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Just Interests

Victims, Citizens and the Potential for Justice

Robyn Holder

Just Interests: Victims, Citizens and the Potential for Justice contributes to extended conversations about the idea of justice – who has it, who doesn’t and what it means in the everyday setting of criminal justice. It challenges the usual representation of people victimized by violence only as victims, and re-positions them as members of a political community. Departing from conventional approaches that see victims as a problem for law to contain, Robyn Holder draws on democratic principles of inclusion and deliberation to argue for the unique opportunity of criminal justice to enlist the capacity of citizens to rise to the demands of justice in their ordinary lives.
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Index

Robyn Holder

abuse 114–15, 136, 199

acceptance, outcomes 159–62, 164–5, 169, 177, 216, 226

accommodation 60, 181, 208

accountability 22, 24, 42, 104–5, 128–9, 138–9, 141, 148

formal 203

justice as 42

offender 143, 144, 147, 203, 209, 214, 218

acknowledgement 9, 95, 204, 208, 214

symbolic 125, 151

ACT, see Australian Capital Territory

adjudication 183, 186, 195

formal 193, 204

adolescents 124, 166

advocacy 6, 18, 20, 93, 156, 167, 184

agency 46, 127, 177, 183, 189, 205, 213, 216

personal 106–7, 112, 131

agents 4, 48, 50, 73

aggregation 65

agitation 6, 187

alcohol 120, 138, 142–3

alienation 3, 6, 185

ambivalence 17, 67, 111, 136, 146–7

apologies 137, 142, 199, 218

approaches to justice 27–51

appropriateness 147–8, 170–71, 177, 217

Arnstein, Sherry 183, 205

arrest 30, 81, 116, 135–6, 139, 170, 193, 198

assailants 105, 115, 119–20, 134, 136, 142, 197, 200

assault 1, 15, 70–71, 116, 119, 141–2, 172, 199

acquaintance or stranger 114

domestic, see domestic assault

non-domestic, see non-domestic assault

physical 115

sexual 15, 77, 116

victims 61, 116

assessments 7, 31, 117–19, 151–3, 160–62, 168, 177–8, 216

of justice 31, 150

negative 161

positive 125, 161–2

of satisfaction 25, 144

attitudes 21, 46, 56, 108–9, 213

Australia 3, 5, 7, 13–14, 77, 82–3, 87–8, 125

convict heritage 87

democracy 21, 109

public prosecution 86–8

Australian Capital Territory (ACT) 14–16, 106, 115–16, 122, 172, 223

Australians 14, 75, 78, 91, 100, 106, 109–10, 157

Aboriginal 106

ordinary 105, 114

autonomy 47, 184

institutional 54

availability of law 53, 60, 67, 72, 100

avoidance 60, 64, 112

bail 81, 170

hearings 15

barriers 3, 70, 133, 187

behaviour 63–4, 135–6, 138–9, 142–3, 144, 148–9, 171, 173

beliefs 18, 21, 40, 42, 46, 108–10, 112, 213

bias 41, 107

Black, Donald 62

blamelessness 118–19

blaming 64, 102, 200

Blumer, Herbert 45, 72

boundaries 4, 15, 24, 43, 56, 103, 137, 179

porous 60

boundary setting 24, 212

Bourdieu, Pierre 23, 75, 97, 99, 212

Braithwaite, Valerie 109–10, 113

British Crime Survey 70, 158

Bumiller, Kristin 102

burglary victims 61

Canada 16, 76

case management 154

centralization 5, 83, 85, 88, 90

change 9, 43, 73, 139, 142–3, 212, 214–15, 220

charges 15, 81, 135–6, 139–40, 144–6, 154, 191–2, 223

criminal 15, 105, 117, 154, 223

children 12, 32, 120, 124, 134, 141–2, 145, 146

Christie, Nils 4

citizen appraisals 124, 127

citizen identities 107, 205

citizen interests 11, 99

citizen participation 62, 179–80, 183–8, 205

citizen power 6, 183, 205

citizen status 12, 108, 166, 168, 180, 185, 209, 218

citizens 2–4, 11–13, 36–8, 53–4, 62–4, 107–8, 180–85, 204–6

informed 72, 176

ordinary 76, 80, 107, 129, 179, 215

private 4, 22, 63, 211

rights-bearing 47, 221

second-class 167, 179

citizenship 12, 26, 38, 110, 180–82, 204–5, 210, 220

democratic 182, 209

