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Immigration Policy and the Shaping of U.S. Culture

Becoming America

Roger White

The author examines the relationships between immigration policy, observed immigration patterns, and cultural differences between the United States and immigrants’ source countries. The entirety of U.S. immigration history (1607-present) is reviewed through a recounting of related legislative acts and by examining data on immigrant inflows and cross-societal cultural distances.
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Index

Becoming America

Roger White

acculturation 156, 184, 188
Act of Union 26
Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves 34
African-Americans 97, 1669, 1745
Africans 171, 177
agriculture 45, 57
Alien and Sedition Laws 35
Alien Contract Labor Act 5051
Alien Enemies Act 34
Alien Friends Act 34
Alien Registration Act 678
aliens 5, 7, 35, 48, 81, 134
Amerasian Immigration Act 8081
American colonies 25, 28, 33, 18081
American Community Study (ACS) 2
American culture viii, 3, 16, 22, 98100, 163, 1656, 1746, 1789, 1845, 1878
see also U.S. culture
American Party 367
see also Know-Nothing Party
American public 8, 11, 81
American Revolution 267
American society 1, 89, 11, 1314, 188
American Trends Panel Survey 8, 11
Americanism 6
Americans viiviii, 4, 10, 53, 68, 186
amnesty 8, 79
Anarchist Exclusion Act 5051
anchor babies vii
anti-Asian sentiment 125
Anti-Coolie Law of 1862 34, 64
Armed Forces Immigration Adjustment Act 8081
Armed Forces Naturalization Act 8081
Asian Exclusion 53
Asian-Pacific Triangle 70
Asians 97, 122, 166, 169, 171, 173, 1767
Asiatic Barred Zone vii, 57, 70, 96, 122, 125, 127, 130, 165
assimilate 8, 53, 55, 98, 100, 106, 166, 1745, 184, 188
asylum-seekers 2, 79, 182
Bayard-Zhang Treaty 50, 56
bias incidents 8
birthright citizenship vii, 16
Blockley Almshouse 36
border walls vii
Bracero Program 67
British Commonwealth 155
British Crown 278
Burlingame-Seward Treaty 1617, 34, 49
Cable Act 67
California state legislature 57
California Supreme Court 54
Carriage of Passenger Act 34
Catholics 36
Charity Hospital 36
cheap land 22, 25
Chew Heong 16
Chew Heong v. US 50
Chinese Exclusion Act 34, 16, 48, 50, 546, 60, 64, 1223, 125, 1334, 181, 183
Chinese Exclusion Case 34, 7
see also Ping, Chae Chan
Chinese immigration 557, 60, 70, 125, 127, 181
and anti-Chinese sentiment 49, 54, 56
and Chinese immigrants 41, 48, 55
and Chinese laborers 3, 37, 41, 489, 546, 156
and Chinese laundries 55
Church of England 22
citizenship 16, 33, 41, 56, 156, 165, 18081
City of New York municipal almshouse 35
civil rights 16, 81
Civil War 22, 52
Cleveland, Grover 3
Cold War 155, 160
Colonial America 223, 256, 28, 43, 45
Colonial Era 1, 212, 28, 49, 180
colonies 4, 22, 258, 33, 42, 154, 180
Columbian Exchange 21, 180, 184
Commissioner of Labor Statistics 58
common border 1067, 113
common language 1067, 113
Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC) 8
contract laborers 51, 55
convicts 27, 48
Coolidge, Calvin 66
criminals 8, 267, 33, 356, 48, 181
Cuban Refugee Adjustment Act 67
cubic air ordinance 55
cultural assimilation 98, 1767
cultural change 147, 185, 188
cultural differences 100, 111, 134, 139, 144, 1478, 158, 161, 166, 175, 188
cultural dimensions 13740, 1425, 14851, 1589, 1834
cultural distance 123, 134, 1379, 1434, 14852, 15461, 1656, 1767, 1834
cultural evolution 1, 16, 165, 174
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) 80
Democrats 11, 13, 82
Department of Commerce and Labor 51
deportation 10, 35, 48, 56, 81
Dillingham Commission 5051, 156
direct cost of migration 106
discrimination viii, 14, 11, 26, 49, 68
