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The Turning Point in Private Law

Ecology, Technology and the Commons

Ugo Mattei and Alessandra Quarta

Can private law assume an ecological meaning? Can property and contract defend nature? Is tort law an adequate tool for paying environmental damages to future generations? The Turning Point in Private Law explores potential resolutions to these questions, analyzing the evolution of legal thinking in relation to the topics of legal personality, property, contract and tort. The authors pose a suggested list of basic principles for a new, ecological legal system in which private law represents a valid ally for defending our future.
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Index

Ugo Mattei and Alessandra Quarta

Aboca as B corporation 80

absentee property owners, property law 52–3

access rights 12, 16–17, 29, 41, 42–3, 44–8, 50–54

see also commons; exclusion

Ackerman, B 96

Agostinelli, B 116

Alexander, G 25, 26

Anderson Carpet & Linoleum Sales as B corporation 80

Anderson, J 43

Anderson, P ix

Anglo-American trust law 16

animal rights 82, 84–5

Anthropocene 1–2, 3, 4, 5, 22, 134, 135–7

arbitration agreements 34

Argentina, worker buyouts 76

Aristotle 121, 124, 127

autonomy and self-determination, contract law 92–3, 98–9

B corporations see under legal personality and sovereignty, eco-commercial law materials

Bailey, S 50

Baker, J 35

bankruptcy law 67, 90

Bauman, Z 137

Benkler, Y 102

Birdsall, D 3

Blackstone, W 15

blockchain technology, contract law 100–101, 104–5

Bobbio, N 20

Bogucki, B 104

Bollier, D 39, 50

Bonilla, D 25

Boyle, J 27

Buckland, W 14, 126

Buckle, S 19

Burri, D 17

Bussani, M 130

Butler, W 37

Calabresi, G 5, 33, 121, 132, 137, 144

capitalism

and contract law 96, 101, 102–3, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109–10

and international human rights movement 156–7

and legal personality and sovereignty 58, 61–2, 63, 68–70, 71–3, 74, 77–80

property law, new frontiers 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30–34, 36–7, 39, 47

and tort law 125–6, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 137–8, 141, 143, 147–8

see also neoliberalism

Capra, F viii, 2, 7, 48, 51

Cardozo, B 8

Cassi, A x, 18

causa and consideration, distinction between, contract law 91, 93, 110, 115, 119

see also public interest issues

centralized power of large firms 33–4, 37–8

Cerutti, S 40

Chardeaux, M-A 23

Charter of the Forest, feudal tradition 16, 17

Cipolla, C 3

citizenship

citizen-consumer movement 138

citizens’ cooperation pacts 112

as connection between ownership and political agency 136, 138–9

and democracy 40–41

climate change see ‘ecological’ headings; environmental law

Coase, R 62

Cobb, N 46

Cohen, J 17

Cohen, L 138

collective access see commons

collective cooperation, ecological requirements for incorporation, working towards 74

collective to individual responsibility, tort law 122–4, 125–7, 137

commodities, consumers as 139–40, 141–2

common law and civil law comparison, property law 14

common pool resources

citizens’ cooperation pacts 112

property law, new frontiers 2–3, 19, 31–2, 38–9, 45, 48–9, 50, 51–2

and smart contracts 105

see also resources

commons

access rights 12, 16–17, 29, 41, 42–3, 44–8, 50–51

B corporations, commoning experimentation 79–80

business entities, proximity and liability (locality rule) 83–4

citizen involvement in management of public goods 49–50

Commons-Private Law-Capital into Capital-Private Law-Commons inversion 148–9

feudal tradition 16–17

institutional form and ABC Naples 80–82

municipalism of 111–12

property law 48–50

public sector intervention restrictions 46–7

social consciousness, need for new 143–4

systemic vision of contract as commons institution 109–10

and tenure system development 53

and tort law see tort law, commons, and sharing decisions on social risks

tragedy of the commons 31, 38–9, 63–5

urban commons and public/private divide 111–12

community land trusts 52

Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) and ethical purchasing groups 115–17

