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Court Mediation Reform

Efficiency, Confidence and Perceptions of Justice

Shahla F. Ali

As judiciaries advance, exploring how court mediation programs can provide opportunities for party-directed reconciliation whilst ensuring access to formal legal channels requires careful investigation. Court Mediation Reform explores comparative empirical findings in order to examine the association between court mediation structure and perceptions of justice, efficiency and confidence in courts.
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Index

Efficiency, Confidence and Perceptions of Justice

Shahla F. Ali

access to justice
accessibility 31
France 110
Hong Kong 86
India 216
Malaysia 137
The Netherlands 111
United Kingdom 82, 84
United States 156
affordability 314
France 110
Hong Kong 86
India 216
Malaysia 137
The Netherlands 111
United Kingdom 82, 84
United States 156
human rights considerations 456
impartial justice see impartiality
improvement of 228, 246
inconsistency with institutionalized court-based settings 445
rise of court-based mediation, scholarly critiques 438
Access to Justice (Interim and Final
Reports,1995 and 1996) 66
adjudication 16
administrative cases 119, 196
ADR see Alternative Dispute
Resolution (ADR)
Afcons Infrastructure Ltd and another
v. Cherian Varkey Construction
Co. (P) Ltd and others (2010),
India 212, 214
African countries 545
Ahmedabad Mediation Centre,
India 209
AIJA (Australian Institute of Judicial
Administration) 38
Alternative Dispute Resolution
(ADR) 49, 66
see also Alternative Disputes Resolution Act 1998, US; Alternative Disputes Resolution Act 2010, Ghana; arbitration; arbitrators; conciliation; court-based mediation; mediation; National Alternative Dispute Resolution Advisory Council, Australia
Australia 158, 160, 163, 164
China 189
France 99, 106
global context of court mediation reform 25, 27, 31, 32
global mediation survey 221
Hong Kong 85, 86
impartiality and effectiveness 96, 138, 156, 168, 184, 204
India 206
Italy 173, 174
Malaysia 126
The Netherlands 112, 113
organizations providing ADR services, monitoring 107
Platform ADR 113
United States 45, 143, 144, 145, 146, 155
Alternative Disputes Resolution Act 1998, US 146
Alternative Disputes Resolution Act 2010, Ghana 55
arbitration 55, 106, 132, 171, 189
see also Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996, India; Institute of Arbitration and Mediation (IIAM), India; Kuala Lumpur Regional Centre for Arbitration
Australia 164, 167
awards 214
India 206, 209, 214, 215
Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996, India 208, 209
Assisted Dispute Resolution programme, Australia 160
Australia 15869
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) 158, 160, 163, 164
arbitration 164, 167
Assisted Dispute Resolution programme 160
Civil Dispute Resolution Act 2011 (CDRA) 159, 1625, 167
civil justice ranking 1679
civil justice system 158, 168, 169
court-annexed mediation 28
Courts (Mediation and Arbitration) Act 1991 160
District Court Act 1967 (Queensland) 30
Federal Circuit Court (Magistrates Court) 158, 162
Federal Court 158, 162
Federal Court of Australia Act 1976 158, 160, 164, 167
Federal Court Rules 2011 162
High Court 158
Institute of Judicial Administration (AIJA) 38
Law and Justice Legislation Amendment Act 1997 160
law/policy background 15962
Legal Aid Commissions 161, 162
legal aid policy 16062
mandatory mediation in 28, 378, 52, 15960
National Alternative Dispute Resolution Advisory Council (NADRAC) 38, 159
New South Wales 28, 29, 30, 378, 47
practical implementation of ADR policies 1646
programme features 1624
Requirement to Attend Mediation Orientation Session 30
research results, analysis 1679
South Australia 30
tribunals 162
Victoria 28, 30, 159, 162
Australian Competition and Consumer Commission v. Collagen Aesthetics Australia Pty Ltd (2002) 165, 166
backlogs of cases see case backlogs
Bangalore Mediation Centre 216
Bosnia and Herzegovina 33, 232
Bradford v. James (2008) 73
Brazil 27
Burchell v. Bullard (2005) 72
California 147, 148, 153, 155
Camp David mediation 42
CAMS see Court of Appeal Mediation Scheme (CAMS), UK
Canada
mandatory mediation 30, 37
Public Service Staff Relations Board 40
Quebec 226
Saskatchewan province 56, 226
Carter, President Jimmy 42
case backlogs 257
global context of court mediation reform 26, 29, 36
India 35, 206, 210, 211
Italy 170, 1712, 174, 185
Malaysia 1267
programme design 55, 58
caseload reduction rationale, court mediation reform 3, 18, 67, 228, 250, 257
global context of court mediation reform 26, 27, 29, 345, 37, 38, 43, 48
CDRA see Civil Dispute Resolution Act 2011 (CDRA), Australia
CEDR Solve (mediation provider), UK 69, 70
Central London County Court (CLCC)
Automatic Referral to Mediation pilot scheme 30
county court trial centre 32
voluntary mediation scheme (VOL) 66, 678, 7980
Centre for Effective Dispute Resolution (CEDRI), UK 81
CFI (Court of First Instance), Hong Kong 85, 95, 96
Champion Concord Ltd v. Lau Koon
Foo (No. 2) FACV16/2010;
(2011), Hong Kong 92
Chennai Mediation Centre, India 210
Chew Hon Keong v. Betterproducts
Industries Sdn Bhd (2013),
Malaysia 134, 135
China 186205
civil justice ranking 2035
civil justice system 187, 188, 204
