010239
The Energy Act 2008 (Storage of Carbon Dioxide) (Scotland) Regulations 2011240, 242
The Storage of Carbon Dioxide (Licensing etc.) Regulations 2010240
Storage of Carbon Dioxide (Licensing etc.) (Scotland) Regulations 2011240
Storage of Carbon Dioxide (Termination of Licences) Regulations 2011240
Storage of Carbon Dioxide (Amendment of the Energy Act 2008 etc.) Regulations 2011240, 242
Storage of Carbon Dioxide (Access to Infrastructure) Regulations 2011240
Storage of Carbon Dioxide (Inspections etc.) Regulations 2012240
Water Environment (Controlled Activities) (Scotland) Regulations 2011170
Preamble170
Water Environment and Water Services (Scotland) Act 2003170
art 20(1)170

JUDGEMENTS

International Arbitral Proceedings

Kingdom of Belgium v Kingdom of the Netherlands, Iron Rhine (“IJZEREN RIJN”) Railway arbitration tribunal award of 24 May 2005, available at: http://www.pca-cpa.org/showpage.asp?pag_id=1155 [accessed 21 June 2012]208

International Court of Justice

Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary v Slovakia), Judgment, I. C. J. Reports 1997, 72223

European Court of Justice

Case 9/56 Meroni & Co., Industrie Metallurgiche, S.p.A. v High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community [1957–1958] ECR 135196
Case 13/57 Wirtschaftsvereinigung v Hohe Behörde [1958] ECR 288196
Case 6/64 Flaminio Costa v E.N.E.L. [1964] ECR 58553
Case 5/73 Balkan-Import-Export v Hauptzollamt Berlin-Packhof [1973] ECR 1091196
Case 29/77 S.A. Roquette Frères v French State — Administration des Douanes [1977] ECR 1835196
Case 139/79 Maizena GmbH and the European Parliament v Council of the European Communities and the European Commission [1980] ECR 3393199
Case 172/82 Syndicat national des fabricants raffineurs d’huile de graissage and others v Groupement d’intérêt économique “Inter-Huiles” and others [1983] ECR 555218
Case 72/83 Campus Oil Ltd v Minister for Industry and Energy [1984] ECR 2727183, 184, 192
de défense des brûleurs d’huiles usagées (ADBHU) [1985] ECR 531183, 193
Case C-45/86 Commission of the European Communities v Council of the European Communities [1987] ECR I-149353
Case 302/86 Commission v Denmark (Danish Bottle case) [1988] ECR 4627183, 193
Case C-331/88 The Queen v Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food and Secretary of State for Health, ex parte: Fedesa and others [1990] ECR I-4023
Case C-322/88 Salvatore Grimaldi v Fonds des maladies professionnelles [1989] ECR I-4407101
Case C-300/89 Commission of the European Communities v Council of the European Communities [1991] ECR I-0286753, 545
Case C-2/90 Commission of the European Communities v Kingdom of Belgium [1992] ECR I-4431193, 229
Case C- 155/91 Commission of the European Communities v Council of the European Communities [1993] ECR I-93953, 55
Case C-393/92 Municipality of Almelo and others v NV Energiebedrijf Ijsselmij [1994] ECR I-1477192
Case C-187/93 European Parliament v Council of the European Union [1994] ECR I-285753, 55
Case C-280/93 Federal Republic of Germany v Council of the European Union- Bananas [1994] ECR I-4973199
Case C-268/94 Portuguese Republic v Council of the European Union [1996] ECR I-617753
Case C-159/94 Commission v France [1997] ECR I-5815192
Case C-180/96 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v Commission of the European Communities [1998] ECR I-2265129, 209
Case C-293/97 The Queen v Secretary of State for the Environment and Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, ex parte H.A. Standley and Others and D.G.D. Metson and Others [1999] ECR I-2603218
Case C- 209/98 Entreprenorforeningens Affalds/Miljosektion (FFAD) v Kobenhavns Kommune [2000] ECR I-3743229
Case C-300/98 and C-392/98 Parfums Christian Dior SA v TUK Consultancy BV und Assco Gerüste GmbH and Rob van Dijk v Wilhelm Layher GmbH & Co. KG and Layher BV [2000] ECR I-1130757
Case C-367/98 Commission v Portugal [2002] ECR I-4731192
Case C-379/98 Preussen Elektra [2001] ECR I-2099193
Case C-44/99 The Queen v Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, ex parte Fishermen’s Organisations and others [1995] ECR I-3115196
Case C-483/99 Commission v France [2002] ECR I-4781192
Case C-503/99 Commission v Belgium [2002] ECR I-4809183, 184, 192
Case C-24/00 Commission of the European Communities v French Republic [2004] ECR I-01277129, 209
Case C-192/01 Commission of the European Communities v Kingdom of Denmark [2003] ECR I-09693129, 209
Case C-236/01 Monsanto Agricoltura Italia Spa and Others v Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri and Others [2003] ECR I-08166129, 209
Case C-281/01 Commission of the European Communities v Council of the European Union [2002] ECR I-1204957
C-176/03 Commission of the European Communities v Council of the European Union [2005] ECR I-787953
Case C-178/03 Commission of the European Communities v European Parliament and Council of the European Union [2006] ECR I-10758
Case C-174/04 Commission v Italy [2005] ECR I-4933184
Case C-155/07 European Parliament v Council of the European Union [208] ECR I-0810358
Case C-188/07 Commune de Mesquer v Total France SA and Total International Ltd [2008] ECR I-4501218, 221
Case C-254/08 Futura Immobiliare srl Hotel Futura and Others v Comune di Casoria [2009] ECR I-06995221
Case C-378/08 Raffinerie Mediterranee (ERG) SpA, Polimeri Europa SpA and Syndial SpA v Ministero dello Sviluppo economico and Others [2010] ECR I-1919218, 220
Joined Cases C-105/12 to C-107/12 Staat der Nederlanden v Essent NV (C-105/12), Essent Nederland BV (C-105/12), Eneco Holding NV (C-106/12), Delta NV (C-107/12) available at EurLex: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/document/document.jsf?text=&docid=143343&pageIndex=0&doclang=EN&mode=lst&dir=&occ=first&part=1&cid=573312 [accessed 23 April 2015]184, 185, 192
Case C-204/12 through to C 208/12 Essent Belgium NV v Vlaamse Reguleringsinstantie voor de Elektriciteits available at EurLex: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/celex.jsf?celex=62012CJ0204&lang1=de&type=TXT&ancre=[accessed 27 October 2014]193
Case C-573/12 Ålands Vindkraft AB v Energimyndigheten available at: http://curia.europa.eu/juris/documents.jsf?num=C-573/12 [accessed 27 October 2014]193