commutative justice

and just price 88–9, 94, 108, 127–8

and tort law 137

competitiveness

and contract law 94, 95, 99, 108, 112, 113, 118

and legal personality and sovereignty 78–9

and tort law 127, 133

consideration and causa, distinction between, contract law 91, 93, 110, 115, 119

consideration and reciprocity, contract law 89–90

consumer law

and asymmetric information 95–6, 99, 100, 103

and mercantilism 67–8

and platform economy 100, 103–4

consumers

citizen-consumer movement 138

as commodities and metadata control 139–40, 141–2

contract law 87–120, 146, 147–8

autonomy and self-determination 92–3, 98–9

and capitalism 96, 101, 102–3, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109–10

causa and consideration, distinction between 91, 93, 110, 115, 119

commutative justice and just price 88–9, 94, 108, 127–8

and competitiveness 94, 95, 99, 108, 112, 113, 118

consumer law and asymmetric information 95–6, 99, 100, 103

consumer law and platform economy 100, 103–4

contractual justice 94–7

and cooperation 93, 94, 111, 112, 115

deregulation, privatization and pricing of everything 98

distributive justice and social inequalities 95, 96–7, 108, 109–10, 127–8, 147–8

Economic Analysis of Law (EAL) 97, 98, 100

ex ante measurement 114–15, 146–7

and exchange value 92, 96, 107, 109, 112

freedom of contract 92, 96–7, 98, 99, 103, 115

and future generation interests 101, 114, 115

mercantilism 90, 91

modernity effects 107, 117

‘money back’ guarantees 96, 131

natural law 88, 91–2, 95

neoliberalism and efficiency 88, 94–5, 97–9, 101, 108

new principles for 117–20

pacta sunt servanda principle 91–2, 106

Pareto-efficiency 94, 97, 98, 108

partnerships 113, 115

profit motive 96, 109–10, 117, 118

reciprocity and consideration 87, 89–90, 94, 102, 105

religious influence, canon law and mutual consent 90–91

Roman law and gift-exchange system 89, 90, 92

self-enforcement 13, 100–101, 104–5, 110, 153–4

taxation or trickle down effects on distribution 99

technology and distributive justice 100–101

unconscionability doctrine 108–9, 153, 154–5

use value 87, 89, 90, 94, 107, 109

contract law, ecology of 107–20

Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) and ethical purchasing groups 115–17

cooperation and concurrence 93

counter-hegemonic interpretation 109, 113

and distributive justice 108, 109–10

and distributive justice, green procurement and environmental interest 94, 113–15, 118

motives consideration 110

municipalism of the commons 111–12

systemic vision of contract as commons institution 109–10

urban commons and public/private divide 111–12

welfare function 109–10

contract law, platform economy and logic of peers (sharing economy) 101–7

blockchain technology 100–101, 104–5

information capitalism transition 102–3, 104–5

productive equality and open network structure of the Internet 102

prosumers 102, 103, 104

reputational systems 102, 103

smart contracts 104–7, 108–9

smart contracts, legal concerns 106–7

cooperation, and contract law 93, 94, 111, 112, 115

Coquillette, D 66

Cornell, N 105

corporations

as makers of global private law see legal personality and sovereignty, corporations as makers of global private law

as right bearers 73–4

transnational see transnational corporations

Costa, P 40

counter-hegemonic interpretation

contract law, ecology of 109, 113

lawyers and legal interpretation role 155–6

legal personality and sovereignty 76–7, 79, 84

property law 31–4, 42, 46–7, 52

criminal law, and tort law 123–4

damages payments, tort law 123–4, 141, 142, 143

Dan-Cohen, M 38

Dardot, P 20

Davis, T 44

Dawson, J 6, 14

De Jong, J 104

defendant position, tort law, strict liability 124, 127–8, 129–30, 131, 132, 133, 142

democracy

and capitalism 61–2

citizenship and democracy, property law 40–41

and Internet 2.0140

representative 4, 5

Descartes, R 36

Dezalay, Y 69

Di Robilant, A 25, 36, 52

digital frontier and Internet monopolists 74–6

see also Internet

distributive justice 151–2

and contract law see under contract law, ecology of

and resources 124, 127, 130

and social inequalities 95, 96–7, 108, 109–10, 127–8, 147–8

and technology 100–101

and tort law, strict liability 129–30

Domat, J 92, 129

dominium, Roman tradition 14–15, 18

Duguit, L 25, 26

Dutch East Indian Company (VOC) 58–60, 65, 67

eco-commercial law materials see legal personality and sovereignty, eco-commercial law materials

