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Islamic Education in the United States and the Evolution of Muslim Nonprofit Institutions

Sabith Khan and Shariq Siddiqui

This book is a novel and ambitious attempt to map the Muslim American nonprofit sector: its origins, growth and impact on American society. Using theories from the fields of philanthropy, public administration and data gathered from surveys and interviews, the authors make a compelling case for the Muslim American nonprofit sector’s key role in America. They argue that in a time when Islamic schools are grossly misunderstood, there is a need to examine them closely, for the landscape of these schools is far more complex than meets the eye.
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Index

Sabith Khan and Shariq Siddiqui

administrative state 7274, 80

African Americans

finding voice for 76

Gulen schools 129

indigenous 33

institutional building 52

Islamic schools 5556, 108109

move from radical Black Nationalism 32

slavery 51

studying Muslim Americans within context of 4, 6, 62

tensions between ethnic groups 78

see also Black American Muslims

American Islam

“authentic” 43

crisis in 2428

dichotomy 69

discourse of 36

“distinct” 73

growing internationalization of 37

race/ethnic relations as important aspect of 78

scholars of 62, 76, 79

American laws ixxi

American nonprofit regime

advantages and limitations ix

unique growth 110

Asad, T. 1820, 26, 29, 38, 6566, 71, 85

Bagby, I. 4, 106, 108, 116, 127

Black American Muslims

changing discourse of philanthropy classification for purpose of study 20

first Gulf War of 1990 3032

from isolationism to integration 3638

seeking legitimacy from Muslim world 43

September 11, 2001 3235

social justice 42

cultural identity as 108

Malcolm X 17

see also African Americans

Boin, A. 2224, 29

Britain xxi

CAIR see Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR)

Catholic schools 55, 60

Catholicism xxi, 65, 70

charity (zakat) 23, 39, 41, 54, 70, 131

Charmaz, K. 110111, 113

Church of England xxi

Clara Muhammad Schools 5659, 107109, 128

collaboration and conflict 121122

community philanthropy 60, 122

Coolidge, R.D. 86, 95, 99

Council of Islamic Schools in North America (CISNA) 59, 86, 89

Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR) 7, 27, 48, 53, 63, 66, 73, 79, 125126, 132

crisis, definition 22

crisis leadership 2324

crisis situations

Great Recession 91, 100101, 103

Gulf War, 1990 3032, 4142

philanthropy in 2224

September 11, 2001 2627, 3235, 4142, 9193, 98100, 103

“cultural pluralism” 20, 28, 3536, 40, 42, 75, 7778, 128

Curtis, E.E., IV 4, 14, 3334, 46, 51, 60, 62, 76, 92, 108

discursive strategic tool, reason as 19, 3841

discursive tradition

healthy, in Islamic philanthropy 43

incorporating tradition into education 85

manifestation of 38

nature of 1820

Driessen, G. 89, 109110

Ernst, C. 32, 47, 4950

Federation of Islamic Associations of the United States and Canada (FIA) 5, 910, 5253

First Amendment xxi, 109, 134

Foucault, M. 18, 26, 41

future research avenues 134135

Ghaffar-Kucher, A. 69, 74, 7677

GhaneaBassiri, K. 3, 67, 2021, 25, 2832, 3738, 4650, 6264, 66, 6970, 73, 75, 7980, 83, 92, 99, 129130

giving and volunteering 54, 98101

global Islamic movements 7778

global war on terror 7879

government funding ixx, xii

Great Recession 91, 100101, 103

Great Society programs xixii, 7273

Grewal, Z.A. 86, 95, 99, 106

Grounded Theory model for growth and evolution of Islamic schools

causal conditions related to founding and proliferation of demonstrating perceived need for 114

