Chapter 14: Ultra-nationalism, fascism and philosophy (1880–1950)
There is an interesting puzzle examined in this chapters wherein thinkers and approaches to political thought that reject conventional metaphysics also became tainted with involvement in ultra-nationalism and Fascism. The Kyoto School in Japan and Heidegger in Germany are not independent cases because the two are deeply intertwined but the dilemma raised by both are strikingly similar. As with the political thought of Neitzsche, who inspired many in the Kyoto School and Heidegger himself, there are intriguing and important ideas and approaches created by these thinkers but their collaboration, wittingly or unwittingly, with others who did much harm, naturally fosters doubts about a lack of ethical foundations and its implications for their political thought.
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