ecological community and rise of new subjects 84–6

ecological footprint and imbalance 1–2, 4

ecological private law, bottom-up approach 6–7

ecological requirements for incorporation see legal personality and sovereignty, ecological requirements for incorporation, working towards

ecological trans-generational justice 152

ecologically literate interpretations, property law, new frontiers 32

ecology of contract law see contract law, ecology of

Economic Analysis of Law (EAL), contract law 97, 98, 100

economic efficiency, and tort law 130, 137

efficiency and neoliberalism 88, 94–5, 97–9, 101, 108

environmental damage, and resources 134

environmental law

collective interests of ecological communities 134–5

and polluter pays principle 133–5

see also ‘ecological’ headings

ethical purchasing groups, Community-Supported Agriculture (CSA) 115–17

EU

Civil Codes role 5

Environmental Action Programmes 113–14

green procurement 113–14

products liability 138

see also individual countries

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), social function clause exclusion 29–30

European Court of Justice (ECJ), Asociaciòn Profesional Elite Taxi v. Uber Systems Spain 75–6

exchange value 2, 6–7

and contract law 92, 96, 107, 109, 112

legal personality and sovereignty 61, 73

property law 29, 32

and tort law 122, 126, 142–3

see also use value

exclusion

gentrification 51–2, 152

and legal personality and sovereignty 57, 63, 64

and property law 12–13, 14, 16–17, 29–30, 41, 42–8, 51–2, 53–4

see also access rights

Fairfield, J 33, 47

Farber, D 82

fault principle see tort law, fault principle

Ferrando, T 12, 45, 48

feudal tradition see property law, feudal tradition

fiction theory, legal personality and sovereignty 56, 60

Foster, S 25, 41

Foucault, M 123

France

Civil Code reform 93, 119

fault principle 128

mercantilism 67

Napoleonic Code 21–4, 35, 92

strict liability principles for manufacturers 152

Franciscan school and self-determination 17

free trade agreements 27–8, 29, 59, 117

freedom of contract, contract law 92, 96–7, 98, 99, 103, 115

Friedelbaum, S 45

Friedman, M 28

Fukuyama, F 28

future generation interests 6, 148, 151, 153

and contract law 101, 114, 115

legal personality and sovereignty 80, 81–2, 84

and property law 32, 48, 49, 52

and tort law 122, 130, 131–2, 133, 134, 142

future research, eco-commercial law materials 82

Gaffney, T 104

Gambaro, A 26, 35

Gansey, P 13

Garth, B 69

gentrification 51–2, 152

Germany

compensation to victims of compulsory vaccination 152

fault principle 128

Herrenreiter 141

Gerratana, V ix

gift-exchange system, Roman law 89, 90, 92

Gilmore, G 106

Glorious Revolution and sovereign State power 58

good faith principle 108, 119, 150–51

Gordley, J 12, 21, 23, 45, 88, 89, 127, 129–30

Grande, E 153

Greece, worker buyouts 77

green procurement and environmental interest 94, 113–15, 118

see also ‘ecological’ headings

Grey, T 29

Grossi, P 22, 23

Grotius, H 19, 58, 59, 61, 65, 67, 74, 91–2, 127, 128

Hansmann, H 55

Hardin, G 38, 64

Hardt, M 31

Harvey, D 27, 28

Hertz, N 73

Hesselink, M 87–8

Hicks, J 97

Hobbes, T 19–20, 57

Hohfeld, W 14, 15, 33

Holmes, O 37, 128

Honorè, T 121

Horwitz, M 72, 126

human rights

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), social function clause exclusion 29–30