diseases 5, 21, 51, 18081
displaced persons 70
Displaced Persons Act 67
diversity visa program 79
Dunkers 25
Dutch East India Company 22
economic opportunity 106, 178
economic prosperity 4, 26
Edict of Nantes 25
Emergency Quota Act 2, 7, 657, 110, 122, 125, 127, 130, 133, 181, 183
emigrate 257, 51, 567, 127, 160, 180
English Catholics 22
English Civil War 22
English Parliament 267
English settlements 25
English settlers 25
Enhanced Border Security and Visa Entry Reform Act 80
environmental issues 144
Equal Nationality Act 67
European immigration 5, 97
Europeans 3, 13, 21, 26, 7071, 82, 96
Evening Pajaronian 56
Executive Order 9066 67
Executive Order 13769 1011
Executive Order 13780 11
Expatriation Act 50, 156
family or communal obligations 147
family values 144
fertility rates 147
Filipino immigration 5, 7
and anti-Filipino demonstrations 6
and anti-Filipino sentiment 56
and Filipino farm workers 5
and Filipino Repatriation Act 67
and Filipino workers 45
Fillmore, Millard 37
food, music, and the arts 11, 187
forced laborers 4, 48, 181
foreign brides 70
foreign direct investment (FDI) 104, 186
foreign-born population 1115, 60, 656, 73, 75, 778, 81, 103, 130, 166, 17074, 187
see also immigrants
French Protestants 25
G.I. Fiancees Act 67
Geary Act 50, 56, 120, 181
gender roles 1424, 1478
General Court of Massachusetts 27
geodesic distance 104, 10613
German immigrants 41, 73
globalization 178
GLOBE measure of cultural distance 138, 151, 158, 166
and Assertiveness (ASSERT) 143, 1456, 152
and Gender Egalitarianism (GEND-EGL) 143, 1456, 152
and In-group Collectivism (INGP-COL) 1446, 152
and Institutional Collectivism (INST-COL) 1446, 152
and Power Distance (POWDIST) 1446, 152
and Uncertainty Avoidance (UNC-AVD) 1446, 1512
see also Project GLOBE
Gold Rush 41, 49, 123
Grant, Ulysses S. 4
gravity model 15, 104, 114, 12021, 123, 1823
Great Depression 5, 68, 71
Great Irish Famine 40
Great Irish Migration 40
Great Migration 22, 60
Gresham-Yang Treaty 50, 56
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 104, 10812, 11516, 118
Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita 104, 1067, 110, 11314, 117, 11920
habits 138
Hart-Celler Act 12, 16, 67, 7982, 87, 97, 104, 100, 110, 1213, 1313, 137, 139, 1557, 159, 1656, 179, 1825
hate crimes 8
hate incidents 8
Heaven 147
Hebrew 47
Henderson v. the Mayor of the City of New York 4950
Hindu 58
Hispanics 8, 1011, 13, 97, 16677
Hmong Veterans’ Naturalization Act 8081
Hofstede, Geert 138, 183
see also Hofstede measure of cultural distance
Hofstede measure of cultural distance 138, 143, 150, 1568
and Individualism vs. Collectivism (IDV) 13940, 1424, 14950, 157
and Masculinity vs. Femininity (MAS) 140, 1423, 14950, 157
and Power Distance Index (PDI) 13940, 142, 144, 14950, 157
and Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) 140, 1424, 14950, 157
see also Hofstede, Geert
Homestead Act 34
homosexuals 147
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act 80
immigrant inflow 12, 37, 58, 645, 68, 82, 87, 957, 103, 107, 110, 11314, 117, 1217, 13033, 176, 1812, 187
immigrants viiviii, 15, 716, 21, 258, 33, 358, 4041, 489, 515, 578, 6061, 636, 68, 71, 73, 79, 8082, 87, 90, 94, 968, 100, 1034, 1067, 11011, 11315, 11718, 12027, 13034, 137, 1557, 159, 1656, 169, 1712, 1746, 17888
and anti-immigrant acts 4
and anti-immigrant feelings 5
and anti-immigrant isolationist position 186
and anti-immigrant ordinances 55
and anti-immigrant rhetoric 8
and anti-immigrant sentiment 4, 37, 55
and anti-immigrant views 8
and anti-immigrant violence 17
see also foreign-born population
Immigration Act of 1864 34, 37, 64
Immigration Act of 1882 48, 50
Immigration Act of 1891 50, 181