civil mediation paper (consent judgment) 1989
Civil Procedure Law, PRC 186, 190, 194, 198, 202
Confucianism 189
contracts 199, 200201, 202
costs issues 2023
early studies of mediation in 1856
fees 202
ground rules 1948
initiating legislation 1912
initiating of mediation 194
judicial mediation 1889, 1914
advantages, Chinese context 1912
costs incurred 2023
scope of application for 194
in various phases of civil litigation process 1924
legality principle 1956
litigation era (1990s) 19091
mediation process 1968
People’s Mediation Committee 196
policy background 18992
post-litigation era (post-2000s) 191
post-mediation implications 198
practical implementation 200201
pre-litigation era (1950s to the 1980s) 190
principles of Chinese mediation 1956
programme features 1929
rationale for mediation 1912
research results, analysis 2015
revolutionary era 18990
scheduling of mediation sessions 1924
scope of application for judicial mediation 194
statistics, mediation-related 2012
in-trial mediation 1934
Chint Group Corporation v. Schneider Electric Low Voltage (Tianjin) Co. Ltd (2007), China 200
‘chotei,’ Japan 54
Civil Dispute Resolution Act 2011 (CDRA), Australia 159, 1625, 167
enforceability 1634
practical implementation 1645
procedure 1623
civil justice
see also justice
civil justice rankings
Australia 1679
China 2035
Hong Kong 967
India 27
Italy 1835
Malaysia 1378
The Netherlands 1223
United Kingdom 824
United States 1557
civil justice reform
see also reform of court mediation
Hong Kong Civil Justice Reform (CJR) 85, 86, 88, 91, 93
Italy 170
United States 145
civil justice systems 9, 12, 26, 312, 37, 252
Australia 158, 168, 169
China 187, 188, 204
France 109
Hong Kong 96
India 216
Italy 170, 171, 174, 181, 184, 185
Malaysia 125, 128, 137, 138
The Netherlands 110, 122, 123, 124
United Kingdom 67, 82, 83
United States 155, 156
civil law
see also commercial disputes
contracts see contracts
employment 27, 42, 47, 65
family cases see family law
property 182, 214, 215
Civil Mediation Online Directory, UK 67
civil mediation paper (consent judgment) 1989
Civil Procedure Act, India 206
Civil Procedure Code (CPC), The Netherlands 112
Civil Procedure Rules (CPR), Hong Kong 29
Civil Procedure Rules (CPR), UK 44, 68, 70, 746, 78
CLCC see Central London County Court (CLCC)
Code of Civil Procedure, France 101, 103, 105, 107
Code of Civil Procedure, India 35, 2089, 212
coercion to mediate 13, 30, 195, 253
see also mandatory mediation
global context of court mediation reform 44, 46
non-coercive mediation 230, 255
Colombia 36
commercial disputes
France 100, 101
India 214, 215
Italy 172, 173, 175, 176
Malaysia 131
community-based mediation 412
conciliation 79, 101, 250
India 206, 209, 214, 215
Italy 170, 171, 175
mandatory 36
versus mediation 206
Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation, UNCITRAL 60, 61
programme design 54, 60, 61
traditional 10
confidence in mediation 2523
Australia 1689
China 203, 204
France 109
global mediation survey 22930
Hong Kong 86, 967
India 207, 216
Malaysia 1378
mandatory mediation 221, 2534
measures 9
The Netherlands 111, 122
United Kingdom 82, 834
United States 144, 155
confidentiality in proceedings
France 99, 102
India 215
Italy 152, 179
Malaysia 129
The Netherlands 112, 115, 116
programme design 55, 61
conflicts of interest 15, 19, 23940, 257
avoiding 91, 116
Confucianism, China 189
consent for meditation
agreement 197
all parties 125, 148, 206, 214
both parties 69, 127, 214
decrees 153
delay in 73
France 102
global context of court mediation reform 39
judgments 134, 197, 1989
judicial mediation 99
lack of 6, 30, 179, 193, 213, 214, 215
Malaysia 127
mutual 151, 213, 215
orders 76, 133, 134, 135
programme design 50, 51, 57
United Kingdom 69, 71
United States 146, 151, 152
written 91
contracts 27
China 199, 200201, 202
Hong Kong 92, 94
India 213, 215
Italy 173, 178, 182
United Kingdom 69, 76
United States 152
costs issues
see also fees
awards 71, 72, 74, 163, 165
China 2023
France 103
global mediation survey 2267
Hong Kong 945
Italy 180
judicial mediation 2023
The Netherlands 118, 1212
reduction of cost rationale for court-based mediation 18, 26, 314, 48, 192, 228, 232, 250, 257
United Kingdom 77
United States 151
unreasonable failure to engage in mediation 945
voluntary mediation 2324
Court of Appeal Mediation Scheme
(CAMS), UK 67
see also United Kingdom
pre-settlement 6970
post-settlement 70
statistics 80
Court of First Instance (CFI), Hong
Kong 85, 95, 96
Court of Justice of the European
Union (CJEU) 45, 58
court procedures, complexities 27
court-annexed mediation
Australia 28
data collection 7
India 356, 210
Malaysia 126, 129, 13032, 134, 137
The Netherlands 36
court-based mediation
see also mediation; reform of court mediation
confidence in programmes see confidence in mediation 22930
costs 2267
in-court mediation 113, 188
court-annexed mediation see court-annexed mediation
court-ordered mediation 181
efficacy issues 25
extrinsic factors 2, 26, 3943, 24950
improvement strategies 2427
intrinsic policy justifications 2, 2643, 24950
judge-led 12930, 133, 136
pre-trial 128, 147, 164, 193
process considerations 4041
public policy 467
rationales for see rationales for court-based mediation
reform aims, global context 2548
regional implementation of 29
