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The Harmonisation of National Legal Systems

Strategic Models and Factors

Antonios E. Platsas

This book offers a novel perspective on the leading concept of harmonisation, advocating the mutual benefits and practical utility of harmonised law. Theoretical models and factors for harmonisation are explored in detail. Antonios E. Platsas acknowledges a range of additional factors and presents harmonisation as a widely applicable and useful theory.
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Strategic Models and Factors

Antonios E. Platsas

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Woodiwiss, A. (2003), Making Human Rights Work Globally, London/Portland, OR/Sydney, Glasshouse Press, pp. vii, viii, 1, 5, 221.
Yourow, H.C. (1996), The Margin of Appreciation Doctrine in the Dynamics of European Human Rights Jurisprudence, The Hague/London/Boston, MA, Kluwer Law International, pp. 13, 46, 113.
Zaphiriou, G.A. (1993–1994), ‘Unification and Harmonization of Law Relating to Global and Regional Trading’ Northern Illinois University Law Review 14, 407.
Zedner, L. (1995), ‘In Pursuit of the Vernacular: Comparing Law and Order Discourse in Britain and Germany’, Social and Legal Studies 4, 517, at 519.
Zimmermann, R. (2001), Roman Law, Contemporary Law, European Law: The Civilian Tradition Today, Oxford/Portland, Hart Publishing, p. 129.
Zimmermann, R. (2002), ‘Breach of Contract and Remedies under the New German Law of Obligations’, paper presented at the Centro di studi e ricerche di diritto comparato e straniero, Rome, p. 1.
Zimmermann, R. and S. Whittaker (2000), Good Faith in European Contract Law, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 18–20.
Zweigert, K. (1966), ‘Des solutions identiques par des voies différentes (Quelques observations en matière de droit comparé)’, Revue internationale de droit comparé 18, 5.
Zweigert, K. (1996), ‘Different Paths to Identical Solutions: Some Comments on Comparative Law’ in V. Gessner, A. Hoeland and C. Varga (eds), European Legal Cultures, Aldershot, Dartmouth Publishing Co. Ltd, pp. 160–64.
Zweigert, K. and H. Kötz (1998), An Introduction to Comparative Law, 3rd edn, Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 2, 3, 6–12, 10, 11, 15, 17, 18, 21, 21–4, 24–8, 24–31, 33, 34, 35, 36–40, 37, 40, 41, 42, 64–5, 90, 91, 100, 114, 117, 118, 145, 203–204, 299.

Other Publications

(1966-II) Yearbook of the International Law Commission 211.
Comparative Implementation of EU Directives (I), Insider Dealing and Market Abuse, British Institute of Comparative and International Law, City Research Series No. 8 (December 2005).
Council of the European Communities, ‘Council Directive 92/EEC of 22 September 1992 on Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts (Common Position)’ (1992) 15 Journal of Consumer Policy 473.
EU Food Law Monthly: June 1997, p. 9.
EU Food Law Monthly: January 1999, p. 3.
‘Triumph of the Pygmy State’, The Economist, 6 November 2003.