immigrant communities 115

need for preserving tradition/religious values 116

phenomena resulting from 116117

poor quality public schools 115116

consequences collaboration and conflict 121122

growing solidarity 121

internal dialogue 121

localism vs. globalism 122

context bullying in public schools 118

need for more quality education 118

religious obligation/civic duty 117

intervening conditions

Islamophobia 119

post-9/11 rhetoric of Islam 118

US elections cycle 119

strategies

inclusiveness 119

integrating in mainstream 119, 121

professionalization 121

theorizing growth 114, 120

Gulf War, 1990 3032, 4142

Haddad, Y. 12, 4, 7, 14, 2627, 3133, 40, 4243, 86, 106107

Harb, N.N. 2627, 3233, 40, 4243

Hart–Cellar Act 3, 107

Historically Sunni African American Muslims (HSAAMs) 4, 6, 910, 20, 64, 75, 108, 111

identity

confusion in defining “Muslim Americans” 6263

construction, framing discussion of 6768, 7980

emergence of Muslim American 7274

“exceptional” 7980

as force driving philanthropy 8485

and improvisational practices 7172

in Islamic schools 86, 91, 9596, 99100, 102103, 109, 115, 119, 122, 129130

managing, as challenge of leadership 132

and philanthropy in Muslim American communities 7477

role of 2224

six forces shaping 7477

as social construct 79

under threat, Muslim feeling of 135

iftar70, 7374

immigrant communities 62, 7576, 115, 127, 129, 133

improvisational practices

and identity 7172

impressive range of 70

in Islamic schools 129130

inclusiveness 119

“indoctrination” of children concerns 12

institution building

certainties 127

history of 5153, 5657, 59

Islamic schools as important symbol of 85, 103

as means of expressing religious and philanthropic identity 83

and philanthropy 134135

institutional cooperation and collaboration 911

integration

journey of 11, 7576

move towards

of Black Muslims 3638

ISNA among first to 35

interfaith relations 7172, 130

Islamic Circle of North America (ICNA) 67, 53

Islamic education in US

as “coming into its own” 1

complex history of 23

growing interest in 2

growing suspicion of 12

story of 107110

Islamic philanthropy see philanthropy

Islamic schools

academic performance 9394, 102

for African Americans 5556, 108109

age of 96

appeal of 2

bullying in public schools 2, 118

bureaucratic accountability 97, 102103

collaboration and conflict 121122

in crisis situations 9193, 98101, 103

demonstrating perceived need 114

development of, in America 5559

factors impacting 2

fear of 12

financial accountability 98

financial aid 9899

geographic location 94

Grounded Theory model for growth and evolution of

causal conditions related to founding and proliferation of 114116

consequences 121122

context 117118

intervening conditions 118119

phenomena resulting from causal conditions 116117

strategies 119121

as study method 110

theorizing growth 114, 120

growing solidarity 121

growth/evolution of 116117

identity in 86, 91, 9596, 99100, 102103, 109, 115, 119, 122, 129130

immigrant communities 115

as important symbol of institution building 85, 103

improvisational practices in 129130

inclusiveness 119

integrating in mainstream 119, 121

internal dialogue 121

and Islamophobia 87, 9293, 99

leadership in 131132

legitimacy in 8990, 93103, 128129

localism vs. globalism 122

market accountability 9495, 9798, 102

need for more quality education 118

need for preserving tradition/religious values 116

and philanthropy

complicated role 117

in crisis situations 9899

diminishing role, over time 126

philanthropic support 117

variable role 122123

as vehicles of 60, 91

poor quality public schools 115116

professionalization 121

public policy in 130131

relationship with Islamic center 95

religious obligation/civic duty 117

reporting 103

research study 1

analysis 90, 102103

discussion 91101

methods 83, 90

questions 8485

results 91

research study 2

context 107110

data collection, analysis and writing 113114

data sources 112113

discussion 122123

method 110111

participants 111

procedure 112

results 114122

school types 111112

rise in number offering K-12 level education 1

sources of revenue 9698

tuition as proportion of school budget 97

US elections cycle 119

Islamic Schools League of America (ISLA) 13, 58, 83, 86, 90, 107, 113

Islamic Society of North America (ISNA)