Court of First Instance

Case T-70/99 Alpharma Inc. v Council of the European Union [2002] ECR II-03495129, 204, 205, 209

NATIONAL COURT RULINGS

France

Constitutional Court

‘Decision no. 2013-346 QPC of 11 October 2013’ (n° 2013-346 QPC Société Schuepbach Energy LLC [Interdiction de la fracturation hydraulique pour l’exploration et l’exploitation des hydrocarbures – Abrogation des permis de recherches]) available at: http://www.conseil-constitutionnel.fr/conseil-constitutionnel/english/priority-preliminary-rulings-on-the-issue-of-constitutionality-qpc-/sample-of-decisions-qpc/2013/decision-no-2013-346-qpc-of-11-october-2013.138596.html [accessed 8 November 2013]1235, 264

Germany

German Federal Constitutional Court

BVerfG (2002) 1 BvR 1676/01205
BVerfGE 1, 264145
BVerfGE 14, 2635, 180
BVerfGE 21, 292194
BVerfGE 28, 243196
BVerfGE 30, 29237
BVerfGE 33, 171194
BVerfGE 35, 202197
BVerfGE 39, 1197
BVerfGE 41, 29196
BVerfGE 45, 142145
BVerfGE 49, 89153, 214
BVerfGE 53, 30153, 214
BVerfGE 59, 575, 180
BVerfGE 66, 248186
BVerfGE 77, 240196, 197
BVerfGE 81, 278196, 197, 198
BVerfGE 81, 298196
BVerfGE 83, 130196, 197, 198
BVerfGE 93, 1197
BVerfGE 93, 37114
BVerfGE 102, 15, 180
BVerfGE 113, 88114
BVerfGE 1191, 197
BVerfG (1990) JZ 335186
BVerfG (1998) NJW 1776194
BVerfG (2002) NJW 1638129, 205, 209
BVerfG (2005) DVBl 1458195, 196, 197

German Federal Administrative Court

BVerwGE 55, 250153
BVerwGE 62, 224145
BVerwGE 69, 37204, 209
BVerwGE 69, 43129, 209
BVerwGE 72, 300205
BVerwGE 98, 273186
BVerwG NVwZ 1986, 208129, 209, 214

German Federal Civil Court

BGHZ 23, 157145
BGHZ 30, 338145
BGHZ 67, 190145
BGHZ 81, 21145
BGHZ 92, 34145
BGHZ 52, 257220