Immigration Act of 1903 51
Immigration Act of 1907 5051
Immigration Act of 1917 vii, 50, 57, 66, 68, 122, 125, 127, 133
Immigration Act of 1918 50
Immigration Act of 1924 66
Immigration Act of 1965 79, 179
Immigration Act of 1990 7980, 122, 1323
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1976 8081
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1990 79
Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) 7980
immigration restrictions 58, 156, 166
income inequality vii
Indian immigrants 58
indigenous peoples 16
indirect cost of migration 106
Indochina Migration and Refugee Assistance Act 8081
infrastructure 48
Inglehart, Ronald 138
see also Inglehart measure of cultural distance
see also World Value Survey
Inglehart measure of cultural distance 138, 144, 147, 154, 160, 166, 176
and Survival vs. Self-expression Values (SSE) 1449, 1535
and Traditional vs. Secular-rational Authority (TSR) 144, 1479, 1535
see also Inglehart, Ronald
see also World Value Survey
institutions 21, 66, 68, 180
Internal Security Act 67
international migration ix, 15, 7071, 96, 121, 174, 182
investment flows 21, 178, 186
Iowa Freedom Summit 8
Irish immigrants 26, 4041
and Irish Famine 26, 40
and Irish Free State 69
and Irish paupers 36
isolationism 65, 178
Jamestown Colony 15, 21, 25, 180
Japanese immigration 57
and anti-Japanese sentiment 57
and First US-Japan Gentlemen’s Agreement 50
and Japanese Exclusion 56
and Japanese internment 16
and Second US-Japan Gentlemen’s Agreement 50
Jewish immigrants 22
jobs 56, 10, 148
Johnson-Reed Act 7, 668, 73, 78, 122, 125, 130, 133, 181
Kennedy, John F. 71, 73
Know-Nothing Party 367
see also American Party
Labor Appropriation Act 67
laborers 41, 49, 57, 127
license fee 55
Literacy Act vii
literacy test 125
Magnuson Act 67, 70, 134
marital status 98
Maryland Colony 22
Massachusetts Bay Colony 22
McCarran-Walter Act 1, 67, 7071, 110, 122, 125, 127, 1313, 181, 183
Mennonites 25
Mexican Farm Labor Agreement 67
Mexican immigrants 13
Mexican Revolution 96
Mexican-American War 41
Migration and Refugee Assistance Act 67, 73, 81
modern era 77
Mongolian 54
moral turpitude 51, 181
morals 66, 68
Moravians 25
multiculturalism 188
Muslim ban 1011
National Origins Formula 71, 182
National Origins Quota System 2, 15, 65, 68, 7071, 73, 75, 79, 967, 13031, 1812
nationalism vii, 147
nationalist 178
native-born vii, 5, 11, 13, 356, 55, 98, 134, 1867
nativism vii, 36, 70
Naturalization Act of 1790 1, 334
Naturalization Act of 1795 334
Naturalization Act of 1798 345
Naturalization Act of 1802 345
Naturalization Act of 1870 34
Naturalization Act of 1906 50
Newton, Sir Isaac 104
New World 212
Ninth Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals 11
Non-European immigration 97
non-traditional immigrant source countries 989, 122, 128, 13031, 133, 1378, 153, 155, 1589, 165, 176, 183
Northern and Western European wave 21, 28, 48
Northern Monterey County Chamber of Commerce 5
Northwest Territory 32
Old World 21, 180
open door 1, 180
opium addiction 55
organized companies 55
outgroups 147
overcrowded housing 55
Pacific northwest 73
Page, Horace F. 4
Page Act 4, 33, 37, 48, 50, 64, 17981
Palatine Germans 26
Passenger Act of 1820 34
Passenger Act of 1847 34
passenger lists 27, 35
Payson Act 50
Penn, William 25
Pennsylvania Colony 27
Pennsylvania Hospital 36
persecution 22, 70
Pew Research Center (Pew) 89, 11, 16, 40, 63, 75, 86, 97, 167
Ping, Chae Chan 3, 7, 50
see also Chinese Exclusion Case
plenary power doctrine 3
Plymouth Colony 224, 436
policy changes 51, 101, 103, 107, 1213, 125, 127, 131, 133, 135, 179, 188
political and legislative structures 21
polygamists 51, 181
population projections 16, 169, 1745, 177, 184
