Chapter 13: Social unrest and the rise of the left (1810–1930)
The philosophies of socialism, anarchism, and communism are usually seen as modern and Western but the ideas these philosophies represent can be found in many places and times in world history. It is true that the most developed form of these systems of thought emerged in the nineteenth century, primarily in Europe, though often in the periphery such as in Russia. What is also often neglected is the story of socialism, anarchist and communism outside of Western Europe and the United States when there are not only many instructive examples of thinkers and activists, but also the impact of these forms of thought help explain subsequent events and ideas in ways that are not fully recognized, such as the role of anarchism in preparing the way for communism in China, how socialist thought came to dominate political discourse in Arab countries and the impact of the left in Japan.
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