acceptance of idea of “single Muslim identity” 7576, 107

changing discourse of philanthropy differences with NOI 38, 40, 43

First Gulf War of 1990 3032

September 11, 2001 3235

social justice 42

turn from parochialism to “cultural pluralism” 3536

compromising nature of deliberations within 10

as “cultural pluralist” group 20, 75, 78

data collection from Islamic schools 83

Education Forum 56, 58, 86, 90, 110, 113

educational mission 26, 5759

establishment

reasons for 8, 2627, 66

time of 7, 26

evolving into American institution with unique Islamic identity 3

initiatives to help address Islamophobia 132

legitimacy 3, 8788, 107

as membership-based organization 89, 28, 76

as most prominent Sunni Muslim group 18

as “Muslim Brotherhood affiliate” 125126

national recognition as “model” of Muslim Americans 7576

as paradigmatic case 34, 17, 76, 87, 107

in scholarly literature 47

serving as umbrella organization 910, 53

understanding of diversity within 1011

Islamophobia

case of Muslim American institution overcoming 106

as complex phenomenon 49

early challenges to Islam 4849

four dimensions of American fear 4950

history of bigotry in US 48

and Islamic schools 87, 9293, 99, 119120

linking with gender 50

long history of documented 47

organizations helping to address 132

ISNA see Islamic Society of North America (ISNA)

Jackson, S. 36, 48, 66, 76, 78

Jamal, Z. 25, 3334, 63

Keyworth, K. 83, 86, 107108

Khan, M.A. Muqtedar 3, 62, 70, 79, 81

leadership

crisis 2324

as force driving philanthropy 85

in Islamic schools 131132

legitimacy 8788, 135

Black Muslims seeking 32, 3637, 4243

CAIR enjoying 73

as force driving philanthropy 84

Imam Warith Deen Muhammad seeking 31

Inayat Khan gaining 49

in Islamic schools 8990, 93103, 128129

ISNA’s quest for 3, 9, 32, 36, 4243, 58, 8788

Malcolm X seeking 18

NOI seeking 68

Leonard, K. 4, 6, 10

limitations of research 134135

localism vs. globalism 122

Malcolm X 1718, 37, 55, 68

Merry, M.S. 89, 109110

Michigan Islamic Academy (MIA) 106

Morrow, S.L. 110, 113114, 123

mosques 50, 52, 57, 66, 106, 108, 116117, 127

Muhammad, Warith Deen 45, 7, 20, 28, 3032, 3738, 107, 123

multiculturalism in America 77, 79

Muslim American civil society 2, 54

Muslim American communities

adopting uniquely “American” models of community building 135

ambiguity in defining “Muslim” 6366

communal sharing of food 73

conceptualizing as religious group 6970, 80

different definitions of “authentic Islam” 64

division between Shii and Sunni Muslims 64

identity

construction, framing discussion of 6768

and improvisational practices 7172

and philanthropy 7477

six forces shaping 7779

iftar dinners 7374

immense diversity within 65, 111

methods of organizing 66

pragmatic understanding of Islam 6465

problems faced by xiii

representation issue 108

tensions with government bureaucracy 7273

Muslim American nonprofit sector

benefits of 127, 130

growth and evolution of 37, 5960, 110

impact of Great Recession 100

and leadership 131132

legitimacy in 8788

philanthropy in 5055

rise of educational 86

Muslim American Society (MAS) 67, 53

Muslim American unity

establishing 911

future research avenues 134135

implications of 2016 election 1

methodology of teaching and developing 133

practical implications 133134

Muslim philanthropy see philanthropy

Muslim Public Affairs Council (MPAC) 7, 27, 53, 66

Muslim Student Association of the US & Canada (MSA) 5, 10, 26, 35, 5253

Muslims

ambiguity in defining 6366

division between Shii and Sunni 64

educating about Islam 55

feeling identity is under threat 135

large presence in metropolitan areas 65

as “others” 4849

presence in America

debate on 46

history of institution building 5153, 5657, 59

Nation of Islam (NOI)