Presbyterians 26
Project GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) 138, 1435, 1512, 15861, 1834
see also GLOBE measure of cultural distance
prostitution 4, 55, 181
Protestant immigrants 22
Protestant reformers 22
public health 55
Qing Dynasty 64
Quakers 22, 25, 36
qualitative restrictions 15, 48, 65, 77, 181
quantitative restrictions 15, 63, 656, 77, 181
queue ordinance 55
quota allocations 66, 73, 182
quota mortgaging 71
quota system 2, 15, 65, 6871, 73, 75, 77, 79, 812, 967, 13032, 1812
quotas 7, 656, 6871, 73, 77, 127, 130, 156, 1812
race riots 67, 36
racial 5, 6, 14, 33, 97, 156, 166, 16870, 1745
racism 5, 7
rational-legal norms 147
REAL ID Act 80
Refugee Act 80, 100
Refugee Relief Act 67
refugees 2, 7, 10, 25, 27, 70, 73, 7981, 96, 100, 182
registration certificates 56
relics 7
religious authority 147
religious beliefs 21
religious dissenters 22
religious tolerance 22, 28
remittances 186
Representative Albert Johnson 66
Republicans 78, 11, 13, 82
research and development 187
residency requirement 33, 3536
resident aliens 35
Rohrback, Judge D.W. 56
Roman Catholicism 36
Roosevelt, Theodore 57
Russian Turkestan vii, 57
San Francisco Chronicle 5
science and technology 11, 187
Scotch 26, 312, 47
Scotch-Irish immigrants 26
Scotch-Irish 256
Scott Act of 1888 34, 17, 50
Scott Act of 1902 50, 56, 181
Scout ix
secular-rational 144, 147, 1534
Secure Fence Act 80
shared border 113
Simpson Diversity Index (SDI) 94, 168, 17073
Simpson-Mazzoli Act 79
slavery 16, 28
smallpox 21
social and moral values 11
social hierarchies 21
Society for the Relief of the Poor 36
Southern and Eastern European wave 48
Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC) 8
Soviet Union 94, 160
see also U.S.S.R.
Spanish-American War 4
spouses 70, 81, 98
Steerage Act 345
structural breaks 103, 110, 12023, 1257, 13033, 183
Syrian refugees 7, 10
technological advances 144, 178
technology 12
terrorist vii, 81, 187
Tobera, Fermin 6
tolerance of religion 22
tolerance 142, 144, 157
tolerant 142, 188
tourism 104, 186
traditional immigrant source countries 16, 52, 96, 989, 1212, 128, 13031, 133, 1378, 153, 15561, 1656, 1756, 1834
traditional societies 147
traditions 138
transcontinental railroad 49
Transportation Act 267
transportation costs 104
travel bans vii
travel costs 106
Treaty of Burlingame 55
Treaty of Paris 4
Treaty of Tientsin 17, 49, 54
Treaty Regulating Immigration from China 16, 4950
Trump, Donald 711
Tuke Fund 36
Tydings-McDuffie Act 7, 67, 70
U.S. Attorney General 71
U.S. Congress vii, 34, 35, 37, 49, 51, 556, 656, 125, 156
U.S. Constitution 16, 180
14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution 16, 34
Commerce Clause of the Constitution 51
U.S. culture 13, 1516, 97, 123, 137, 1567, 1834
see also American culture
U.S. House Committee on Immigration 66
U.S. House of Representatives 51, 82
U.S. Senate 51, 55, 70, 82, 125
U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee 35, 70
U.S. Supreme Court 34, 16, 49, 56
U.S.S.R 141, 155, 161
see also Soviet Union
Ulster 26, 312
undocumented immigrants 8, 64, 79
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 73
USA Patriot Act 8081
Vigdor cultural assimilation index 989, 1767
Virginia Colony 22, 26, 180
visas 11, 79
War Brides Act 67, 70
watch lists 7
Watsonville Register 6
whites 56, 11, 97, 1669, 171, 1757
Wilson, Woodrow vii, 125
Wong Kim Ark v. US 50
World Values Survey (WVS) 138, 144, 1489, 153, 160, 1834
see also Inglehart measure of cultural distance
see also Inglehart, Ronald
World War I (First World War) 52, 63, 65, 96, 127, 178
World War II (Second World War) 68, 7071, 81, 155, 181
Worldwide Ceiling Law 80, 100