practice 25, 180–83

citizen-victims 50–53, 179–81, 187–8, 204–8, 210, 212, 214, 217

civic duty 70–71

civic world 129, 213

civil society 36, 40, 49, 73, 96

claims 4–5, 9, 27–8, 39–41, 97–8, 179–80, 211–12, 218–19

client evaluation 17, 117

clients 17, 117, 183, 220

closed questions 20–21, 225

coercion 3, 57, 190

coherence 80, 83

cohesion 36, 54, 73

colonies 87–8

commitments 40, 50, 99, 109, 111, 137, 198, 213

moral 210, 216

normative 112

common good 34, 98, 182

common law systems 3, 5, 9, 14–15, 94, 155, 187, 220

commonality 36, 87, 105

commonplace 2, 28, 53, 74, 211

community 89, 92–4, 102–3, 126–7, 133–5, 137–9, 141–3, 147–8

memberships 34, 107

wider 102, 110, 144, 171, 203

competition 75, 93

complainants 16, 54, 91, 102

complex reality 55, 105, 155

complexity 8, 44, 64, 75, 188, 191, 208–10, 215

compliance 31, 165–6

composite sentences 144, 203, 215

conceptions of justice 22, 39–44, 46, 49, 129, 178, 210

confidence 21, 101, 111, 124, 158, 166, 213

conflict 3, 11, 92, 152, 196, 207, 222

irreconcilable 204, 219

models 207

confusion 131, 154, 208

connections 32, 34, 44, 53–4, 148, 153, 165–7, 183

consciousness 51, 53, 56, 58–9, 64, 123

contradictory effects 66, 127

legal 40, 53, 55–8, 61–2, 66, 72, 117, 127

political 24, 57

of rules and rights 56

consensus 10, 34, 54, 56, 127, 185, 202

consequences 134, 140–41, 144, 172–3, 193, 199–200, 202, 217–18

consequentialists 216

consistency 35, 41, 97, 126, 151, 156, 203, 209

constituencies 4, 26, 33, 55, 77, 93, 95, 179

constitutive relationships 37, 52, 99, 117, 212

constraints 41, 45, 187, 190, 201, 205, 212, 217

consultation 95, 181, 185, 187–8

consumers 181, 183–4, 186, 205

contestation 34, 37, 39, 73, 182, 208

context 9, 17–18, 39, 44–6, 130, 164, 184–5, 215–16

and emotions 130–33

political 37, 66

social 29, 42, 54–5, 57–9, 62, 66–7, 71, 90

contextual justice 44

contingency 12, 57, 64

contradictions 73, 129, 209, 215

contradictory effects of consciousness 66, 127

control 11, 17, 93, 99, 184, 186, 188–90, 192

culture of 2

decision 17, 189, 192

monopolistic 85

social 62–3, 102

convergence 11, 176, 191

conviction 30, 81, 142–3, 146, 154, 170, 172

cooperation 18, 165–6, 182, 207

correlations 130, 139, 145–6, 161, 169, 226

positive 137, 177, 216–17

cost-benefit assessments 31, 112

costs 48, 64–5, 70, 133, 139, 143, 152, 172

counselling 134, 137, 170, 198

courtesy 31, 221

courtrooms 14, 23

courts 81–2, 139–46, 156–9, 161–2, 168–72, 192–6, 201–4, 215–18

outcomes 124, 137, 143–4, 170

CPS, see Crown Prosecution Service

credibility, moral 111

criminal courts, see courts

criminal justice 4–6, 9–14, 52–3, 75–7, 79–83, 177–80, 203–5, 211–14, 220–22

process 2, 13–14, 150, 156, 192–3, 198, 206–7, 210

system 2–3, 7, 9, 25, 145–6, 151, 158, 207–8

criminal law 2, 4, 10–11, 33, 35–8, 53–4, 75, 88–90

public justice of 35–7

Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) 14, 77, 85–6, 92

culpability 132, 196–7

shared 136

cultural milieu 117, 119

cultural theory 25, 103–4

custodial sentences 138, 142, 171

Daley, Lynette 77

Darley, J. 25, 139

decision control 17, 189, 192

decision-makers 175, 188–92, 195–6, 199, 205, 210, 217–18, 221

justice 178, 189–91, 205

decision-making

models 65, 100

processes 81, 203

decisions 20, 65, 77–9, 91–2, 159–60, 170–71, 190–92, 225–6

influencing of 13, 160, 180, 226

preferred 176, 188

proper 175, 196

de-democratisation 209

defendants 54, 81–2, 111, 116, 147, 162

definitional authority 98, 212

deliberation 1, 4, 9, 13, 50, 153, 208, 220–21

deliberative democrats 104, 219

demands of justice 2, 204, 207

democracy 5–6, 12–14, 78, 105, 182, 207–23

democratic citizenship 182, 209

democratic deficit 180, 222