scholarly critiques of rise in
access to justice 456
inconsistency with institutionalized court-based settings 445
public policy 467
response to 48
unsuitability for particular case types 47
scholarly critiques of rise of 438
strengths and challenges 23542
time reduction 38
in-trial 53, 1934
court-ordered mediation, Italy 181
Courts (Mediation and Arbitration) Act 1991, Australia 160
Courts and Legal Services Act 1990, UK 31
CPC Amendment Act, India 208
criminal law
Australia 164
China 190
France 99, 100, 105, 107
global context of court mediation reform 28, 36
India 213
Malaysia 127
programme design 56
United Kingdom 67
cross-border law 58, 61
CY Foundation Group Ltd v. Leonora Yung and others (2011), Hong Kong 93
data collection
methodology 710
survey data collection method 2246
Dato’ Dr Joseph Eravelly v. Dato Hilmi Mohd Nor (2011), Malaysia 135
delay reduction, as rationale for court-mediation reform
Australia 167, 169
China 204, 205
France 109, 110
global context of court mediation reform 19, 26, 30, 349
Hong Kong 86, 96, 98
Italy 184
Malaysia 125, 137, 139
The Netherlands 111, 123, 124
United Kingdom 65, 82, 84
United States 144, 155, 157
Delhi High Court Mediation and Conciliation Centre 210
Denmark 534
discrimination reduction rationale 19, 86, 110, 111, 124, 169
Malaysia 125, 139
United States 144, 157
dispute settlement
cultural and societal approaches to 53
dispute types 556
District Courts (DCs), Hong Kong 85, 95
divorce law 106, 121, 197
domestic violence cases 236
Dunnett v. Railtrack plc (2002), UK 69, 712, 80
economic development 27
effectiveness of ADR 96, 138, 156, 168, 184, 204
efficiency factors 2523
Australia 167, 168
China 203, 204
economic development and judicial efficiency 27
France 10910
Hong Kong 86, 96
India 207, 216
Italy 184
Malaysia 137
measures 9
The Netherlands 111, 122, 123
programme design 232
rationales for mediation 51
and rise of court-based mediation 2630
Singapore as role model 278
United Kingdom 82
United States 144, 155
voluntary mediation 253, 256
employment 27, 42, 47, 65
labour disputes 56, 175
enforcement of mediated agreements
Australia 1634
Civil Dispute Resolution Act 2011 (CDRA), Australia 1634
cross-border 61
France 105
Hong Kong 92
India 21314
Malaysia 134
mediation award 21314
settlement agreements 756
United Kingdom 756
United States 1523
EU Mediation Directive 2008/52/EC 45
and France 99, 100, 101, 102, 106
and Italy 170, 1723, 185
and The Netherlands 112
voluntary and mandatory mediation 578
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) 45, 59
European Council 99
European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 58
European Parliament 172
expenses see costs issues; fees
Expert Group Customized Conflict Resolution program, The Netherlands 114
extrinsic factors, court-based mediation 2, 26, 3943, 24950
process considerations 4041
relational justifications 3940
societal considerations 413
family law
divorce 106, 121, 197
domestic violence cases 236
matrimonial law 131
Federal Circuit Court, Australia 158, 162
Federal Court of Australia 158, 162
Federal Court of Australia Act 1976 158, 160, 164, 167
fees
calculating 202
cancellation 70
case acceptance 202
China 202
contingent 91
court 34, 211
expert witness 180
fixed 69
free or discounted 53
global mediation survey 2267, 233, 240
Hong Kong 91
hourly 240
India 211
Italy 177, 180
Malaysia 132
mandatory mediation 257
The Netherlands 118
paid for by parties 257
subsidized 118
United Kingdom 31, 68, 69, 70, 71, 81, 82
venue 82
waiver 180
Finland 42
Fiss, Owen 15, 46
Florida 148, 151, 154, 227
France 99110
civil justice system 109
Club of Mediators for Public Service 108
Code de procédure civile (Code of Civil Procedure) 101, 103, 105, 107
commercial disputes 100, 101
court powers to monitor organizations providing ADR services 107
Decree 2012/-66 of 20 January 2012 100101
effect of mediation on limitation period 106
and EU Mediation Directive 99, 100, 101, 102, 106
ground rules, ADR programmes 1045
Inter-enterprises Mediator 108
International Arbitration Chamber of Paris 104
Law No. 95-125 of 8 February 1995 100, 103, 104, 105
law/policy background 100101
Mediation Ordinance No. 2011/1540 99100, 102
Mediator of Economic and Financial Ministries 108
Ministry of Justice and Freedoms 100, 102
National Federation of Mediation Centres 104
Paris Mediation and Arbitration Centre 104
practical implementation of ADR policies 1057
procedures and scheduling of mediation 1034
programme features 1025
purpose/rationale behind mediation programme 1012
referral for mediation 1056
research results, analysis 108
settlement agreements, enforceability 105, 107
voluntary mediation 99, 102, 110
free will 51, 195
Fuller, Lon 1, 15, 16
Garby, Thierry 101
Garg, Shashank 210
Garritt-Critchley v. Ronnan (2014), UK 77
general public polling (GPP) 8
Genn, H. 79
Ghana 545
Global Competitiveness Report 2016–2017
Australia 169
France 10910
Hong Kong 96
India 216
Italy 184
Malaysia 137
The Netherlands 123
United Kingdom 83
United States 155
global mediation survey 22148
confidence in court mediation programmes 22930
court mediation costs 2267
efficiency 2325
fairness 23032
fees 2267, 233, 240
findings 22935, 2427
improvement strategies, mediation programmes 2427
limitations 222
