Chapter 15: Anti-colonialism and neo-liberalism (1920–1980)
This period saw the stark choice between violence, particularly of the revolutionary left (Mao, Fanon, Che Guevara), and non-violence, usually of religiously inspired figures (Gandhi, Martin Luther King). Violence was the more prevalent approach but the long-term cost was high. What is most remarkable about this time in world history is how almost universal faith in socialism and the benefits of pan-regionalism, such as pan-Arabism and pan-Africanism, faded to the point the thought of the period looks naïve. In contrast, Western neo-liberalism, both the free market rhetoric of Hayek and the soft liberalism of Rawls, seemed to have emerged victorious in the battle of ideas against their rivals of the time, though doubts about the validity of neo-liberalism remained, particularly outside the West.
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