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The Harmonisation of National Legal Systems

Strategic Models and Factors

Antonios E. Platsas

This book offers a novel perspective on the leading concept of harmonisation, advocating the mutual benefits and practical utility of harmonised law. Theoretical models and factors for harmonisation are explored in detail. Antonios E. Platsas acknowledges a range of additional factors and presents harmonisation as a widely applicable and useful theory.
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Index

Strategic Models and Factors

Antonios E. Platsas

à la carte law 153
abduction 435
absolute/total model of convergence 11
abstraction 212, 31, 35, 101, 182, 21718, 233
acquis communautaire98, 109, 113, 114, 115
actio quanti minoris155, 160
adoption of legislation 246
affiliated legal system 31, 169, 174, 17587, 204, 247
affinitatis formula31, 166, 169, 174, 17587, 190, 195, 199, 201, 204
anacatataxis30, 92, 93, 945, 958, 99, 100104, 104105, 107, 108, 10911, 112, 114, 115, 116, 1178, 121, 124, 131, 1346, 1378, 139, 141, 1426, 1489, 15055, 156, 158, 16061
anthropocentricity 122
anticipatory breach 154, 1578
applicability of comparative legal solutions 175, 188
approximation 6, 1011, 21, 29, 37, 49, 61, 113, 125, 141, 1723, 177, 180, 209, 210, 211, 233, 234, 236
assimilation, 6, 234, 236
Association of Caribbean States (ACS) 9
Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) 9
Australia 66, 67, 70, 78, 161, 202, 221, 241
Austria 20, 67, 7071, 78, 88, 199, 225, 230
autonomist perception of international law 567
Belgium 19, 66, 67, 71, 75, 78, 889, 110
benefits, system of 54, 646
bottom-up convergence 245
bottom-up harmonisation 21, 37, 55, 245
Brazil 68, 70, 73, 78
Canada 9, 27, 67, 71, 76, 78, 161, 193, 194, 1956, 197, 198, 201, 203, 241
Caribbean Community (CARICOM) 9
Chile 67, 71, 76, 78, 202
China 9, 183
Cicero 10
civilian law 14, 167, 152, 176, 184, 194, 196, 198
common core approach 179, 1845
common law 7, 12, 14, 167, 76, 97, 129, 135, 136, 1378, 141, 1445, 146, 147, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 1589, 160, 161, 177, 180, 1834, 186, 188, 189, 191, 193, 194, 195, 196, 198, 200, 202, 203, 214, 223
comparability 178, 179
comparative law 10, 13, 14, 29, 30, 312, 114, 161, 1634, 1656, 167, 168, 175, 1767, 178, 180, 181, 182, 186, 189, 197, 236, 240
comparative law factor (definition of) 1678
comparison of efficiencies 3
confederative law 22, 3940, 467, 49, 167, 186, 204
contrastive comparative law 166
convergence 8, 18, 172, 216
convergence of expectations 116, 237
convergence of interests 3
convergence of norms 245
convergence of principle 3, 49, 152
convergence of procedure 245
convergence of substance 152, 245
convergence thesis 10, 236
convergent instruments of law 217
correspondence principle 4042
cosmopolitanism 12, 56, 120, 237
Council of Europe 38, 39, 129, 131, 202, 203, 226, 228
creeping convergence 113
cultural convergence 10
culturalism 18, 118, 207
culturalist school of legal transplants 16970
cure of documents 155, 159
cure of goods 155, 159
Cyprus 20, 50, 89, 115, 227
Czechia 67, 71, 78, 89
declarations of incompatibility with ECHR 1356, 137, 138
declarations of unconstitutionality 24, 135, 137, 138
deduction 43
degree of convergence 8, 169
degree of harmonisation 8
democracy 4, 17, 18, 21, 121, 1223, 209, 2212, 224, 228, 241, 242
democratic deficit 389
democratic legitimisation 15, 17, 20
Denmark 19, 50, 66, 67, 71, 789, 89, 198, 200, 230
diffusion 6
direct applicability 11, 22, 88, 90
directive harmonisation 11, 212, 42
directives 7, 1011, 224, 38, 489, 5053, 534, 623, 67, 8691, 97, 98, 101104, 106, 109, 110, 114, 14150, 203, 246
directly relevant system 169, 1878, 18990, 195, 199200
division of labour 335, 357, 163, 211
domestic legal interferences 189, 192
dualism 26, 27, 12930, 153, 193, 246
economic convergence 8, 9, 50, 54, 107, 180
Economic Cooperation Organisation (ECO) 9
Ecuador 201, 202
effectiveness 325, 36, 63, 92, 119, 124, 163, 173, 175, 179, 247
England 22, 56, 89, 144, 148, 153, 154, 156, 157, 160, 171, 183, 1912, 193, 194, 195, 196, 1989, 200, 202, 203, 205, 227, 238
equity 144, 1478, 2078
Estonia 67, 71, 79, 89, 97, 102, 103104, 106, 107108114
Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) 9
European law 37, 39, 46, 48, 114, 131, 234, 235
European Union (EU) 9, 10, 12, 178, 1920, 223, 24, 3840, 489, 5053, 623, 64, 66, 67, 8691, 92, 97, 98, 10715, 139, 1412, 146, 147, 148, 149, 180, 186, 200, 202, 213, 230
exhaustive harmonisation 245
extra-national law 8, 14, 30, 46, 61, 106, 189, 208, 217
families of legal systems 1834.