democratic institutions 13, 185

democratic practices 13, 204, 222

democratic society 1, 209, 222

democratic theory 6, 14, 38, 108, 180, 221

democratic turn 207–22

democrats, deliberative 104, 219

demonstrations of respect and recognition 165, 174, 188

denunciation 83, 138

deontological reasoning 129, 144, 214

deservingness 12, 42, 126, 152

deterrence 83, 138–9, 142, 147–8, 165, 197, 203, 215

deterrent effect 91, 140

dialogue 9, 39, 48–9, 174–5, 177, 179, 195, 204–5

dignity 3, 20, 35, 47, 74, 159–60, 164, 174

direct interests 39, 189, 206, 208–9, 219

disadvantage 36, 46–8, 58, 212

disclosure 16, 179

discretion 15, 24, 63, 72, 80–82, 92, 98, 212

discretionary authority 72, 95

discretionary privilege 76

discrimination 36, 47, 55, 58, 101

racial 55, 102

discursive underpinnings 164

disputes 4, 11, 27, 59, 63–4, 105

private 4, 144

disrespect 156, 169, 174

dissatisfaction 18, 145–7, 155, 210, 216

dissonance 35, 80, 222

distance

emotional 131–2

relational 63, 119

social 113, 148

distress 68, 115, 121

distributive justice 31, 152, 157, 176

diversion 156, 193–4, 198

diversity 12, 18, 63, 66, 101, 104, 208, 212

domestic assault 15, 20, 69, 72, 114–15, 119, 121, 132

victims 19–20, 22, 115, 122–3, 131–2, 140–46, 193, 198–201

domestic violence 17, 19, 22, 92, 119–20, 122

Domestic Violence Crisis Service, see DVCS

domination 47, 99

DPP, see Director of Public Prosecutions

drugs 138, 142–3, 199

Dryzek, John 7, 10, 34, 104, 206

Duff, Antony 10, 37–8, 54–5

Dutch studies 19–20, 162, 165

Dutch victims 112, 162, 164, 173, 189

duty 24, 29, 35, 70–71, 91, 95, 210, 213

justice as 40–42

orientation 22, 182

DVCS (Domestic Violence Crisis Service) 17, 116, 175

dynamics, relational 66, 127

Dzur, Albert 6, 183, 187

Edwards, Ian 183, 187–8

efficacy 61, 64, 72, 112, 125, 151, 214

assessment 125

collective 71

perceived 60–61, 68, 128

elasticity 91, 99

operational 54

elites 78, 94, 104, 211

institutional 207

emotional distance 131–2

emotions 9, 28, 34, 46, 130–31, 134, 193

and context 130–33

empowerment 181, 184, 186

enforcement 60, 63, 65, 67, 76, 117, 126, 159

engagement 2, 4, 17, 144, 146, 153, 177–8, 181–2, 217–19

entities 5, 7, 119, 157, 161, 164, 183, 188–9

entrepreneurial model of law 62

environment 4, 16, 42, 64, 75, 87, 94, 118

equal treatment 5, 56, 127, 167–8

equality 31, 42, 47, 74, 165–8, 205, 210, 214

equity 31, 42, 66, 152, 168

ethics 40, 43

everyday life 39, 127, 153

everyday worlds 24, 39, 53, 105, 107, 113

evidence 14–15, 24, 81, 91, 144, 154, 191, 200

Ewick, Patricia 53, 56, 101, 127

exclusion 5, 26, 102, 155, 187, 222

ex-partners 20, 114, 134, 136, 140–43, 170–74, 195–6, 199–200

expectations 18–19, 21, 95–6, 122–3, 127, 175, 177, 210

citizen-centric 179

mixed 128

positive 123

experience 18, 20, 112–13, 148, 150–51, 153, 166, 216–17

of injustice 24, 45–8, 131, 214, 221

of justice 151–78, 216–17

measuring 159–62

lived 25, 55

expertise 189–90, 211

experts 105, 184, 190, 217, 222

face-to-face interviews 20, 78, 195, 197

facilitators 117, 121, 192, 194

fair outcomes 126, 165, 210

fair processes 31, 165

fair treatment 159, 162, 165, 177, 217, 226

fairness 24–5, 31, 42–4, 126–7, 129, 152, 167–8, 191

justice as 42–3

families 27, 44, 62, 68, 120–21, 146

family violence 116

fear 61, 85, 115, 121, 126, 131, 148, 191

Felson, Richard 70

Felstiner, W. 64–5

female victims 71, 101, 116

feminism 23, 32, 57, 183

finalization 17, 81, 139, 144, 225

findings 18, 20, 135, 137, 189, 194–8, 208, 210

ambiguous 157

authoritative 196

guilty 137, 139, 141–2, 144–5, 148, 193, 198–9, 203

fluidity 29, 50, 131, 134, 164, 180, 216

forgiveness 131, 192, 199, 221

formal authority 69, 133

freedom 47, 63, 85, 188