rationale for introducing at mediation programmes 2279
strengths and challenges of court mediation programmes 223, 23542
summary of findings 2224
survey data collection method 2246
Global Pound Conference (GPC) 2234
Golden Eagle International (Group) Ltd v. GR Investment Holdings Ltd (2010), Hong Kong 94, 95
‘good faith’ requirements 51
Grillo, T. 47
Group of Friends of Mediation, United Nations 42
Gujarat Law Society, India 210
Hak Tung Alfred Tang v. Bloomberg LP and Another (2010), Hong Kong 94
Halsey v. Milton Keynes General NHS Trust (2004), UK 45, 72, 77, 945
hearings 27, 70
Her Majesty’s Courts Service (HMCS) Small Claims Mediation Scheme, UK 67, 68, 70, 80
HMCS (Small Claims Mediation Scheme), UK 67, 68, 70, 80
Hong Kong 8598
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) 85, 86
civil justice ranking 967
Civil Justice Reform (CJR) 85, 86, 88, 91, 93
civil justice system 96
Civil Procedure Rules 29
Construction and Arbitration List 87
contracts 92, 94
Court of First Instance 85, 95, 96
court power to resolve points of difference in mediation proposals 934
court-based mediation 29
District Courts (DCs) 85, 95
duration of case 956
Governmental 2007–2008 Policy Address 87
initiating legislation 889
Joint Mediation Helpline Office 86
Lands Tribunal 87
law/policy background 869
Mediation Certificate, filing 8990
Mediation Code 90, 912
Mediation Co-ordinators’ Offices 85
Mediation Council 42
Mediation Minute 90
Mediation Notice 90
Mediation Ordinance (MO) 912
Mediation Response 90
New Insurance Mediation Pilot Scheme (NIMPS) 88
pilot programmes 42, 86, 878
practical implementation of ADR policies 934
Practice Direction 3.3 88
Practice Direction 6.1 87
Practice Direction 31 29, 85, 88, 89, 92, 93
programme features 8995
Proposal 64 29
Proposal 68 867
referral for mediation 86
research results, analysis 957
Rules of the High Court (Amendment) Rules 2008 889, 95
settlement agreements 92
voluntary mediation 29
webpage, mediation-dedicated 86
Working Party on Mediation 29, 86, 87, 91
human rights considerations 26
critique of court-based mediation 456
mandatory or voluntary mediation 58, 59
Illinois 1467, 148
impartiality 26, 179
of ADR 96, 138, 156, 168, 184, 204
of mediators 116, 130, 179
implementation of ADR policies
Australia 1646
China 200201
France 1057
Hong Kong 934
India 21415
Malaysia 135
The Netherlands 118
United Kingdom 768
United States 1534
improvement strategies, court mediation programmes
access to justice 246
enhanced mediator training 2423
financial and organizational resources 2445
flexible settlement arrangements 246
ongoing evaluation 2467, 2567
public education 244
rewards and incentives 2456
in-court mediation 113, 188
indemnity basis, costs paid on 77
independence, duty of 130
India 20618
Ahmedabad Mediation Centre 209
arbitration 206, 209, 214, 215
Arbitration and Conciliation Act 1996 208, 209
Bangalore Mediation Centre 216
British style courts in 207
case backlogs 35, 206, 210, 211
Chennai Mediation Centre 210
civil justice ranking 27, 21617
civil justice system 216
Civil Procedure Act 206
Code of Civil Procedure (CPC) 35, 2089, 212
commercial disputes 214, 215
conciliation 206, 209, 214, 215
contracts 213, 215
contributions of mediation in 211
court-annexed mediation 356, 210
CPC Amendment Act 208
Delhi High Court Mediation and Conciliation Centre 210
enforcement 21314
evolution of mediation in 20911
fees 211
Gujarat Law Society 210
historical background 2078
Industrial Disputes Act 1947 208
initiating legislation 2089
Institute for Arbitration Mediation Legal Education and Development (AMLEAD) 210
Institute for the Study and Development of Legal Systems (ISDLS) 209
Institute of Arbitration and Mediation (IIAM) 42
Legal Services Authority Act 1987 35, 208
Lok Adalats (specialized courts) 35, 206, 207, 208, 209, 213
Madras High Court 210
mandatory mediation 206, 216, 217
Mediation and Conciliation Project Committee (MCPC) 210
mediation process 21112
Pancha 207
Panchayat system 207
policy background 20711
practical implementation of ADR policies 21415
programme features 21114
rationale for mediation 21011
referral for mediation 21213
research results, analysis 21517
US Educational Foundation in India (USEFI) 210
Indiana 147, 148, 150
Industrial Disputes Act, India 208
industrial mediation 196
Institute for Arbitration Mediation Legal Education and Development (AMLEAD), India 210
Institute for the Study and Development of Legal Systems (ISDLS), India 209
Institute of Arbitration and Mediation (IIAM), India 42
institutional mediation
inconsistency with institutionalized court-based settings 445
Malaysia 1334
Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) 59
Inter-American Court of Human Rights 58
International Arbitration Chamber of Paris 104
International Chamber of Commerce 104
in-trial mediation 53, 1934
intrinsic policy justifications 2, 2643, 24950
Israel 56
Italy 17085
acceptance rates 1812
case backlogs 170, 171, 174, 185
civil justice ranking 1835
civil justice system 170, 171, 174, 181, 184, 185
commercial disputes 172, 173, 175, 176
conciliation 170, 171, 175
Constitutional Court 1745, 182
contracts 173, 178, 182
court-ordered mediation 181
Decree 28/2010 170
entry into force 174
impartiality of mediators 179
initial mandatory mediation scheme under 1735
