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The Harmonisation of National Legal Systems

Strategic Models and Factors

Antonios E. Platsas

This book offers a novel perspective on the leading concept of harmonisation, advocating the mutual benefits and practical utility of harmonised law. Theoretical models and factors for harmonisation are explored in detail. Antonios E. Platsas acknowledges a range of additional factors and presents harmonisation as a widely applicable and useful theory.
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Table of legislation

Strategic Models and Factors

Antonios E. Platsas

NATIONAL LEVEL

Australia
Criminal Code Act 1995, s. 70.1, 70.2 and 70.570
Austria
BGBl. I 27/2000: Free Movement and Establishment of European Lawyers in Austria and Amendment to the Lawyers Regulation 88
Constitution of 1929/1945, Article 9(2) 20
Penal Code, ss. 307, 3087071
Belgium
Bribery Prevention Act of 10 February 1999 71
Constitution of 1831, Article 25bis (Article 34 of the Consolidated Constitution) 19
Criminal Code, Articles 246–25271
Law aimed at making legal practice and establishment in Belgium easier for lawyers from another Member State of the European Union889
Brazil
Law No. 10,647 of 11 June 2002 70
Penal Code
Chapter II-A 70
Article 31770
Canada
Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act 1998 71
Criminal Code, RSC 1985, c. C-46, s. 121(1)(a) (as amended)76
Cultural Property Import and Export Act 1977203
Quebec Civil Code 1994
Articles 2666194
2712 et seq.194
2715 et seq.194
27551956
Chile
Civil Code of 1855202
Criminal Code
Article 250bisA71, 76
Article 250bisB76
Law No. 19,829 of 30 September 200276
Cyprus
No. 180(I) of 2002 Act amending the Lawyers Act89
Czechia
Act No. 85/1996 Coll., on Advocacy, as amended by Act No. 210/1999 Coll., 120/2001 Coll., 6/2002 Coll. and 228/2002 Coll. 89
Criminal Code, ss. 89, 161, 162a1
Denmark
Act No. 22871
Act No. 231 of 4 April 2000, with changes to the Civil Code and Regulation No. 276 of 14 April 2000, regarding the establishment of EU lawyers in Denmark issued by the Justice Department89
Constitutional Act 1953, Article 20 19
Ecuador
Civil Code of 1860202
Estonia
Bar Association Act89
Estonian Penal Code, ss. 297, 29871
Finland
Lawyers’ Act, ss. 5b, 3, 8, 989
Penal Code, ss. 13, 14, 2071
France
Act No. 2000-595 of 30 June 200071
Act No. 2004-130 of 11/02/2004 reforming the status of certain legal professions, published in OJ No. 36 of 12 February 2004, 2847 89
Civil Code1778, 1923, 202
Constitution of 1958, Articles 55, 88 19
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789238
Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of the Year I of 1793238
Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man and the Citizen 1795238
Germany
Act on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions 199871
Constitution of 1949, Article 2319
Civil Code147
Article 242 98
EuRAG (European Lawyers Law) of 9 March 2000, published in Bundesgesetzblatt 2000 Teil I No. 9, in Bonn on 13 March 2000 89
Greece
Law 2251/1994103
Law 2656/199871, 76
Law 3042/2002103
Explanatory Note on the Draft of Law 3043/2002
ch. A, 3103
ch. A, 4103
Civil Code103
Code of Civil Procedure103
Constitution of 1975, Article 28-I, II and III 19
Criminal Code, Articles 235–23871
Presidential Decree no. 152/2000 of 23 May 200089
Hungary
Criminal Code, ss. 258/B and F71
Law No. XI of 2003 on the amendment of Law No. XI of 1998 on attorneys89
Iceland
Act No. 147/1998 72
General Penal Code, Article 10972
Ireland
Constitution of 1937
Articles 12–14, 15–27, 28, 28A132
Article 29.419
Articles 29.4.3, 29.4.4, 29.4.5, 29.4.6, 29.4.7, 29.4.8, 29.4.9, 29.4.10,111
Articles 29.5.1, 29.6
Articles 34.4.5, 40–44137
Article 41129
Article 46.2111
Ethics in Public Office Act 199575
European Communities Act 1972 (as amended), s. 2111
European Communities (Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts) Regulations 1995, SI 27/95 of 1 February 1995145
European Communities (Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts) (Amendment) Regulations 2000, SI 307/2000145, 149
European Communities (Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts) (Amendment) Regulations 2013, SI 160/2013145, 149
European Convention on Human Rights Act 2003
ss. 1(1)135
2(1)133, 135
3(1)133, 135
5(1)136
Human Rights Commission Act 2000 s. 8(c)140
Law Reform Commission Act 1975
s. 3(1)197
s. 4(3)(b)197
Prevention of Corruption Act of 1906, s. 175
Prevention of Corruption Act of 191675
Prevention of Corruption (Amendment) Act 2001 (no. 27)72, 75
Public Bodies Corrupt Practices Act 1889 75
Radio and Television Act 1988, s. 10(3)226
Sale of Goods Act 1893 (as amended)
s. 14(1)157
s. 28157, 158
s. 35155, 159
s. 53(5)160
Sale of Goods and Supply of Services Act 1980, s. 10157
Solicitors (Amendment) Act 200289
Statutory Instrument No. 732 of 200389
Israel
Penal Code of 1977, Article 291A72
Italy
Constitution of 1947, Article 1119
Criminal Code, Articles 321, 322, 322bis(2) 70
Law no. 526, Decree of 2 February 2001, Article 19 89
Japan
Civil Code236
Unfair Competition Prevention Law, Articles 8, 10bis(1) 70
Korea, Republic of
Act on Preventing Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions 199972, 76
Latvia
Criminal Law, ss. 316, 32372
Lithuania