fundamentalism, institutional 75–6

Garland, David 4, 30

gatekeepers 64, 80

gender 5, 20, 22, 44, 59, 61, 103

goals 31, 36, 62, 64, 133–4, 146–7, 151–2, 215

collective 57

justice 25, 129–50, 180, 202–3, 214–16

layered 147–50

and motivations 133–5

multiple 25, 128–9, 138, 146–9, 151, 202, 209, 214–15

personal 143, 221

public 149

ultimate 129, 211

good behaviour bonds 141–4, 146, 170–72

governance 3, 6, 165, 189–90

collaborative 183

democratic 26

governmental social control 62–3

Gromet, D. 25, 139

group identity 34, 102, 105

group membership 165

groups 17, 101, 105–6, 122–3, 134–7, 152, 192–3, 215

elite 211

social 36, 56, 66

of victims 77, 131, 148

guides 28, 40, 43, 46, 56, 72, 90

normative 24, 40–41, 129, 178

guilt 192, 196, 198, 200

guilty findings/verdicts 137, 139, 141–2, 144–5, 148, 193, 198–9, 203

guilty pleas 82, 140, 143–4, 146, 154

habits 28, 56, 117

harassment, sexual 101

harm 35, 42, 44, 48, 58, 138, 141–2, 195

healing 218, 221

health 186

mental 44, 138, 146, 167, 186

hegemony 2, 97, 212

help agencies 134, 159

heterogeneity 35, 53, 67

heuristics 8, 24, 40

historicity 103

history 5, 34, 55, 88–9, 103, 124, 187, 196

homicide 77, 116

homo economicus 152

homo moralis 173

homo socialis 152

hospitals 110, 134, 200

HRC, see Human Rights Commission

human behaviour, see behaviour

human condition 43, 46

human dignity, see dignity

human rights 5, 16, 35, 95, 126, 167

Human Rights Commission (HRC) 16

humanity 32, 43

humiliation 115

husbands 115, 136, 146–7, 167, 170, 172, 193, 200

ideas of justice 1–5, 7–9, 11–12, 21–6, 28–9, 45–7, 201–3, 212–15

prosecutors 21–2

in the real world 8–10

studying 18–22

and victims 7–8

identities 2, 44, 87, 95, 105, 112–13, 181, 184–5

ethical 214

personal 186

political 3, 107, 180

imagery 128, 222

impartiality 43, 191, 217

imposition 52, 58, 137, 141

incapacitation 83, 138

incarceration 139, 148

incentives 70, 133

inclusion 6, 10, 12–13, 157, 160, 184, 186, 205

inconsistencies 16, 85

inconvenience 85, 209

independence 24, 76, 82, 211

indignities 5, 47

individual interests 149, 208

individuals 13, 15, 18, 20, 23, 56, 122–3, 220

influential victim voice 160–62, 164–5, 173, 177–8, 180, 188–93, 210, 216–17

informal justice processes 193–4

information 14–15, 156–7, 165–6, 168–9, 174–7, 187–8, 198–200, 216–17

gathering 48, 127

power 175

informed citizens 72, 176

infrastructure 46, 109

injuries 58, 120, 136, 139, 172

injustice 7–9, 11, 34, 36, 47–8, 129–30, 132, 208–9

experience of 24, 45–8, 131, 214, 221

redressable 47, 62

institutional arrangements 33, 41

institutional discourse 75–99

institutional elites 207

institutional fundamentalism 75–6

institutional justice 209, 211–12

institutional landscape 21, 74

institutional legitimacy 13, 183

institutional settings 14, 23, 79

institutional spaces 2, 44

institutions 5–8, 11, 14–15, 28–9, 31, 89, 153–4, 218–20

democratic 13, 185

justice 7, 11, 125, 129, 133, 176–7, 208–10, 219

legal 23, 53, 56–7, 61, 68, 74, 88, 123

public 105, 169

instrumental functions 57, 174

integrated conception of justice 177, 216

integrated justice judgment 162–4, 210

intensity 153, 213–14

intentionality 132, 137, 148, 214

interactionism, symbolic 45

interactions 45–6, 53, 150–51, 153, 169, 177–80, 203–5, 216–18

complex 59, 112, 157, 177

social 45

interests 9–12, 49–50, 144–8, 167–72, 193–201, 203–7, 209–20, 222–6

direct 39, 189, 206, 208–9, 219

individual 149, 208

justice, see justice, interests

political 10, 38

private 12, 26, 52, 147, 196

public 11–12, 22–4, 78, 89–92, 96, 209, 211, 220

trilogy 148, 151, 177, 206, 215, 217, 220

victim 24, 30, 96, 157

interpersonal treatment 160–61, 164, 166, 177, 216, 226