mediation settlement 1779
Decree 180/2010 173, 175
Decree 145/2011 173
Decree 69/2013 170
court-ordered mediation 181
initial mediation session 181
new scope of mandatory mediation under 176
revival of mandatory mediation scheme under 175
and EU Mediation Directive 170, 1723, 185
fees 177, 180
impartiality of mediators 178, 179
initial mediation session 181
Law 580/1993 171
Law 249/1997 175
Law 80/1998 175
Law 69/2009 1723
Law 98/2013 175, 177
mandatory mediation 52, 170, 1735, 176, 1789
mediation procedure 1768
mediation settlement 1789
practical implementation of ADR policies 18081
programme features 17680
‘pro-litigation’ legal environment and court overload 1712
research results, analysis 1815
settlement rates 1823
time and costs of mediation 180
trial length 27
Japan 54
Jeray v. Blue Mountains City Council (2013) 166
Johor Bharu, Malaysia 126
judge-led mediation
see also judicial mediation
China 1889, 1924
versus court-annexed mediation 189
Malaysia 127, 12930, 133, 136
scope of application for 194
versus settlement, 1889
Judicial Improvements Act, US 144
judicial mediation
see also court-based mediation; judge-led mediation
advantages, Chinese context 1912
China 1889, 1914
France 106
and litigation 189, 1924
versus settlement 1889
signed agreement reached during 1889
versus court-annexed mediation 189
justice
access to see access to justice
civil see civil justice
impartial 26
perceptions of see perceptions of justice
procedural 47
justifications for court-based mediation see rationales for court-based mediation
Kenya 55
Kilthistle No. 6 Pty Ltd and others (Receiver and Manager Appointed) v. Austwide Homes Pty Ltd and others (1997), Australia 163, 165
King Par LLC v. Brosnan Golf Pty Ltd (2013), Australia 159, 165
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 126, 136
Kuala Lumpur Court Mediation Centre 129
Kuala Lumpur Regional Centre for Arbitration 127, 128
institutional mediation under 130
KLRCA Rules of Mediation 130
Kuantan, Malaysia 126, 136
Landelijk bureau Mediation naast rechtspraak (Dutch Court-Connected Mediation Agency) 113, 114
‘landing and building leases mediation,’
Japan 54
Law and Justice Legislation
Amendment Act 1997,
Australia 160
Law Society of New South Wales 29
LBM see Landelijk bureau Mediation naast rechtspraak (Dutch Court-Connected Mediation Agency)
Legal Aid Commissions,
Australia 161, 162
legal aid policy
Australia 16062
Italy 180
Malaysia 132
United Kingdom 31, 67
legal culture 111, 123, 180
local 25
Legal Services Authority Act 1987,
India 35, 208
limitation periods, France 106
litigation
Italy, ‘pro-litigation’ legal environment and court overload 1712
judicial mediation 189, 1924
litigation era, China (1990s) 19091
versus mediation 126, 229, 236
post-litigation era, China (post-2000s) 191
pre-litigation era, China (1950s to the 1980s) 190
satellite 233, 257
Liu Ailong, Tang Shengming and others
v. Fine Riding (Qinhuangdao)
Tourism Development Co. Ltd
(2010), China 200201
Lok Adalats (specialized courts),
India 35, 206, 207, 208, 209, 213
longitudinal analysis 8, 10, 252
Luban, D. 467
Ma Xiwu, Trial Mode 189, 190
Macedonia 232
Malaysia 12539
ADR terminologies and definitions 127
case backlogs 1267
civil justice ranking 1378
civil justice system 125, 128, 137, 138
commercial disputes 131
court-annexed mediation 126, 129, 13032, 134, 137
diversity in 125
enforceability of agreements 134
fees 132
ground rules 1324
historical background 1256
institutional mediation 1334
judge-led mediation 12930, 133, 136
Kuala Lumpur Court Mediation Centre 129
Kuala Lumpur Regional Centre for Arbitration 127, 128
KLRCA Rules of Mediation 130
Legal Aid Department 132
Mediation Act 2012 1289
Mediation Centre 127, 13031
Mediation Committee of the Bar Council 126
mediation process 1324
policy background 1257
practical implementation of ADR policies 135
Practice Direction No. 4 on mediation 126, 128
Practice Direction No. 5 on mediation 126, 128
programme features 12732
rationale for mediation 1267
research results, analysis 1358
Rules of the High Court 1980 128
scheduling of mediation sessions 1279
Subordinate Courts Rule 1980 128
voluntary mediation 125, 133, 138
Malmesbury (James Carleton, Seventh Earl of Malmesbury) and others v. Strutt & Parker (a Partnership) (2008) 72
mandatory mediation
see also voluntary mediation
access to justice 46
appropriate, where 236
Australia 28, 378, 52, 15960
Canada 30, 37
characterization of jurisdictions practising 6
conceptual divide between voluntary and mandatory mediation 5057
confidence in 221, 2534
cost considerations 334
direct court supervision 51
efficiency factors 232
improvement strategies 223
India 206, 216, 217
Italy 52, 170, 1735, 176, 1789
versus judicial determination 47
jurisdictional selection 52, 53
key achievements 223, 2356, 252
key challenges 153, 223, 23840
power imbalances, managing 240
programme design 4961
regional and international approaches to 5761
resource limitations 240
settlement rates 236
United States 1434, 1489, 154, 155
voluntary versus mandatory mediation 2323
Massachusetts 154
matrimonial law 131
mediation
see also costs issues; court-based mediation; efficacy of global court mediation reform, assessing; fees; judge-led mediation; judicial mediation; mandatory mediation; mediation processes; mediators; perceptions of justice; referral for mediation; respective countries; voluntary mediation