federal law 24, 3940, 47, 49, 545, 65, 67, 72, 76, 93, 187, 189, 206, 241
Finland 67, 71, 77, 79, 89, 230
fitness of goods under Anglo-Irish law 1567
fitness of goods under the CISG 1567
fixed charge, 193195
floating charge 193, 195
floating hypothec 194, 196
floating lien 195
formal convergence, 1020
formal harmonisation, 2, 246
France, 19, 26, 58, 66, 67, 71, 79, 89, 130, 151, 176, 1778, 183, 189, 1912, 1923, 193, 194, 1956, 197, 198, 200, 201202, 204, 230, 234, 238
frustration 155, 160
fundamental breach 152, 154, 156, 158
general model (definition of) 467
Germany 19, 47, 67, 71, 79, 89, 97, 98, 101102, 103, 104, 106, 114, 147, 151, 158, 183, 187, 1912, 197, 198, 200, 204, 213, 230, 234, 239
global convergence 37, 245
global moral minimum 120
globalisation 14, 19, 172, 182, 207, 215, 217
Goethe 12
good faith in consumer transactions 96, 98, 110, 114, 142, 143, 144, 147, 148, 150
good faith in contract law 98, 114, 144, 147, 148, 150
good faith in insurance law 144, 147
good faith in international law 61, 62, 65, 205
good faith in international sale of goods 84, 154, 155
graduality 8, 16, 17, 105, 113, 11718, 118
Greece 19, 26, 50, 58, 67, 71, 76, 79, 89, 97, 102, 103104, 151, 222, 229, 23033
hard law 21, 60, 83
harmony 6
harmonisation 6
Harmonisation of laws 13, 35, 67, 8, 9, 101, 14, 156, 17, 18, 1920, 21, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 35, 37, 48, 49, 55, 57, 60, 61, 63, 64, 645, 66, 68, 69, 73, 75, 81, 82, 98, 101, 108, 11213, 114, 127, 1412, 142, 145, 163, 175, 208, 211, 212, 216, 217, 234, 236, 237, 2446, 247
harmonised approaches 2021, 22933, 2446
harmonised instruments 7, 2021, 28, 47, 54, 55, 634, 93, 100, 102, 151, 195, 196, 221, 2456
harmonised norm 2, 7, 14, 156, 17, 1920, 212, 30, 31, 334, 35, 45, 467, 479, 54, 55, 57, 58, 5961, 61, 634, 646, 925, 967, 978, 99100, 100101, 103, 105, 106, 163, 166, 1678, 168, 171, 173, 174, 175, 1778, 187, 190, 192, 195, 205206, 207208, 208209, 209, 217, 218, 219, 21920, 229, 2356, 2467, 2478
Hindu law 183
horizontal effect 21, 246
human dignity 239
Human Rights Code 11718, 120, 122, 124, 126
Hungary 50, 67, 71, 79, 89, 200
Iceland 67, 72, 79
ideology of legal convergence 13
ideology of legal harmonisation 35
implementation 6, 7, 8, 9, 11, 12, 223, 28, 2932, 33, 34, 35, 3536, 37, 38, 40, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 4849, 4953, 534, 55, 56, 589, 61, 63, 646, 66, 679, 7073, 74, 75, 76, 778, 826, 8691, 93, 945, 978, 99100, 101104, 104, 105106, 108, 109, 11415, 116, 118, 120, 121, 1234, 127, 1336, 13840, 14150, 1523, 159, 1634, 166, 1678, 1689, 169, 171, 1723, 1745, 176, 1778, 179, 1814, 1867, 1878, 18990, 1912, 1936, 196204, 204, 205206, 206, 206207, 208, 209, 20911, 211, 212, 217, 21822, 222, 22933, 2356, 237, 239, 240, 242, 2445, 246, 247
inconsistent act doctrine 155, 15960
incorporated harmonised norm based on socio-legal considerations 2356
incorporation, international law theory of 246
indirectly relevant system 169, 1878, 189, 199, 199200
induction 425
infusion of law 205
integrative comparative law 166, 240
inter-governmentalism 37, 39, 93, 167, 206
international law 7, 10, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 26, 37, 48, 547, 612, 63, 65, 667, 67, 74, 77, 82, 83, 85, 88, 99, 116, 119, 124, 12930, 15051, 153, 180, 193, 196204, 237, 243, 246