quality of 159, 161–6, 177, 216, 226

scale 160–61

interpretation 38–9, 45, 47, 49, 66, 72, 121, 124

interviews 18–20, 22–3, 25, 130–31, 141, 174–5, 216–18, 224

final 146, 167, 169, 172–3, 175, 215

first 114, 124, 130–31, 135, 139–40, 142, 145, 197

second 17, 20, 139–40, 143–5, 147, 167–8, 214, 217

third 20–21, 145, 147, 213

intrusion 5, 153

involvement 38–9, 84–5, 106, 109, 188, 190, 205–7, 220–21

irreconcilable conflict 204, 219

isolation 43, 151, 175, 179

Janner, Greville 77

Japan 76

judges 54, 126, 168

judgments 9, 40, 44, 48, 72, 75, 97, 112–13; see also findings

justice 43–4, 112–13, 152–3, 162–4, 176–7, 203, 216–17

discursive underpinnings 164–76

juries 82, 125, 183

just deserts 130

justice

as accountability 42

approaches to 27–51

claims and victims 29–33

conceptions of 22, 39–44, 46, 49, 129, 178, 210

as contextual 44

decision-makers 178, 189–91, 205

demands of 2, 204, 207

distributive 31, 152, 157, 176

as duty 40–42

as duty and right 41

entities 6, 11, 80, 159, 161–2, 169, 174, 214

experiencing 151–78, 216–17

as fairness 42–3

goals 25, 129–50, 180, 202–3, 214–16

multiple 128–9, 146

good of 148, 215

governance functions 125–6, 151, 178, 214, 217

ideas of, see ideas of justice

imaginary 72, 99, 123–7, 214

importance 7, 27–9

institutional 209, 211–12

institutions 7, 11, 125, 129, 133, 176–7, 208–10, 219

integrated conception of 177, 216

interests 3, 28, 50, 148, 206, 219

as political interests 10–12

making meaning about 45–50

mapping alternative path 39–40

meaning 8, 13–14, 49

measuring experience of 159–62

normative conception of 40–41, 162

as normative guide 40–41

ordinary people accessing 100–128

participatory 26, 205

philosophical approaches to 39, 210

place and politics of 221–2

politics of 221

practitioners 155, 220–21

procedural 20–21, 31, 152, 155, 160, 165, 173, 178

realization of 9, 27, 153, 178, 215

rectificatory 42

as relational 43–4

restorative 4, 155–6, 190, 195–6, 219

satisfaction with 157–9

seeking in the real world 50–51

story of 3, 22, 39, 75

substantive 30, 130

theory 8, 27, 39, 47, 152, 204, 213

trilogy 25, 130, 139, 143, 149, 203, 221

Justice Study 20–22, 100–101, 110, 120–22, 157, 164, 202–3, 208

design 225

methodology 223

knowledge 13, 18, 65, 103, 109, 122, 127

limited 65

Korsgaard, Christine 47

language 15, 18, 27–8, 39, 56, 78, 106, 182

law

approaches to 52–74

image 53–5

mobilization of, see legal mobilization

law enforcement, see enforcement

law-centric perspective 53–4, 56–7

layered goals 147–50

legal actors 4, 53–4, 72–3

legal consciousness 40, 53, 55–8, 66, 72, 101, 117, 127

and victimization 58–62

legal institutions 23, 53, 56–7, 61, 68, 74, 88, 123

legal mobilization 23–4, 62–8, 70, 72–3, 100–101, 117–23, 128, 133

invoking norms 63–4

as political participation 64–6

as social control 62–3

as strategic resource 66

as transformative 64

and victimization 67–72

legal norms 57, 60, 62–3, 97, 119, 205

legal officials 4, 22, 78–9, 207

legal systems 5, 41, 60, 63–5, 79, 173, 182, 186

legality 53–4, 56–8, 73, 98

legitimacy 13, 20, 31, 35, 41, 105, 134, 219

institutional 13, 183

normative 179

social 32, 128

Lempert, Richard 63–4

leniency 112, 142–3

Lerner, Melvin 30, 42

liberal democracies 9, 12, 54

lived experience 25, 55

longitudinal prospective panel 130, 215, 223

McCann, Michael 66, 127–8

magistrates 15, 82, 125, 138, 140, 142, 175, 196

Magna Carta 87

managerialist approach 79, 183

Mansbridge, Jane 50

media 27, 91, 102, 209, 213

mediators 193, 198, 200

mental health 44, 138, 146, 167, 186

messiness 8, 34, 98, 180, 211

Mezey, Naomi 62

mobilization 2, 53, 63, 67, 72, 114, 122, 214

legal, see legal mobilization