international movement 156–7

humanism 17–18, 91

see also individualism

Iaione, C 41

India, Ganges legal personality 85–6

individualism

autonomy decline concerns 32–4

collective to individual responsibility, tort law 122–4, 125–7

free will and culpability, tort law, fault principle 125–6

and humanism 17–18, 91

ownership based on power of individual exclusion 16–17

possessive individualism 20, 135–6, 137, 141–2

and property law 32–8, 39

industrial era, property law 24–6, 29–30, 36

information, asymmetric, and contract law 95–6, 99, 100, 103

information capitalism transition 102–3, 104–5

Internet

digital frontier and Internet monopolists 74–6

metadata see metadata

productive equality and open network structure 102

revolution and technological progress 135, 136–7, 139–41

smart property and Internet of things 47–8

and technical innovation 68, 74

of things 33, 47–8, 100, 108, 139

interpretation

commons, as powerful interpretive tool 48–9, 51–2

legal see lawyers and legal interpretation role

Italy

agricultural cooperatives and vacant land 52

municipalism of the commons 111–12

Jones, E 16

just price

and commutative justice 88–9, 94, 108, 127–8

and ethical purchasing groups 116–17

Kaldor, N 97

Kantorowicz, E 56

Katyal, S 8, 44

Kennedy, D 68, 70

Keynesianism, reaction to 28

Kiviat, T 104

Kotz, H 128

Kramer, M 20

Kronman, A 94, 96, 97

Lanier, J 139–40

Laval, C 20

Lawson, F 16

lawyers and legal interpretation role 7–9, 11, 149–52, 155

counter-hegemonic use of the law 155–6

international human rights movement 156–7

law ‘as such’ concept 155

legal positivism 155

systematic interpretation 152

Lefebrve, H 52

legal personality and sovereignty 55–86

absolute sovereignty development 56

abstraction and extraction 55–7

aggregate value of the top 10 corporations and social inequality 62

animal rights 82, 84–5

Canon law 56

and capitalism 58, 61–2, 63, 68–70, 71–3, 74, 77–80

captured political institutions and opportunistic behaviour 62, 64

commons business entities, proximity and liability (locality rule) 83–4

and competitiveness 78–9

corporate investment in legislation 62

counter-hegemonic interpretation 76–7, 79, 84

digital frontier and Internet monopolists 74–6

digital frontier and Internet monopolists, platform economy sharing 75–6

Dutch East Indian Company (VOC) 58–60, 65, 67

ecological community and rise of new subjects 84–6

exchange value 61, 73

and exclusion 57, 63, 64

fiction theory 56, 60

free trade agreements 59

future generation interests 80, 81–2, 84

Glorious Revolution and sovereign State power 58

international law and transnational corporations, foundation of 58–60

limited liability privilege 70, 84

modernity effects 58, 59

moral personality of organizations 56

natural law 59

neoliberal corporate law as 57

Peace of Westphalia 57

profit motive 59–60, 61, 64, 66, 67, 68–9, 70–71, 72, 74, 78, 80–81, 83

public impact of corporate decision-making 65

public opinion control by corporations 62, 69

State as anthropomorphic legal person 57

tragedy of the global commons 63–5

use value 63, 73

legal personality and sovereignty, corporations as makers of global private law 65–70

capital accumulation and extraction 69–70, 72–3

consumer protection 67–8

corporate governance and competitive advantage 64–5

mercantile law 66–7

neoliberalism and domination of global corporations 68–70, 71

privatization increase 69

social phase 67–8

stare decisis development 66

technical innovation and the Internet 68, 74

legal personality and sovereignty, eco-commercial law materials 76–82

B corporations 77–80

B corporations, commoning experimentation 79–80

B corporations, corporate form in a counter-hegemonic manner 79

B corporations, social and environmental performance 78

B corporations, survival chances 78

commons institutional form and ABC Naples 80–82

future research 82

worker buyouts and platform cooperativism 76–7

legal personality and sovereignty, ecological requirements for incorporation, working towards 70–74

