Chapter 16: Shifting foundations and return to origins (1980–2015)
The final chapter attempts to grasp the dynamics of rejection of philosophical foundations and the rise of relativism against the attempt for others to find certainty in forms of modernized tradition, as seen in Islamic fundamentalism and New Confucianism in China. Postmodernist or poststructuralists such as Foucault and Derrida undermined philosophical foundations but were originally so focused on the West and unable to engage the non-West effectively that the implications of their thought it muddled. Similarly, feminist political thought has developed dramatically but has similar limits based on cultural bias and even questions about the meaning of gender at the basis of feminist theory. Islamic fundamentalism and the New Confucianism are clearly a modern distortion of older forms of thought but the political implications of these movements are unclear.
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