moral commitments 210, 216

moral credibility 111

moral obligations 110, 213

moral value 11, 39

morality 28, 165

motivations 32, 34, 70–71, 132, 135, 139, 210, 215

contextual 129

and goals 133–5

other-regarding 72, 135

self-regarding 135

Mouffe, Chantal 182

multiple goals 25, 128–9, 138, 146–9, 151, 202, 209, 214–15

narratives 11, 14, 22, 24, 98, 125, 130, 146–8

national samples 21, 100, 107, 111–12

Neal, David 87

negotiation 60, 200

neighbourhoods 36, 71, 120, 142

neighbours 58, 110, 119, 134, 190, 200

networks 68, 106, 121, 174

social 71, 128

neutrality 52, 214

New Zealand 62

no/minimal participation 194, 198

non-domestic assault 20, 110, 114–15, 121, 138, 144, 145, 224

victims 110, 115, 121–3, 132, 135–7, 140–42, 144–5, 197–201

normative conception of justice 40–41, 162

normative guide 24, 40–41, 129, 178

normative performance 125, 151

normative salience 128

norms 10–11, 28, 40, 46, 53, 92, 94, 99

cognitive and social 79

contextual 60

perceived community 100

societal 99

nuances 17, 19, 98, 120, 122, 124, 136, 166

objects of value 9, 148–9, 215, 218–19

obligations, perceived 92, 165

offender accountability 143, 144, 147, 203, 209, 214, 218

offenders 1–3, 11–12, 141–3, 147–8, 170–72, 215–16, 218, 220–22

alleged 81, 154, 225

young 171, 174

open-ended questions 20–21

oppression 47, 101

ordinary citizens 76, 80, 107, 129, 179, 215

ordinary people 53–5, 73–4, 100–105, 107–13, 127–9, 151–2, 154–6, 211–16

constructs of 103–5

in everyday worlds 105–7

in extraordinary circumstances 114–17

orientations 53, 81, 109, 112, 117, 123, 180, 188

emotional 131

other-regarding motivations 72, 135

outcome justice 30–31, 39

outcome preferences 135–47, 215

outcomes

fair 126, 165, 210

substantive 30, 147, 162, 187, 210, 225

participants 114–15, 122–4, 131–5, 137–43, 144–7, 189–90, 199–203, 213–18

participation 10, 12–13, 38, 96, 178–206, 210, 217–18, 221

citizen 62, 179–80, 183–8, 205

no/minimal 194, 198

political 64, 66, 182

in public policy 183–8

and sequencing 202–4

participatory justice 26, 205

participatory opportunities 192–3, 195, 197, 210–11, 218

participatory practices 6, 12, 104, 180

parties 2, 5, 63–4, 118, 124, 191, 199, 203

civilian 190, 220

innocent 119

political 183

partners 3, 114–15, 120, 140–42, 193, 195

pathetic victims 100, 102, 213

perceptions 21, 58, 60, 65, 120, 124, 127, 132

personal agency 106–7, 112, 131

personal goals 143, 221

personal networks 68, 106

personal values 109, 112, 213

personhood 167, 177, 216

philosophers 32, 208

philosophical approaches 39, 210

philosophy, political 22, 24, 27, 29, 40

pleas 95, 139, 170, 175

guilty 82, 140, 143–4, 146, 154

plural groundings 34, 179, 215

plural reasons 34

pluralism 26, 66

police 61–2, 68–72, 115–22, 133–7, 154, 156–61, 166–9, 188–9

assistance 14, 134

reporting to 3, 107, 203

political community 3, 36–8, 181–2, 185, 208, 218–19

political consciousness 24, 57

political contexts 37, 66

political identity 3, 107, 180

political interests 10, 38

justice interests as 10–12

political participation 64, 66, 182

political philosophy 22, 24, 27, 29, 40

political space 44, 124

politics 13, 102, 106

civic 12

of justice 221–2

penal 13

polity 37, 49, 53–4, 107, 125, 180–81

populist justice 209

positive correlations 137, 177, 216–17

poverty reduction 184, 186

power 6–8, 55, 76, 78–80, 89, 103–5, 184–8, 209

citizen 6, 183, 205

of information 175

location 75–6

power-holders 184, 188, 208, 213

powerlessness 102, 185

preferences 32, 135, 137, 139, 141–5, 192–3, 196–8, 210–11

process 192–3, 198, 202

prospective 135, 192–3, 197, 203, 225

pressures 77, 85, 93–4, 140, 192

principles 7, 10, 13, 79, 86, 130, 138–9, 148

prison 139, 156, 170