collective cooperation 74

corporate bylaws in pursuit of shareholder value 71–3

and corporation as right bearer 73–4

limited liability of extractive corporations, avoidance of 71

partnerships 70

public interest proof requirement 71

legal positivism 11, 155

Lessig, L 106

Levy, E 15

limited liability privilege 70, 71, 84

Linebaugh, P 16

Lobban, M 18

Locke, J 20, 24, 57

Luhmann, N 46

McNair, A 14, 126

Macpherson, C 19, 135

Maine, H 122–3

Mancall, M 20, 31

Marella, M 48

Marx, K 24

Mason, P 27

mass production, tort law 136–7, 138

Mauss, M 87, 89

Melamed, D 33

mercantilism 66–8, 90, 91

meritocracy 20

Merrill, T 12, 42

metadata

consumers as commodities 139–40, 141–2

and contract law 74, 99, 100, 104, 108, 118

see also Internet

Milsonm, S 35

modernity effects 2–3, 7, 8

contract law 107, 117

legal personality and sovereignty 58, 59

property law 17, 18–19, 26–7, 32–3, 34–5, 36

tort law 125, 128–9, 130, 135–7, 141–2

‘money back’ guarantees 96, 131

Mont Pelerin Society 28

moral personality of organizations 56

see also legal personality and sovereignty

municipalism of the commons 111–12

see also commons

Murray, C 22

Nader, L x, 8, 9, 18, 138

Nader, R 79, 95, 138

Naruto selfie 85

natural law

contract law 88, 91–2, 95

legal personality and sovereignty 59

property law 18–21, 22

and tort law 125, 127, 129, 130

Negri, A 31

neoliberalism

and domination of global corporations 68–70, 71

and efficiency, contract law 88, 94–5, 97–9, 101, 108

property law see property law, neoliberal reaction and modern property law

see also capitalism

new subjects, ecological community and rise of 84–6

New Zealand, Whaganui River’s legal personality 85

Nicola, F 96

Nozick, R 28

nuisance law 143–4

Occupy movements and political motivation 39, 45

Olivetti as B corporation 80

Ollman, B 156–7

O’Mahony, L 46

opportunism, and captured political institutions 62, 64

O’Shields, R 105

Ostrom, E 31, 64, 83

pacta sunt servanda principle, contract law 91–2, 106

Palmer, V 130

Pareto-efficiency, contract law 94, 97, 98, 108

Parisi, F 125

Parker, W 16

partnerships 70, 113, 115, 122

Pashukanis, E 30, 146

Peace of Westphalia 57

Peñalver, E 8, 44

perpetual growth ideology 143, 147, 148–9

platform economy

and consumer law 100, 103–4

and contract law see contract law, platform economy and logic of peers (sharing economy)

legal personality and sovereignty 75–7

Polanyi, K 7, 29, 63, 135, 147

political agency, citizenship as connection between ownership and law 136, 138–9

political motivation, and Occupy movements 39, 45

polluter pays principle, and environmental law 133–5

Posner, R 97–8

possessive individualism 20, 135–6, 137, 141–2

see also individualism

Pothier, R 92

precautionary principle 133, 153

pricing

deregulation and pricing of everything 98

just price see just price

privatization 28, 41, 49, 69, 73, 98, 144

productive equality and open network structure of the Internet 102

see also Internet

profit motives 28, 49

contract law 96, 109–10, 117, 118

legal personality and sovereignty 59–60, 61, 64, 66, 67, 68–9, 70–71, 72, 74, 78, 80–81, 83

tort law 140–41

Progressive Era 37

property law 11–54

absentee property owners 52–3

access rights 12, 16–17, 29, 41, 42–3, 44–8, 50–54

Anglo-American trust law 16

citizenship and democracy 40–41

common law and civil law comparison 14

commons 48–50

commons, citizen involvement in management of public goods 49–50

commons, as powerful interpretive tool 48–9, 51–2

commons, and tenure system development 53

community land trusts 52

default rules of access and inclusion, shifting 50–54

dominant idea of property 11–13

ex ante measurement 11, 26, 146–7

and exclusion 12–13, 14, 16–17, 29–30, 41, 42–8, 51–2, 53–4

French Napoleonic Code 21–4, 35, 92

and future generation interests 32, 48, 49, 52

gentrification and exclusion 51–2, 152

and illegal trespass 12, 13, 124, 152–3

individual and collective 32–8, 39

industrial era 24–6, 29–30, 36

legal positivism 11

modernity effects 17, 18–19, 26–7, 32–3, 34–5, 36

natural law 18–21, 22

object of property distinctions 35–6

Occupy movements and political motivation 39, 45

organizational revolution 37

owner’s irrational behavior and burden of proof 51, 53–4

personal property and socialist property of the means of production, distinction between 36–7