Law on supplementing articles 7 and 18 and adding Chapter 10 to the Law on the Bar of 6 December 200189
Luxembourg
Law of 15 January 2001 72
Law of 13 November 200289
Malta
Law No. 273 of 2002: Mutual Recognition of Qualifications of Legal Profession Regulations89
Mexico
Federal Penal Code, Article 222bis72, 76
the Netherlands
Constitution of 1983, Article 9419
Extradition Act, Article 51a72
Law of 13 July 2002 89
Penal Code, Articles 177, 177a, 178a72
New Zealand
Crimes Act 1961, ss. 105C, D, E72
Crimes (Bribery of Foreign Public Officials) Amendment Act 200172
Norway
Penal Code, s. 128 72
Poland
Act of 5 July 2002 on the provision by foreign lawyers of legal assistance in the Republic of Poland89
Penal Code, Article 22972
Portugal
Criminal Code 72
Decree Law no. 28/84, Article 41-A72, 76
Law no. 34/8772
Law no. 13/200176
Law 80/2001 of 20 July 2001 89
Law no. 108/2001 72
Regulation for the Registration of Lawyers from Other Member States of the European Union89
Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia’s Reservation to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, 7 September 2000123
Slovakia
Act No. 586/2003 Coll. on Advocacy89
Criminal Code, s. 161b, c 72–3
Law on Banks 73
Slovenia
Act amending the Attorney’s Act, No. 24-1455/200189
Penal Code, Articles 126, 26873
Spain
Constitution of 1978, Article 931920
Organic Act 3/2000 of 11 January 200073
Penal Code, Article 445bis73
Royal Decree 936/2001 of 3 August 200189
Sweden
Code of Judicial Procedure, ch. 8, para. 1 et seq.89
Penal Code73
Switzerland
Criminal Code, Articles 322ter to 322octies73
Federal Constitution of 2000, Article 46(2) 40
Law on International Private Law203
Turkey
Amendment to the Law regarding Prevention of Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions No. 4782 of 2 January 200373
Turkish Criminal Code (Law no. 765 of 1 March 1926), Articles 4, 211, 220 73
United Kingdom
Anti-Terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001, Part 12 76
Bill of Rights 1689 238
Civil Contingencies Act 2004132
Constitutional Reform Act 2005132
Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010132
Consumer Rights Act 2015106, 145, 150
Crime (Sentences) Act 1997, s. 29 (repealed by Criminal Justice Act 2003, ss. 303(b)(i), 332 and Sch. 37, Part 8)133
Criminal Jurisdiction Act 1975 198
European Communities Act 1972 (as amended)19, 112, 132
s. 2(1)112
European Communities (Lawyer’s Practice) Regulations 2000, SI 2000/1119, Part V (England/Wales) 89
European Communities (Lawyer’s Practice) Regulations 2000, SI 2000/121 (Northern Ireland) 89
European Communities (Lawyer’s Practice) Regulations 2000, SI 2000/121 (Scotland) 89
Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011132
Housing Act 1996, s. 185(4) (as amended by Housing and Regeneration Act 2008, Sch. 15)134
Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 1990, s. 28(6)(b) (as amended by Human Fertilisation and Embryology (Deceased Fathers) Act 2003)134
Habeas Corpus Act 1679238
Human Rights Act 1998
s. 2(1)135
s. 3(1)135
s. 4(2)136
s. 6(1)133
s. 19(1)133
Immigration and Asylum Act 1999, Penalty Scheme contained in Part II (as amended by Nationality
Immigration and Asylum Act 2002, s. 125, Sch. 8)133
Income and Corporation Taxes Act 1988, s. 262 (repealed by virtue of Finance Act 1999, ss. 34(1), 139 and Sch. 20)133
Law Commissions Act 1965 (as amended), s. 3(1)(f) 140, 197
Magna Carta 1215238
Matrimonial Causes Act 1973, s. 11(c) (as amended by Gender Recognition Act 2004)134
Mental Health Act 1983
ss. 26(1), 29 (as amended by the Mental Health Act 2007, ss. 23–26)134
ss. 72 and 73 (as amended by Mental Health Act (Remedial) Order 2001)133
s. 74 (as amended by way of Criminal Justice Act 2003, s. 295)1334
Offences Against the Person Act 1861, s. 62 (repealed by the Sexual Offences Act 2003, ss. 139, 140, Sch. 6 paragraph 4 and Sch. 7)133
Petition of Rights 1628238
Prevention of Corruption Acts 1889–190676
Protection of Trading Act 1980 198
Sale of Goods Act 1979 (as amended)
s. 14(1)157
s. 23144
s. 24144
s. 25(1)144
s. 28157
s. 35(1)(b)155
s. 47(2)144
s. 53(3)160
s. 61(3)144
Sale of Goods (Amendment) Act 1994203
Succession to the Crown Act 2013132
Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977146, 150
Unfair Contract Terms in Consumer Regulations 1994, SI 1994/3159145, 146
Unfair Contract Terms in Consumer Regulations 1999, SI 1999/2083145, 146, 148, 149, 150
United States
Bill of Rights 1791238
Constitution of 1781
Article I(1) 24
Article II(2), cl 127
Amendment X24
Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act 1983203
Declaration of Independence 1776238
Delaware Declaration of Rights 1776238
Foreign Assistance Act 1961, s. 116 (as amended) (22 USC 2151n) 65
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act 1977 (as amended)73, 77
Georgia Constitution 1777 238
International Financial Institutions Act 1977, s. 701 (22 USC 262d) 65
Massachusetts Constitution 1780238
Maryland Declaration of Rights 1776238
New Jersey Constitution 1776238
New York Constitution 1777238
North Carolina Constitution 1776238
Pennsylvania Constitution 1776238
South Carolina Constitution 1776238
Uniform Commercial Code of 1952 (as amended)
Articles I, s. 1–102(2)(a), (c) 25
Article 9194
Virginia Declaration of Rights 1776238