private citizens 4, 22, 63, 211

private goals 11

private interests 12, 26, 52, 147, 196

private prosecutions 84–6, 89

private worlds 61, 206

probation 2, 170, 172

procedural justice 20–21, 31, 152, 155, 160, 165, 173, 178

process preferences 192–202

professionalization 5, 83, 85

property 36, 77, 126, 143

crime 19, 69, 71, 155

prosecution 84–6, 94–8, 140–41, 161–2, 166–70, 173–5, 189, 211–13

core contemporary concepts 88–93

justice of 96–7

processes 93, 154

public 75–6, 78, 83, 85–6, 89–90, 94–6, 209, 211

prosecutors 14–15, 22, 75–9, 81–2, 89, 92–8, 154, 211–12

ideas of justice 21–2

public 22–3, 76–8, 88–90, 93–8, 209, 211–13, 220

prospective preferences 135, 192–3, 197, 203, 225

protection 35–6, 71–2, 126, 134, 136, 138, 142, 148

provocation 118, 128

public authority 66, 107, 148, 195–7, 200, 203, 210, 218

public discourse 28, 147, 205

public interest 11–12, 22–4, 78, 89–92, 96, 209, 211, 220

public justice

of criminal law 35–7

and victims 33–8

public policy 90, 92, 128, 181, 183, 190, 210, 214

public prosecution 1, 75–80, 83, 85–6, 89–90, 94–6, 209, 211

Australia 86–8

United Kingdom 83–6

public prosecutors 22–3, 76–8, 88–90, 93–8, 209, 211–13, 220

public services 110, 183

public space 4, 183, 209, 213, 217

publics 6, 9–12, 24, 26, 33, 35–6, 209, 212

punishment 10–11, 36, 138, 143, 147, 171, 173

principle 138–9

retributive 30

punitiveness 130, 148

quality of interpersonal treatment 159, 161–6, 177, 216, 226

racial discrimination 55, 102

rationality 33

immanent 54

subjective 59, 65

Rawls, John 42

real world 4, 8–9, 16, 174, 177, 179, 208, 213–14

realization of justice 9, 27, 153, 178, 215

reasoning 21–2, 45–6, 144, 150, 205–7, 209–10, 214–15, 220–21

consequential 129

non-instrumental 133

reciprocity 56, 123, 165–6, 168, 177

rectificatory purpose 9, 125

redressable injustice 47, 62

reforms 85–6, 88, 95–6, 187

rehabilitation 83, 138–9, 142, 147–8, 171, 193, 198, 215

principle 138

violence 138, 142–3

rehabilitative sentences 139, 142

reinforcement 73, 139, 149

relational distance 63, 119

relational dynamics 66, 127

relational justice 43–4

relationships 52–3, 103–4, 106–7, 109, 115, 142, 192–3, 199

reliability 118, 226

reporting of crime 3, 61, 67–72, 115–17, 119, 121, 133–4, 203–4

reprisal 61, 191

resolution pathways 81, 192, 197, 203

resources 65–6, 68, 72–3, 75, 93–5, 123, 125, 184–6

respect and recognition, demonstrations of 165, 174, 188

responsibility 10, 42, 46, 48, 88, 141, 189–92, 196–7

and solidarity 221–2

responsiveness 92, 212

restorative justice 4, 155–6, 190, 195–6, 219

restorative opportunities 192–4, 196–200, 203, 218

retribution 71, 83, 119, 132, 134

revenge 30, 130, 191

rights 1–3, 38–40, 98, 100, 126, 159–61, 168, 170

consciousness 56, 65

human 5, 16, 35, 95, 126, 167

rights-bearing citizens 47, 221

Rock, Paul 4, 85, 93, 103, 156

rule of law 52, 54, 87, 112

sacrifice 10, 47, 98, 102

safety 18, 126, 134–5, 139, 171, 200, 225

samples 17, 19–22, 117, 132, 223

national 21, 100, 107, 111–12

study 20, 108, 110–11, 116

Sarat, Austin 2, 30, 55, 58, 59, 64, 78, 82, 98, 101, 103, 104, 124

satisfaction 17–18, 143, 144–6, 157–8, 161–2, 168–9, 176–7, 216–18

with justice 157–9

scales 21, 131, 137, 159–62, 188, 223, 225–6

Scheingold, Stuart 23

scrutiny 9, 34, 41, 47

security 35, 88, 109

self-constraint 42, 205

self-interest 90, 190, 205

victims 32–3

self-regarding motivations 135

Sen, Amartya 8–9, 27–8, 34–5, 47, 178–9, 204, 206–8, 213

sentences

composite 144, 203, 215

custodial 138, 142, 171

preferences 138–9

suspended 138, 142, 195

sentencing 21, 83, 111–12, 119, 156, 196

sequencing 26, 215, 218

and participation 202–4

settings, institutional 14, 23, 79