possessive individualism 20

private property, reasons for 38–9

probabilistic function of law 11–12

Progressive Era and welfare state and liberal capitalism 37

public imperium and private dominium, differences between 34–5

right to roam 43–4

rights to access someone else’s property 42–4

Roman tradition 13–15, 18, 19

smart property and Internet of things 47–8

squatters and property occupation 11–12, 45–6

subjective right 23–4, 25, 27, 29

temporary uses with property rights 14, 51–2

and tragedy of the commons 38–9

urban space, development and exclusion zones 41

and use value 31, 32, 36, 38

wealth accumulation and social inequality 39

property law, feudal tradition 15–18, 35

and Charter of the Forest 16, 17

commons and collective access 16–17

Franciscan school and self-determination 17

humanism and individualization 17–18, 91

ownership based on power of individual exclusion 16–17

res nullius (a thing belonging to no one) and occupation 18

Scholastic doctrine 17, 18, 19

property law, neoliberal reaction and modern property law 26–30

capture of the political system 28–9, 32, 49

exchange value of things 29, 32

free trade 27–8, 29

Keynesianism, reaction to 28

Mont Pelerin Society 28

Washington Consensus 28

see also neoliberalism

property law, new frontiers 30–34

arbitration agreements 34

and centralized power of large firms 33–4, 37–8

common pool resources 2–3, 19, 31–2, 38–9, 45, 48–9, 50

counter-hegemonic interpretation of existing property 31–4, 42, 46–7, 52

ecologically literate interpretations 32

individual autonomy decline concerns 32–4

prosumers, contract law 102, 103, 104

provider liability, tort law 140–41

public imperium and private dominium, differences between 34–5

public interest issues 4, 9, 25, 43, 45, 49, 70–71, 112, 114, 131

causa and consideration, distinction between 91, 93, 110, 115, 119

public opinion control by corporations 62, 69

public/private divide, and urban commons 111–12

Pufendorf, S von 91–2, 129

Purdy, J 135

Quigley, J xi, 68

reciprocity and consideration, contract law 87, 89–90, 94, 102, 105

reductionist strategy effects, tort law 142, 144

refund policy and “no question asked”, tort law 131, 138

Reich, C 29

Reisman, W 13

religious influence, canon law and mutual consent 90–91

Renner, K 25

reputational systems, contract law and platform economy 102, 103

res nullius (a thing belonging to no one), feudal tradition 18

resources

common pool see common pool resources

and distributive justice 124, 127, 130

and environmental damage 134

myth of unlimited 147

and social inequalities 95, 96

and sustainable production 143–4

transnational corporations and profit motives 61, 62, 64

Rifkin, J 103

right to roam 43–4

rights to access see access rights

Rodotà, S 26, 137

Roman law 13–15, 18, 19, 89, 90, 92, 121

Rosanvallon, P 40

Rose, C 31

Rota, G-C 149

Rozental, A 21

Rudden, B 16

Ruggeri, A 76

Russi, L 41

Savelyev, A 105

Scandinavia

Allemansrätt (exclusion from the immediate surroundings of a home) 47

right to roam 44

Schlatter, R 13

Schlesinger, R 129

Scholastic doctrine 17, 18, 19

self-determination 17, 92–3, 98–9

self-enforcement 13, 100–101, 104–5, 110, 153–4

self-ownership, French Napoleonic Code 22–3

self-regulation 153–5

serial defendants, tort law 131–2, 133

shareholder value, corporate bylaws in pursuit of 71–3

sharing economy, and contract law see contract law, platform economy and logic of peers (sharing economy)

Singer, J 12

smart contracts 104–7, 108–9

smart property and Internet of things 47–8

Smith, A 70, 115, 147

social connotations, tort law 121–2

social consciousness of the commons, need for new 143–4

social inequalities

and aggregate value of the top 10 corporations 62

and distributive justice 95, 96–7, 108, 109–10, 127–8, 147–8

and wealth accumulation 39

social risks, and tort law see tort law, commons, and sharing decisions on social risks