internationalism 19
Ireland 19, 27, 67, 72, 75, 79, 81, 86, 89, 96, 989, 106, 107108, 110, 11112, 114, 12640, 14150, 15061, 167, 176, 1878, 189, 196204, 223, 2269, 239
Israel 67, 72, 79, 198
Italy 19, 50, 67, 70, 79, 89, 90, 198, 200, 204, 239
ius commune11, 1845
Japan 9, 44, 67, 70, 77, 79, 222, 2336, 239
Kerr 10
Koran, 11516, 118, 1212, 123
Korea, Republic of 67, 72, 76, 7980
laboratory state 187, 204
language barrier 31, 189, 1912
Latvia 67, 72, 80
law convergence thesis 13, 10, 211, 236
law merchant 567, 148
legal convergence 1, 45, 79, 1020, 33, 35, 36, 37, 3840, 467, 54, 69, 92, 180, 208, 219
legal culture 4, 14, 15, 18, 31, 478, 57, 59, 11718, 119, 129, 132, 139, 16970, 172, 173, 181, 182, 207, 209, 211, 21214, 215, 218, 226, 228, 233, 234, 236, 239, 24041
legal education 11011, 114
legal formants 179
legal irritants 11, 104, 108, 1434, 146, 172
legal mentality 92, 96, 97, 98, 114, 115, 118, 1267, 131, 144, 146, 151, 156, 158, 159, 166, 179, 182, 183, 243
legal sociology 1634, 208, 233
legal tradition 12, 16, 57, 60, 97, 108, 118, 120, 122, 126, 139, 145, 146, 151, 153, 154, 158, 161, 179, 182, 183, 184, 188, 1956, 204, 212, 214, 234, 238
legal transplants 6, 278, 168, 16974, 179, 205, 222
legal-cultural fusionism 15
Legrand 14, 15, 16, 18, 17071, 181, 182, 196, 212, 214
lex mercatoria55, 56, 57
Lithuania 50, 89
Luxembourg 19, 50, 67, 72, 80, 89
macroconstitutions 97
Malta 81, 89, 115, 151
Markesinis 1011, 12, 13, 16, 478, 105, 184
margin of appreciation, 58, 64, 131, 209, 218, 2212, 2229, 233, 237, 244
margin of convergence 235, 236
margin of divergence 236
margin of implementation 235, 236
margin of transposition 235, 236
maximum implementation 2456
Meiji Restoration 233, 234
Mexico 9, 67, 72, 76, 80
microconstitution 97
minimum harmonisation 241, 245
minimum implementation 2456
misrepresentation 154, 156
model laws 7, 22, 245, 68, 108, 190
modifiability of models and factors 30, 42, 247
monism 26, 27, 193, 246
Montesquieu 205, 21213
Muslim law 98, 11526, 183
mute dimension of the law 179
Nachfrist152, 154, 158
Netherlands, the 19, 26, 35, 63, 67, 72, 76, 79, 89, 106, 114, 198, 200
neutral law 14, 151
New Zealand, 66, 67, 72, 80, 201202, 203
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 9
Northern Ireland 89, 202, 227
Norway 66, 67, 72, 80, 198
objectification 41
optional harmonisation 245
optionality of models and factors 31, 248
pacta sunt servanda54, 60, 613, 64, 74, 83, 88, 89
parliamentary sovereignty 112, 137
partial harmonisation 245
path dependency 179
perfect point of convergence 2356
Plato 34, 10, 1314, 34
Platonic One 13
Poland 67, 72, 80, 89
political convergence 8, 9, 18
political globalisation 19
political will 1920, 45, 64, 105, 161, 171
polycentricity 228
Portugal 50, 67, 72, 76, 80, 81, 89, 151, 197, 198, 204
positivism 559, 69, 82, 87, 129, 136, 138, 166, 214
positivist perception of international law 567
practical function of the norm 2356
praesumptio similitudinis185, 21516
preliminary reference procedure 87
procedural harmonisation 21
propositional logic 425, 55, 100, 189
quantification of damages 155
Quebec 189, 1936, 199
rationalisation 43, 44
rationalism 41
reasonable man/reasonableness 144, 147, 156, 157