sexual assault 15, 77, 116

sexual harassment 101

sexual violence 3, 68

Shapland, Joanna 71, 158, 162

shared values 49, 80, 124

Shklar, Judith 8

Silbey, Susan 53, 101

Simon, Jonathon 13

Skitka, Linda 43, 44, 149, 151, 152, 164, 173

slipperiness 25, 28, 151–2, 201

social action 48, 109

social circles 106, 123

social context 29, 42, 54–9, 62, 66–7, 71, 90, 121–3

social control 62–3, 102

social distance 113, 148

social divisions 75, 222

social legitimacy 32, 128

social networks 71, 128

social order 11, 56, 73

social practice 56, 66, 73, 80

social spaces 185, 218

social support 119–20

social values 100, 225

social world 36, 56, 105, 112, 206, 213

solidarity, and responsibility 221–2

sovereignty 6, 33, 35, 89, 108, 211

specificity 73, 167, 176, 185, 204

stability 102, 144, 151, 185, 209

state authority 37, 53, 185, 207

state institutions 2, 6, 12, 36

status 3, 12, 37–8, 50, 103, 107, 166–8, 180

political 213

structural opportunities 67, 128–9, 183, 214

study samples 20, 108, 110–11, 116

subjective rationality 59, 65

substantive justice 30, 130

substantive outcomes 30, 147, 162, 187, 210, 225

suicide 52, 92

support, social 119–20

suspended sentences 138, 142, 195

Swift, Adam 29

symbolic acknowledgement 125, 151

symbolic interactionism 45

third parties 47–8, 63, 122, 191

Thumim, Nancy 104–5

treatment 25, 44, 138, 150, 152, 159–62, 164, 166–8

equal 5, 56, 127, 167–8

fair 159, 162, 165, 177, 217, 226

interpersonal, see interpersonal treatment

trial 82, 139–40, 153–4

trilogy of interests 148, 151, 177, 206, 215, 217, 220

trust 21, 73, 94, 98, 109–10, 157, 190–91

truth 13, 23, 54, 91, 126, 136

United Kingdom 3, 13, 16, 22, 61, 70–71, 77

public prosecution 83–6

United States 3, 13, 15–16, 66, 70–72, 76, 102

values 7, 37–8, 46, 96–7, 108–9, 112, 217, 220

moral 11, 39

shared 49, 80, 124

social 100, 225

vengeance, see revenge

Victim Impact Statements 15, 154, 173, 187, 189, 192–7, 203

victimhood 102, 118, 209

victimization 2–3, 47–8, 51, 53, 58–9, 67, 101–3, 113–14

experience 20, 58–9, 101, 117

and legal consciousness 58–62

violence 47, 62, 124, 129, 153

victims 1–7, 15–22, 91–8, 100–103, 143–51, 153–63, 165–71, 175–81

citizen-victims 50–53, 179–81, 187–8, 204–8, 210, 212, 214, 217

contested place in justice 4–6

domestic assault 19–20, 22, 115, 122–3, 131–2, 140–46, 193, 197–201

Dutch 112, 162, 164, 173, 189

experiences with justice 155–7

female 71, 101, 116

groups 77, 131, 148

and ideas of justice 7–8

interests 24, 30, 96, 157

and justice claims 29–33

in justice process 153–5

label 12, 103

non-domestic assault 110, 115, 121–3, 132, 135–7, 140–42, 144–5, 197–201

and outcome justice 30–31, 39

pathetic 100, 102, 213

protection 138–9, 215

and public justice 33–8

self-interest 32–3

through prosecution eyes 93–6

of violence 7–8, 18, 20, 27–9, 71, 99, 116–17, 144–6

voice 160–62, 164–5, 173, 177–8, 180, 188–9, 192–3, 216–17

vulnerabilities 189, 191–2

women 68, 121

violence 13–14, 71, 113–15, 117–19, 121–4, 134–6, 147, 213–14

domestic 17, 19, 22, 92, 119–20, 122; see also domestic assault

family 116

rehabilitation 138, 142–3

sexual 3, 68

victimization 47, 62, 124, 129, 153

victims of 7–8, 18, 20, 27–9, 71, 99, 116–17, 144–6

violent persons 131–3, 135–46, 170–71, 177, 192–3, 195, 197–200, 203

VIS, see Victim Impact Statements

voice, victims 160–62, 164–5, 173, 177–8, 180, 188–9, 192–3, 216–17

vulnerabilities, victim 189, 191–2

Wemmers, J-A. 111, 165, 173

witnesses 5, 93–4, 102, 154, 156, 158, 162, 167

women 17, 19, 22–3, 110–11, 114–15, 118–22, 124, 141

wrongfulness 4, 138, 142, 172, 197, 199, 218

Young, Iris 24, 28, 33, 35–6, 50, 209

young offenders 171, 174

Zemans, Frances 64–5, 100, 117, 123, 137