Official Documentation

EEC/EC/EU
European Commission (1999), The Strategy for Europe’s Internal Market: Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament and the Council (24 November), p. 14.
European Commission (2002), Report on Sheep Intestines and Natural Casings Derived Therefrom in regard to Risks from Animal BSE and TSE in Particular (7 May).
European Commission (2003), Report on the Monitoring and Testing of Ruminants for the Presence of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) in 2002 (July).
European Commission (2004), Report on the Monitoring and Testing of Ruminants for the Presence of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) in the EU in 2003, including the Results of the Survey of Prion Protein Genotypes in Sheep Breeds (May).
European Commission (2010), Green Paper on Policy Options for Progress Towards a European Contract Law for Consumers and Businesses, COM (2010) 348 final, pp. 9–10.
COM(2001) 398 final, [2000] OJ C255/1, 13 September 2000.
European Commission Scientific Steering Committee Complement to SSC Opinion 4-5 on small ruminant materials April 2002 on safe sourcing (with special reference to the safety with regard to BSE risks of sheep intestines and casings) (adopted by the scientific steering committee at its meeting of 12–13 September 2002).
Commission Proposal 1990 [1990] OJ C243/2.
Commission Proposal 1992 [1992] OJ C73/7.
Internal Market Scoreboard No. 18 (December 2008), p. 9.
IP/03/40 (Brussels, 14 January 2003).
IP/04/33 (Brussels, 12 January 2004).
IP/06/1008 (Brussels, 18 July 2006).
Regular Report on Bulgaria’s Progress Towards Accession, COM(2004)657 final.
Report of the Commission on the Implementation of Council Directive93/13/EEC of April 1993 on Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts, COM(2000)248 final (Brussels, 27 April 2000), pp. 7, 30, 35, 35–6.
Resolution (76)47 on unfair contract terms in consumer contracts and appropriate methods of control (Committee of Ministers of the Council on 16 November 1976).
Human Rights Watch
Human Rights World Watch Report 2003 (Iran), pp. 441–50.
Human Rights World Watch Report 2003 (Iraq and Iraqi Kurdistan), pp. 450–9.
Human Rights World Watch Report 2003 (Saudi Arabia), pp. 472–81.
Human Rights World Watch Report 2003 (Syria), pp. 482–8.
Human Rights World Watch Report 2003 (Tunisia), pp. 488–96.
Human Rights World Watch Report 2015.
Ireland
Consultation Paper on Aspects of Intercountry Adoption, LRC CP 43-2007 (March 2007), pp. 8–10, 10–13, 13–15.
Law Reform Commission’s Consultation Paper on the Implementation of the Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-operation in respect of Intercountry Adoption, ISSN 1393-3140 (September 1997), pp. 64, 72, 74.
Report on Aspects of Intercountry Adoption Law, ISSN 1393-3132 (February 2008), pp. 67–8, 68, 69, 69–71, 71.
Report on the Hague Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents, LRC 48-1995, pp. 36–7, 37, 37–39, 39, 40, 70, 73–4, 74, 76–7.
Report on the Hague Convention of the Taking Evidence Abroad in Civil and Commercial Matters, LRC 16-1985, pp. 9, 11, 13, 18, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29–33, 38, 43, 44.
Report on the Hague Convention on Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction and Some Related Matters, LRC 12-1985, p. 24.
Report on the Hague Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial Matters, LRC 22-1987, pp. 9, 11, 13.
Report on the Implementation of the Hague Convention on the Protection of Children and Co-operation in respect of Intercountry Adoption, LRC 58-1998 (June 1998), pp. 6–8, 6–14, 8, 8–10, 10–11, 11–13, 13–14, 14.
Report on the Recognition of Foreign Adoption Decrees, LRC 29-1989, pp. 3, 4, 8, 19, 21.
Report on the UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally ExportedCultural Goods, LRC 55-1997, pp. 3, 8, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 17, 20–1, 26–7, 27–8, 55, 93, 109, 110, 110–11, 111, 115–16.
Report on the United Nations (Vienna) Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, LRC 42-1992, pp. 20–2, 23–5, 30, 76–88, 77–78, 78–80, 81, 82.
Submission on the European Convention on Human Rights Bill 2001 to the Joint Oireachtas Committee on Justice, Equality, Defence and Women’s Rights (June 2002), p. 7.
OECD
Argentine Follow-up Report (September 2010).
Argentine Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, June 2008).
Australian Follow-up Report (August 2008).
Australian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (January 2006).
Australian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, December 1999), pp. 1–2.
Austrian Follow-up Report (March 2008).
Austrian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, February 2006).
Austrian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, December 1999), pp. 1–3.
Belgian Follow-up Report (January 2008).
Belgian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, October 2005).
Belgian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, October 1999), p. 1, 2–15.
Brazilian Follow-up Report (June 2010).
Brazilian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, December 2007).
Brazilian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, September 2004), pp. 2–3.
Bulgarian Follow-up Report (January 2006).
Bulgarian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, June 2003).
Canadian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, March 2004).
Canadian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, 1999), p. 1.
Chilean Follow-up Report (October 2009).
Chilean Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, October 2007).
Chilean Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, September 2004), pp. 1–2.
Colombian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, October 2015).
Commentaries on the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions (DAFFE/IME/BR(97)20, 21 November 1997), pp. 12, 15.
Czech Follow-up Report (February 2009).
Czech Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, October 2006).
Czech Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, 2000), pp. 1–2.
Danish Follow-up Report (July 2008).
Danish Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, June 2006).
Danish Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, December 2000), p. 1.
Dutch Follow-up Report (December 2008).
Dutch Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, June 2006).
Dutch Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, 2001), pp. 1–2.
Estonian Follow-up Report (October 2010).