REGIONAL LEVEL

Americas
Havana Convention on Treaties 1928, Article 1061
Asia
ASEAN Declaration 19679
Council of Europe
Convention on Laundering, Search, Seizure and Confiscation from the Proceeds of Crime 1990203
European Convention on Human Rights 1950
Article 8129, 134, 227
Articles 8–11222
Article 1058, 223, 224, 226, 227, 228
Article 10(1)224, 225
Article 10(2)224
Article 12134
Article 14134, 227
Article 15222
European Cultural Convention 1954203
EEC/EC/EU
Commission Decision 97/534/EC of 30 July 1997 [1997]
Official Journal L216/95–98, 8 August 1997222, 229, 230, 232, 233
Article 1(b)230, 231, 232
Article 2230
Commission Decision 2000/418/EC of 29 June 2000 regulating the use of material presenting risks as regards transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and amending Decision 94/474/EC (notified under Doc. no. C(2000)1735) [2000] OJ L158/76–82, 30 June 2000233
Article 10232
Consolidated Version of the Treaty Establishing the European Community
Article 22665
Article 22766
Articles 228(1) and (2) 65
Articles 254(1) and (2) 65
Council Decision 98/745/EC of 17 December 1998 amending Commission Decision 97/534/EC on the prohibition of the use of material presenting risks as regards transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [1998] OJ L358/113, 31 December 1998232
Council Decision 1999/881/EC of 14 December 1999 amending Commission Decision 97/534/EC on the prohibition of the use of material presenting risks as regards transmissible spongiform encephalopathies [1999] OJ L331/78, 23 December 1999232
Council Directive 93/7/EEC on the return of cultural goods unlawfully removed from the territory of a Member State203
Council Directive 93/13/EEC of 5 April 1993
[1993] OJ L95/2911, 86, 98, 106, 110, 114, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 148, 149, 150, 154, 246
Article 1(1)141
Articles 1(2), 3(1), 4(1)142
Article 7(2)149
Council Directive 98/5/EC on Lawyers’ Home Title
[1998] OJ L77/3686, 87, 90
Articles 1, 14, 1587
Article 1687, 90
Article 1787
Council Regulation (EC) 555/2000 of 13 March 2000 on the Implementation of Operations in the Framework of the Pre-accession Strategy for the Republic of Cyprus and the Republic of Malta, [2000] OJ L68/3, 16 March 2000115
Council Regulation (EC) 622/98 of 16 March 1998 on Assistance to the Applicant States in the Framework of the Pre-accession Strategy, and in particular on the Establishment of Accession Partnerships, [1998] OJ L85/1, 20 March 1998114
Council Regulation (EC) 1266/1999 of 21 June 1999 on Coordinating Aid to the Applicant Countries in the Framework of the Pre-accession Strategy and Amending Regulation (EEC) 3906/89, [1999] OJ L161/8, 26 June 1999115
Council Regulation (EC) 17/62 of 6 February 196286
Council Regulation (EC) 3911/92 on the Export of Cultural Goods203
Council Regulation (EC) on the Implementation of Rules on Competition 1/2003
[2003] OJ L1/186, 87, 90
Article 1690
Article 4586
Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations 1980203
Directive 77/249/EEC [1977] OJ L78/17 87
Directive 89/48/EEC [1989] OJ L19/16 87
Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 May 1999 on Certain Aspects of the Sale of Consumer Goods and Associated Guarantees97, 101, 102, 103, 104, 246
Directive 2005/29 [2005] OJ L149/22 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 11 May 2005 concerning unfair business-to-consumer commercial practices in the internal market and amending Council Directive 84/450/EEC, Directives 97/7/EC, 98/27/EC and 2002/65/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Regulation (EC) No 2006/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council (‘Unfair Commercial Practices Directive’)246
European Agreement with Bulgaria, [1994] OJ L358/3– 222, 31 December 1994, Article 69 113
Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community (Treaty of Rome 1957/1958)
Article 1088
Articles 81, 82 86
Article 22665
Article 22766
Article 22891
Articles 228(1), 228(2) 65
Articles 230, 23487
Article 24989
Articles 254(1), 254(2) 65
Treaty on European Union
Article 4(3) 62, 63, 88
Article 50 108, 112, 139
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
Article 2(1)109
Article 3109, 113
Articles 4, 5113
Article 4622, 23
Article 5223
Articles 53, 59 23
Articles 101, 102,86, 87
Article 109 22
Article 11523
Article 13222
Article 25966
Articles 260(1), 260(2) 91
Articles 263, 267, 87
Article 28822, 88, 90
North America
North American Free Trade Agreement 19949