adaptability across jurisdictions 49, 50
administrative 119, 196
coercion 13, 30, 44, 46, 195, 253
conceptual divide between voluntary and mandatory mediation 5057
versus conciliation 206
conclusion of 11718
consent for see consent for meditation
cross-border law 45
defining 60, 1023
degree of movement along voluntary/mandatory spectrum 5
EU Mediation Directive see EU Mediation Directive 2008/52/EC
industrial 196
institutional 1334
judicial see judicial mediation
jurisdictional selection of mandatory or voluntary systems 527
lawyers, engagement with trial programmes 523
versus litigation 126, 229, 236
online 57
opt-in/opt-out rules 56, 256
practical implementation see mediation, practical implementation
public acceptance 1812
regional and international approaches to 5761
rejection of 712, 76, 77, 945
reports 151
satisfaction with 17
success of 2323
telephone-based 70
theory 1518, 2212
timing of see time frames/timing of mediation
unreasonable failure to engage in/unreasonable refusal 712, 77, 945
voluntary nature of 723
voluntary versus mandatory 2323
Mediation and Conciliation Project Committee (MCPC), India 210
Mediation Code, Hong Kong 90
ground rules 912
Mediation Council, Hong Kong 42
Mediation Ordinance (MO), Hong Kong 912
Mediation Ordinance No. 2011/1540, France 99100
mediation, practical implementation
Australia 1646
China 200201
France 1057
Hong Kong 935
India 21415
Italy 18081
Malaysia 135
The Netherlands 118
United Kingdom 65, 768
United States 1534
mediation processes
China 1968
India 21112
Italy 1768
Malaysia 131, 1324
The Netherlands 11516, 12021
normative and public policy expectations 51
processing time 12021
rationales for court-based mediation 39, 4041
United Kingdom 745
United States 14750
mediation rationales see rationales for
court-based mediation
mediators
Club of Mediators for Public Service, France 108
conduct 1045
duties 1045
confidentiality 91
impartiality 116, 130, 178, 179
independence 130
European Code of Conduct for Mediators 104
ground rules, explaining 15051
Mediator of Economic and Financial Ministries, France 108
multi-functional role 132
qualifications 174
quality of 240, 2412
reporting obligations 512
training of 210, 2423
Mediators Without Borders group 43
mediatory adjudication 195
methodology, research
see also Global Competitiveness Report 2016–2017; Rule of Law Index 2016
correlation 11, 12, 20, 2223, 252, 258
data collection 710
Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) 8, 9
improvement of overall court mediation process by program type 2234
judicial and governance indicators 8, 9, 10
longitudinal analysis 5, 8, 252
Rule of Law Index (ROI) 8, 9
strengths and challenges 1011, 252
survey data collection method 2246
t-test 11
Michigan 147, 148, 151
Ministry of Justice and Freedoms, France 100, 102
Missouri 149
MMC (Malaysian Mediation Centre) 127, 13031
Mediation Rules 131
Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation, UNCITRAL 60, 61, 251
Moti Ram v. Ashok Kumar (2011), India 215
multi-door courthouse 2, 233, 257
Murray v. Bernard (2015), UK 78
NADRAC (National Alternative Dispute Resolution Advisory Council), Australia 38, 159
National Alternative Dispute Resolution Advisory Council, Australia 38
National Alternative Dispute Resolution Advisory Council (NADRAC), Australia 38, 159
National Federation of Mediation Centres, France 104
National Mediation Helpline, UK 667, 71, 81
Netherlands, The 11124
administrative cases 119
civil justice ranking 1223
civil justice system 110, 122, 123, 124
Civil Procedure Code (CPC) 112
community support for mediation 118
conclusion of mediation 11718
costs issues 118, 1212
Council of the Judiciary 1212
court-annexed mediation 36
Court-Connected Mediation Agency (LBM) 113, 114
development of Dutch mediation programme 11214
and EU Mediation Directive 112
Expert Group Customized Conflict Resolution program 114
fees 118
law/policy background 11114
legal representation 117
Mediation Institution (NMI) 113, 120
mediation process 11516
Ministry of Justice 112, 113
pilot programmes 113
Platform ADR 113
practical implementation of ADR policies 118
processing time 12021
pro-conciliation legal culture and lack of regulation 11112
programme features 11418
referral for mediation 111, 11415, 119
Research and Documentation Centre, Ministry of Justice 113
research results, analysis 11923
resolution time frame 121
settlement 11718
settlement rates 11920
voluntary mediation 112, 122, 1234
New Insurance Mediation Pilot Scheme (NIMPS), Hong Kong 88
New South Wales, Australia 28, 29, 30, 378, 47
New York 146, 147, 148, 152
Nigel Witham Ltd v. Robert Lesley Smith and Jacqueline Isaacs (2008) 73
NIMPS (New Insurance Mediation Pilot Scheme), Hong Kong 88
non-coercive mediation 230, 255
North America 32
North Carolina 34, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152
Northrop Grumman Mission Systems Europe Ltd v. BAE Systems (Al Diriyah C4I) Ltd (2014), UK 78
nudge theory 12, 253
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) 27
ongoing evaluation 2467, 2567
online mediation 57
oral referral for mediation 114
orders, court-ordered mediation 181
Pancha, India 207
Panchayat system, India 207