reasoning 424, 45, 139, 1678, 226
regional convergence 37, 389, 180, 245
regulations 7, 1011, 214, 38, 48, 49, 64, 67, 68, 8690, 108, 109, 11415, 190, 203,
regulatory harmonisation 1112, 212, 42
relative/partial model of convergence 11
relativism 11718, 11920, 212, 222, 23643
Roman law 18, 191
Rousseau 211, 21213, 216
rule of law 9, 20
Russia 68, 73, 80, 183, 221
sanctions, system of, 54, 646
Saudi Arabia, 120, 123, 200
Scotland 89, 147, 188, 191, 202, 232
Shari’a 116, 118, 12022, 125
Slovakia 67, 723, 80, 89
Slovenia 50, 67, 73, 80, 89
Smith, 335, 367
social contract 211, 21617
socio-legal factor (definition of), 206
socio-legal margin 235
Southern Common Market (MERCOSUR) 9
Spain 1920, 66, 67, 73, 80, 89, 200, 204, 230
special arrangements 44, 93, 945, 99, 100, 105106, 114, 139, 140, 149, 161, 168
statement of compatibility with ECHR 135, 138
substantive harmonisation 21
supranational law 14, 29, 38, 39, 82, 93, 167, 206, 246
supranationalism 1819, 39,
Sweden 67, 73, 8081, 89, 188, 198, 201202, 230
Switzerland 3840, 467, 67, 73, 81, 167, 1867, 197, 199, 203204, 223, 226
Savigny 213
Scandinavia 183
soft law 21, 26, 60
sovereignty 8, 24, 26, 32, 37, 38, 39, 567, 103, 112
specific model (definition of) 93
strategic considerations 28, 40, 45, 92, 100, 103, 168, 247
substantive harmonisation 21
supervisory authority 534, 248
system’s socio-legal dimension 235
technocracy 1, 2, 15, 20, 21, 66, 174
termination of contract 158
theocentricity 122
top-down convergence 15, 55, 110, 245
top-down harmonisation 55, 110, 245
transferist school of legal transplants 16970
transformation, international law theory of 246
transfusion of law 204
transnational law 56, 246
transposed norm 235
transposition 12, 20, 22, 23, 28, 2930, 31, 34, 33, 37, 45, 5053, 53, 55, 578, 59, 61, 634, 645, 66, 71, 72, 73, 745, 77, 778, 87, 88, 90, 91, 93, 97, 98, 99, 102, 103, 104, 105106, 114, 131, 1334, 146, 14950, 153, 163, 1712, 178, 190, 209, 218, 219, 220, 233, 2356, 240, 246
treaties 11, 18, 19, 22, 256, 27, 30, 48, 49, 53, 55, 56, 58, 60, 61, 62, 65, 66, 68, 74, 81, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 90, 92, 98, 108109, 113, 11526, 190, 193, 203, 207, 237
Treaty of Westphalia 56, 207
Turkey 58, 67, 73, 81, 231
uniform laws 3, 7, 25, 40, 48, 56
uniformity 6, 8, 11, 21, 25, 28, 29, 489, 634, 69, 745, 77, 834, 85, 215
unifying hypothesis 32, 92, 100, 163, 165, 173, 206
Union of South American Nations (USAN) 9
United Kingdom 11, 12, 17, 19, 22, 23, 27, 30, 73, 76, 81, 89, 99, 106, 107, 112, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 1337, 138, 13940, 143, 1449, 15061, 167, 171, 175, 176, 184, 187, 191, 192, 193, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 201, 203, 205, 217, 224, 226, 227, 229, 238
United Nations 7, 9, 26, 53, 57, 67, 81, 201, 202
United States 9, 24, 25, 27, 3840, 467, 58, 65, 67, 73, 77, 94, 151, 152, 160, 161, 166, 167, 1867, 189, 1945, 1956, 198, 200, 201, 203, 204, 214, 238, 239, 2412
universal securities 1936
universalism 11718, 119, 120, 215, 222, 23643
vertical effect 21, 246
Wales 89, 200, 202, 227,
Watson 18, 27, 169, 17072, 173, 182
Western law 119, 122, 125, 179, 183, 184, 185, 188, 198, 202, 222, 233, 234, 236, 241
Western liberal democracy 122
Westernisation 125, 234
World law 25, 165, 246