sovereignty

and legal personality see legal personality and sovereignty

and transnational corporation powers 4–5, 9

Soviet Union, personal property protection 47

squatters and property occupation 11–12, 45–6

standing restriction, tort law 126, 130, 134, 142

stare decisis development, corporations as makers of global private law 66

state as anthropomorphic legal person 57

strict liability

and collective responsibility 125, 137

tort law see tort law, strict liability

subjective right, property law 23–4, 25, 27, 29

sustainable production, and resources 143–4

taxation or trickle down effects on distribution 99

technology

blockchain systems and self-enforcing contracts 100–101, 104–5

and Internet see Internet

temporary uses with property rights 14, 51–2

tenure system development 53

Thomas, P ix, x

Thompson, E 148

Toffler, A 102

tort law 121–45

and capitalism 125–6, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 137–8, 141, 143, 147–8

citizen-consumer movement 138

citizenship as connection between ownership and political agency 136, 138–9

collective to individual responsibility 122–4, 125–7

and commutative justice 137

and competitiveness 127, 133

consumers as commodities and metadata control 139–40, 141–2

and criminal law 123–4

damages payments 123–4, 141, 142, 143

and economic efficiency 137

ex ante measurement 133, 135, 142, 143, 144, 146–7

ex post evaluations 126, 132–3, 135, 136, 137, 141, 142

and exchange value 122, 126, 142–3

and future generation interests 122, 130, 131–2, 133, 134, 142

mass production 136–7, 138

modernity effects 125, 128–9, 130, 135–7, 141–2

and natural law 125, 127, 129, 130

possessive individualism 135–6, 137, 141–2

profit motive 140–41

reductionist strategy effects 142, 144

social connotations 121–2

standing restriction 126, 130, 134, 142

sustainable production and resources 143–4

technological progress and Internet revolution 135, 136–7, 139–40

tort reform 138–9

use value 122, 126, 142–3, 144

tort law, commons, and sharing decisions on social risks 141–4

nuisance law 143–4

social consciousness of the commons, need for new 143–4

tort law, fault principle 124–8

collective responsibility and strict liability 125, 137

collective responsibility to individual fault 126–7

individual free will and culpability 125–6

tort law, strict liability 128–35

defendant position 124, 127–8, 129–30, 131, 132, 133, 142

and distributive justice 129–30

and economic efficiency 130

environmental law, collective interests of ecological communities 134–5

environmental law and polluter pays principle 133–5

environmental law and precautionary principle 133, 153

refund policy and “no question asked” 131, 138

serial defendants 131–2, 133

stakeholders risks, costs transfer 130–31

tragedy of the commons 31, 38–9, 63–5

see also commons

transnational corporations 58–60

and profit motives 61, 62, 64

see also corporations; profit motives

Trebilcock, M 98

trespass 12, 13, 42–4, 124, 152–3

trickle down, taxation or trickle down effects on distribution 99

UK

Anglo-American trust law 16

Aslam, Ferrar & others v. Uber 75

fault principle 128

mercantilism 67

right to roam 43

worker buyouts 77

unconscionability doctrine, contract law 108–9, 153, 154–5

Unger, R ix

urban commons and public/private divide 111–12

see also commons

urban space, development and exclusion zones 41

see also exclusion

US

Anglo-American trust law 16

Berwick v. Uber Technologies 75

Burwell v. Hobby Lobby 73–4

citizen-consumer movement 138

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission 73

Constitution and right to property 22

corporation as right bearer 73–4

Douglas O’ Connor v. Uber Technologies 75

fault principle 128

San Francisco underground trains and seat allocation 154

Sierra Club v. Morton 134–5

use value 2, 6–7, 150, 153

contract law 87, 89, 90, 94, 107, 109

legal personality and sovereignty 63, 73

and property law 31, 32, 36, 38

tort law 122, 126, 142–3, 144

see also exchange value

Valguarnera, F 43

Van Ittersum, M 58

Vercellone, A 52

Vieta, M 76

VOC (Dutch East Indian Company) 58–60, 65, 67

Von Gierke, O 56

Von Hayek, F 28

Von Savigny, F 56

Vyshinsky, A 30

Washington Consensus 28

Watson, A 121

wealth accumulation and social inequality 39

Weitzman, M 17

welfare function, contract law, ecology of 109–10

Werback, K 105

Werro, F 130

Windscheid, B 23

Wolff, E 18

Wood, E 57, 136, 148

work job insecurity, digital frontier and Internet monopolists 75–6

worker buyouts and platform cooperativism 76–7

Zweigert, K 128