Paris Mediation and Arbitration Centre 104
party entrenchment 241
People’s Republic of China (PRC) 186
see also China
Civil Procedure Law 186, 190, 194, 198, 202
Mediation Law 188
Provisional Organic Regulations 190
perceptions of justice 2523
Australia 169
China 205
France 109, 110
Hong Kong 89, 96, 97, 98
India 207, 216
Italy 185
measures 9, 10
The Netherlands 111, 122, 123
United Kingdom 82
United States 144, 155, 157
PGFII SA v. OMFS Company I Ltd (2013), UK 76, 77
Philippines 227
pilot programmes 258
Canada 37
Hong Kong 42, 86, 878
The Netherlands 113
United Kingdom 30, 66, 67, 68
post-litigation era, China (post-2000s) 191
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) 236
post-trial mediation 193
power imbalances, managing 15, 20, 21, 47, 223, 240, 257, 258
PRC see People’s Republic of China
(PRC)
pre-litigation era, China (1950s to the
1980s) 190
pre-trial mediation 128, 147, 164, 193
process considerations, court-based
mediation 4041
process pluralism 17
programme design 4961
see also mandatory mediation; voluntary mediation
case backlogs 55, 58
conciliation 54, 60, 61
confidentiality in proceedings 55, 61
consent for meditation 50, 51, 57
context dependant 258
criminal law 56
efficiency factors 232
mixed methods of mandatory and voluntary mediation 6
property law 182, 214, 215
public education 242, 244
public policy
critique of court-based mediation 467
mediation settlement 179
voluntary and mandatory mediation, conceptual divide 51, 52
Public Service Staff Relations Board, Canada 40
qualified respondent questionnaires (QRQs) 8
Quebec, Canada 226
rationales for court-based mediation
see also court-based mediation; efficiency factors; impartiality; mediation
caseload reduction see caseload reduction rationale, court mediation reform
cost reduction see costs issues
court access see access to justice
delay reduction see delay reduction, as rationale for court-mediation reform
effectiveness and efficiency 2630
extrinsic 2, 26, 3943, 24950
harmony 41, 87, 125, 189, 191
impartiality 26
India 21011
intrinsic 2, 2643, 24950
Malaysia 1267
outcome fairness 23032, 2545
process considerations 4041
quality of outcomes/decisions 228, 229, 254
relational justifications 3940
self-determination 17, 44
societal considerations 413
United Kingdom 678
voice in outcome, giving to parties 228
workplace relations, improving 40
RDC (Rules of the District Court (Amendment) Rules 2008, Hong Kong 889, 95
referral for mediation
automatic 6
categorical 30, 158
discretionary 6, 30, 158
France 1056
Hong Kong 86
India 21213
The Netherlands 111, 11415, 119
oral 114
self-referral 11415, 235
written 114, 119
reform of court mediation
aims, global context 2548
assessing efficacy of global court mediation reform 122
civil case administration 2
data collection methods 710
empirical studies 25
findings, summary of 1115
global mediation survey 2325
limitations 1011
programme quality 2578
spill-over benefits 257
theoretical background 1518
relational justifications, court-based mediation 3940
res judicata107
Research and Documentation Centre of the Dutch Ministry of Justice 113
research results, analysis
see also methodology, research; statistics, research
Australia 1679
China 2015
France 108
Hong Kong 957
India 21517
Italy 1815
Malaysia 1358
The Netherlands 11923
United Kingdom 7981
United States 1547
Resource Development Ltd v. Swanbridge Ltd (2009), Hong Kong 934
resources
financial and organizational 2445
limitations 240, 241
revolutionary era, China 18990
rewards and incentives 2456
rule of law
Hong Kong 86, 98
India 217
United Kingdom 82, 84
Rule of Law Index 2016
Australia 168
China 204
India 217
Italy 184
The Netherlands 123
United Kingdom 84
United States 1567
Rules of the High Court (Amendment) Rules 2008, Hong Kong 889, 95
Sabah Forest Industries Sdn Bhd v. Mazlan bin Ali (2012), Malaysia 135
Salem Advocate Bar Association (II), Tamil Nadu v. Union of India (2005), India 214
Sander, F.E.A. 6
Saskatchewan province, Canada 56, 226
satellite litigation 233, 257
scheduling of mediation sessions
China 1924
France 1034
Malaysia 1279
United States 1467
self-determination 17, 44
self-referral for mediation 11415, 235
Serbia 232
settlement
case settlement 5
enforceability of agreements see settlement agreements, enforceability
flexible arrangements 246
versus judicial mediation 1889
The Netherlands 11718
out of court 47
partial agreement 11718
rates of see settlement rates
wakai (judicial settlement), Japan 54
settlement agreements, enforceability
France 105, 107
Hong Kong 92
Malaysia 134
United Kingdom 756
settlement rates
see also settlement agreements, enforceability
India 2067
Italy 1823
mandatory mediation 236
The Netherlands 11920
relational and commercial disputes 556
United States 154, 155
silence 76, 77, 212
Singapore, as role model 278
Small Claims Mediation Scheme (HMCS), UK 67, 68, 70, 80
soft law 6, 30, 250
South Carolina 149, 150, 154
statistics, research
see also research results, analysis
China 2012
Hong Kong 956
Malaysia 1357
United Kingdom 7981
Stienstra, D. 1434
Stimec, Arnaud 101
Stipanowich, T.J. 6, 7
sub-Saharan Africa 545
Superior IP International Pty Ltd
v. Ahearn Fox Patent and
Trade Mark Attorneys (2012),
Australia 164, 165
Supreme People’s Court, China