INTERNATIONAL LEVEL

Allied Forces
Declaration of London 1943203
Commonwealth
Scheme for the Protection of Cultural Heritage within the Commonwealth 1993203
Hague Conference on Private International Law
Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents 1961200
Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law and Recognition of Decrees Relating to Adoptions 1965199
Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption 1993 200–201, 202
Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction 1980, Article 42197
Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters 1965198
Convention on the Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil and Commercial Matters 1970197
International Association of Athletics Federations
Competition Rules 2016–2017, Rule 125.2174
Koran
Verse 2:228123
League of Nations
Covenant 1919, Preamble 61
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Convention on Combating Bribery 1997/1999
DAFFE/IME/BR(97)2067, 69, 74, 75, 77, 78
Preamble 75
Article 1 74
Article 1(1) 77
Article 5 74
Article 9(3) 73
Article 13(1) 69
UNCITRAL
Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 25
UNIDROIT
Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Goods 1995202203
Principles of International Commercial Contracts25
United Nations
Charter 19459, 26, 57
Article 2(2) 1
Article 1358
Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment 1984117, 121
Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) 1980/198853, 58, 67, 81-6, 15061, 199
Article 1 83
Article 6156
Article 7(1)84, 154, 155, 156
Article 25154, 156
Article 26156
Article 35(2)(b)157
Article 37155
Article 47(1)154
Article 48155
Article 49156
Article 50155
Article 63(1)154
Article 64156
Articles 71(1), 71(1)(a) and (b),
72(2)157
Articles 74–77156
Articles 74–7858
Article 82(2)155
Article 9183
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women 1979117, 121, 1234
Article 1123
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination 1965117, 121
Convention on the Law of the Sea 198255
Conventions on the Law of the Sea 1958 55
Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Cultural Property 1970203
Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989116, 121, 201
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966117, 121
Article 6(2)241
Article 6(5)242
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966117, 121
General Assembly Resolution 2205 (XXI), UN GAOR, 21st Session, Supp. No. 16, UN Doc. A/6594 (17 December 1966), Part I7
Protocol to the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict 1954203
Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, General Assembly Resolution 217 A (III) of 10 December 1948116, 117, 119, 23643
Article 2118
Vienna Convention on the Law of the Treaties 1969/198055
Preamble 62
Articles 11, 18 60
Article 26 61–2, 74, 83
Article 60(2)(a)
World Anti-Doping Agency
World Anti-Doping Code 200348
Prohibited List (of Substances and Methods) 200648
Miscellaneous International Law Instruments
Treaty of Westphalia 164856, 207

MODEL LAWS (NATIONAL, REGIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL)

US Model Employment Termination Act of 1991 24
Principles of European Contract Law
1994104
2004104
UNIDROIT Principles25, 58, 104