African Americans entering Islam through 108

in American history 33

Black Nationalist movement 26

Clara Muhammad Schools 128

differences with ISNA 38, 40, 43

earliest expressions of Islam in US 2

establishment 52, 64

on fringes of Muslim American movements 31

giving up racist rhetoric 32

HSAAMs as former members of 64, 75

Malcolm X 17, 37, 55, 68

as militant 42, 76

resistance from mainstream society 68

seeking to create uniquely Black identity 36

seeking to prioritize education 5556

University of Islam 55, 107

Warith Deen Muhammad 32, 37, 56, 107

see also Black American Muslims

National Council on Religion and Public Education (NCPRE) 58

NOI see Nation of Islam (NOI)

Obama, B. 3335, 47, 49, 73

Paino, M. 8990, 93

Pakistani Americans 53, 76

PATRIOT Act 3234, 70

Pew Research Center 54, 65, 106

philanthropy

background 79

changes in discourse aim of study 21

argument limitations 21

background to debate 21

conflation of discourses 4243

crisis in American Islam and Islamic philanthropy 2428

in crisis situations 2224, 3035, 4142

data collection methods 28

findings and discussion 2835

from isolationism to integration 3638

Muslim Americans as largely cultural pluralists 42

nature of discursive tradition 1820

occurring in context of “crisis” mode 18

from parochialism to “cultural pluralism” 3536

pragmatism as guiding force 43

reason as discursive strategic tool 3841

role of identity 2224

sample 28

community 60, 122

four main forces driving

identity 8485

leadership 85

legitimacy 84

public policy 85

identity and Muslim American communities 7477

and institution building 134135

Islamic schools

complicated role in 117

in crisis situations 9899

diminishing role of, over time 126

as important vehicles of 60, 91

philanthropic support 117

variable role of 122123

Malcolm X 17, 37

in Muslim non-profit institutions in America 5055

professionalization 121

public policy

as force driving philanthropy 85

in Islamic schools 130131

public schools

bullying in 2, 118

debate about funding 14

fear of indoctrination in 1

little difference with Islamic schools 109

poor quality 115116

race/ethnic relations 7778

reason

as discursive strategic tool 19, 3841

recourse to 6566

religion

“civil” 71

clauses of First Amendment xxi

conceptualizing Muslim Americans as religious group 6970

debate on ethics of 38

and education 55

freedom of 34, 7980, 126

Islam

branded as “radical” 126

as individualistic 130

as organized 49

as practice-oriented 19

as religion of hate 48

as religion of peace 34

need to preserve tradition/religious values 115116

principle of separation with state 47, 54, 134

religious obligation/civic duty 117

as responsibility of nonprofit and private sector 47

religious non-profit organizations

and American laws ixxi

history of ixxii

schools see Islamic schools

September 11, 2001

identity and US government 7677

impact on philanthropic resources and legitimacy 85

Islamic rhetoric 118

Muslim American leaders’ reaction to 9192

philanthropy in crisis situation 2627, 3235, 4142

rapid growth of Muslim American organizations 60

and struggle for inclusion 70

Siddiqui, S.A. 3, 14, 20, 2627, 2931, 3536, 38, 42, 57, 60, 64, 66, 7478, 83, 86, 99, 103, 107108, 111, 113, 128, 135

Smith, J. 1, 4, 7, 14, 4647

Smith, M.L. 110, 113114, 123

solidarity 121

Trump administration 14, 69, 126, 132, 134

Trump, D.A. 1, 74

US elections cycle 119

Weltanschauung

methodology of teaching and developing Islamic and American 133

practical implications 133134

youth activism 7778