see also China; People’s Republic of China (PRC)
ground rules laid down by 1945
Notice of the Supreme People’s Court on Issuing Several Opinions on Further Implementing the Work Principle of “Giving Priority to Mediation and Combining Mediation with Judgment” 191
Provisions on Several Issues Concerning the Civil Mediation Work of the People’s Court 191
Several Opinions on Further Displaying the Positive Roles of Litigation Mediation in Building of a Harmonious Socialist Society 191
telephone-based mediation 70
time frames/timing of mediation
data collection 8
Italy 180, 183
The Netherlands 12021
processing time 12021
resolution time frame 121
United Kingdom 73
voluntary versus mandatory mediation 234
Tomlin orders, UK 76
triangulation of research 7, 8
t-test 11
Turkey 42
UNCITRAL (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law) 6
Conciliation Rules 60
Model Law on International Commercial Conciliation 60, 61, 251
Working Group 250
United Kingdom 6584
Automatic Referral to Mediation pilot scheme 30
CEDR Solve (mediation provider) 69, 70
Central London County Court
Automatic Referral to Mediation pilot scheme 30
county court trial centre 32
voluntary mediation scheme 68
Centre for Effective Dispute Resolution (CEDRI) 81
civil justice ranking 824
civil justice review (1990s) 31
civil justice system 67, 82, 83
Civil Mediation Online Directory 67, 71
Civil Procedure Rules (CPR) 44, 68, 70, 746, 78
consent for meditation 69, 71
contracts 69, 76
cost reduction 31
Court of Appeal (Civil Division) 678
Court of Appeal Mediation Scheme (CAMS) 67, 6970, 80
court-based ADR initiatives for non-family civil disputes 7980
Courts and Legal Services Act 1990 31
encouragement of ADR 30, 32
fees 31, 68, 69, 70, 71, 81, 82
government mediation 812
ground rules, mediation 713
historical background 667
Interim Report 1995 32
Legal Aid Board 67
mediation process 745
National Mediation Helpline 667, 71, 81
non-family cases 69, 7980
paths to justice survey 79
policy background 668
practical implementation of mediation policies 768
pre-action protocols 74
programme features 6871
rationale for VOL pilot scheme 678
research statistics 7981
settlement agreements 75
Small Claims Mediation Scheme (HMCS) 67, 68, 70, 80
Tomlin orders 76
voluntary mediation 68, 7984
Woolf Reforms 32, 66
United Nations
see also UNCITRAL (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law)
General Assembly 43, 61
use of mediation by 423
United Nations Commission on International Trade Law see UNCITRAL (United Nations Commission on International Trade Law)
United States 14357
Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) 45, 143, 144, 145, 146, 155
Alternative Disputes Resolution Act 1998 145, 146
budget allocation 32
California 147, 148, 153, 155
challenges regarding mandatory mediation 153
civil justice ranking 1557
civil justice system 155, 156
conclusion of processes 1512
Congress 144, 145
consent for meditation 146, 151, 152
contracts 152
costs issues 151
court-based mediation 1434
enforcement 1523
Fair Housing Act 153, 154
Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure 143, 144
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 27
Federal Trademark Act 1946 147
Florida 148, 151, 154, 227
ground rules, explaining by mediators 15051
Illinois 1467, 148
Indiana 147, 148, 150
introduction of mediation in (1983) 27
Judicial Conference 1994 1445
Judicial Improvements Act 144
Justice Department 144, 153
law/policy background 1446
mandatory mediation 1434, 1489, 153, 154, 155
Massachusetts 154
mediation process 14750
Mediation Reports 151
Michigan 147, 148, 151
Missouri 149
nature and process of mediation 150
New York 146, 147, 148, 152
North Carolina 34, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152
objectives for implementation of mediation programmes 1456
practical implementation of ADR policies 1534
programme features 14653
research results, analysis 1547
roles and responsibilities of mediators and parties 15051
scheduling of mediation sessions 1467
South Carolina 149, 150, 154
unresolved cases 152
Virginia 30
US Educational Foundation in India (USEFI) 210
Victoria, Australia 28, 30, 162
County Court Building Cases List 159
Virginia, United States 30
voluntary mediation
see also mandatory mediation
characterization of jurisdictions practising 6
conceptual divide between voluntary and mandatory mediation 5057
costs issues 2324
efficiency factors 232, 256
France 99, 102, 110
free will assumption 51
Hong Kong 29
jurisdictional selection 52, 53
key achievements 223, 2378, 252
key challenges 223, 2412
Malaysia 125, 133, 138
The Netherlands 112, 122, 1234
programme design 4961
regional and international approaches to 5761
United Kingdom 68, 7984
voluntary nature of mediation 65, 723
voluntary versus mandatory mediation 2323
wakai (judicial settlement), Japan 54
WODC (Research and Documentation Centre of the Dutch Ministry of Justice) 113
women’s interests, undermining 16
Woolf Reforms, UK 32, 66
World Bank 27, 28
Worldwide Governance Indicators (WGIs) 8, 9
World Economic Forum 8, 9, 28
World Justice Project 8
World Trade Organization (WTO), Dispute Settlement Body 58
written referrals for mediation 114, 119
written settlement agreements 756
Wu Yim Kwong Kindwind v. Manhood Development Ltd (2012) 95