Estonian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, June 2008).
Estonian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, February 2006), pp. 1–3.
Finnish Follow-up Report (February 2006).
Finnish Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, May 2002).
Finnish Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, July 1999), pp. 1–2.
French Follow-up Report (March 2006).
French Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, January 2004).
French Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, December 2000), pp. 1–4.
German Follow-up Report (December 2005).
German Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, June 2003).
German Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, 1999), p. 1.
Greek Follow-up Report (September 2007).
Greek Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, July 2005).
Greek Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, 1999), pp. 1–2.
Hungarian Follow-up Report (September 2007).
Hungarian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, updated March 2003), pp. 1–3.
Hungarian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1bis, updated February 2004).
Hungarian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, May 2005).
Icelandic Follow-up Report (May 2006).
Icelandic Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, March 2003).
Icelandic Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, October 1999), pp. 1–2.
Irish Follow-up Report (March 2010).
Irish Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, March 2007).
Irish Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, June 2002), pp. 1–2.
Israeli Follow-up Report (March 2012).
Israeli Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, December 2009).
Israeli Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, March 2009), pp. 4–6.
Italian Follow-up Report (March 2007).
Italian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, December 2004).
Italian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, April 2001), pp. 2–3.
Japanese Follow-up Report (October 2007).
Japanese Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, March 2005).
Japanese Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, May 2002), pp. 2–3.
Korean Follow-up Report (March 2007).
Korean Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, November 2004).
Korean Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, 1999), p. 1.
Latvian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, October 2015).
Latvian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, June 2014), pp. 5–6.
Luxembourgian Follow-up Report (August 2006)
Luxembourgian Phase 2bis Report (March 2008)
Luxembourgian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, June 2004).
Luxembourgian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, February 2001), pp. 1–3.
Mexican Follow-up Report (April 2007).
Mexican Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, September 2004).
Mexican Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, 2000), p. 1.
New Zealand Follow-up Report (March 2009).
New Zealand Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, October 2006).
New Zealand Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, May 2002), pp. 2–11.
Norwegian Follow-up Report (March 2007).
Norwegian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, April 2004).
Norwegian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, April 1999), p. 1.
Polish Follow-up Report (October 2009).
Polish Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, January 2007).
Polish Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, February 2001), pp. 1–3.
Portuguese Follow-up Report (October 2009).
Portuguese Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, March 2007).
Portuguese Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, May 2002), pp. 1–4.
Russian Follow-up Report (March 2016).
Russian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, October 2013).
Report by the Committee on International Investment and Multinational Enterprises: Implementation of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation, pp. 3, 3–4.
Slovak Follow-up Report (January 2008).
Slovak Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, November 2005).
Slovak Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, updated February 2003), pp. 1–3.
Slovenian Follow-up Report (October 2009).
Slovenian Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, June 2007).
Slovenian Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1,March 2005), pp. 2–4.
South African Follow-up Report (September 2012).
South African Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, June/July 2010).
Spanish Follow-up Report (March 2008).
Spanish Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, March 2006).
Spanish Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, March 2000), pp. 1–2.
Swedish Follow-up Report (October 2007).
Swedish Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, September 2005).
Swedish Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, October 1999), pp. 1–3.
Swiss Follow-up Report (May 2007).
Swiss Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, February 2005).
Swiss Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, February 2000), pp. 1–2.
Turkish Follow-up Report (March 2010).
Turkish Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, December 2007 and Phase 2bis, June 2009).
Turkish Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, November 2004), pp. 2–4.
UK Follow-up Report (June 2007).
UK Follow-up Report (May 2011).
UK Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, March 2005 and Phase 2bis, October 2008).
UK Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, 1999), p. 1.
UK Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1bis, released 3 March 2003), pp. 1–16.
US Follow-up Report (June 2005).
US Report on the Application of the Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions and the 1997 Recommendation on Combating Bribery in International Business Transactions (Phase 2, October 2002).
US Review of Implementation of the Convention and 1997 Recommendation (Phase 1, 1999), p. 1.
UK
HL Deb. vol. 582 cols. 1275–1276, 3 November 1997.
HL Deb. vol. 582 cols. 1298, 3 November 1997.
Royal Commission on the Constitution, Cmnd 5460 (London, HM Stationery Office, 1973).
What’s New?: An Overview of Changes to Unfair Contract Terms Law in the Consumer Rights Bill (Draft for Consultation) (26 January 2016), p. 14.