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Transforming Gender and Family Relations

How Active Labour Market Policies Shaped the Dual Earner Model

Åsa Lundqvist

This book is about how the activation of women into paid work was accomplished. It looks at the ideational grounds and the concrete measures that created the conditions for increasing the employment ratio of women, and thus also a farewell to male breadwinning.
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Index

How Active Labour Market Policies Shaped the Dual Earner Model

Åsa Lundqvist

activation inspector 3–4, 24–5, 36, 59, 79, 85, 96–9, 104, 137, 139–62, 164, 168–9, 170–73

activation policy 4–5, 9–11, 15–16, 22, 26–8, 37, 51–3, 68, 111, 129, 161–3

see also active labour market policy; active labour market policy measures; National Labour Market Board, AMS

activation programme 62, 64–5, 96, 145

see also active labour market policy measures; National Labour Market Board, AMS

Activation Section 4, 24, 26, 56–8, 62–4, 67, 74, 78, 96, 105, 155, 160, 162, 165–6

see also housewife; Jönsson, Ingeborg; National Labour Market Board, AMS; women; women’s employment; women’s occupations

active employment service 65, 70

see also Public Employment Service

active labour market policy 1–3, 10, 16–17, 23, 29, 37, 40, 43, 45, 47, 88, 111, 159, 163–5, 167

see also politics of full employment; reform bureaucracy; solidaristic wage policy, Swedish Model

active labour market policy measures

equipment grant 45

family location grant 45

relocation grant 37, 56, 65, 68, 146, 150

settling-in grant 45

see also labour market institute; labour market training; retraining; solidaristic wage policy; vocational education; vocational guidance; vocational training; vocational training courses; vocational training programmes; vocational training units; Working Life and Training programme, ALU

active wage policy 44–5

see also active labour market policy

Adler Karlsson, Gunnar 82–4

adult education 88, 90, 118, 128, 131

see also National Board of Education, SÖ

adult worker model 163, 173

see also bredwinner model; dual breadwinner model; dual earner family

advertising

cinema advertising 134–5, 152

newspaper advertising 134–5, 152

outdoor advertising 134–5

see also attitudes; persuasion

age discrimination 87

attitudes 3, 16, 67, 70, 82, 90, 98, 102–3, 112, 129, 131–2, 134–6, 141–2, 151, 164, 166–7, 170

see also persuasion

Bagge, Gösta 40

Bernhardsson, Göte 24

Beveridge, William 41

Breadwinner model 8, 11, 51, 57, 69, 163, 167, 173

see also adult worker model; dual breadwinner model; dual earner family

bureaucratic elites 15

see also elite; experts

child allowance 6

civil servants 3, 19, 22, 24–5, 37–8, 48, 63, 99, 100, 130, 159–61, 164–5, 173

see also activation inspector

civil servants departments (ämbetsverk) 22, 159

county council 22, 35, 48

county labour board 24, 35, 69, 98, 100, 106–7, 111, 113–14, 130, 144, 148, 150, 153, 157, 160, 156

Delegation for Gender Equality between Women and Men 57, 63, 77–8, 85, 104, 161, 169

see also Leijon, Anna-Greta

Denmark 11–14, 170

‘defamilization’ 8

disability 9, 38, 54, 61, 91

see also ‘occupational disabled’

dual breadwinner model 1–2, 8, 158, 162, 167, 173

see also adult worker model; dual earner family

dual earner family 1, 167, 172–3

see also adult worker model; dual breadwinner model

economic growth 9, 22, 29, 33, 46, 57, 59, 163, 173

elite 15, 18, 20–22, 108

see also bureaucratic elites; experts

employee 24, 48, 54, 80, 85, 89, 97, 113, 115, 127–8, 140, 144, 155–6, 162, 173–4

employer 3, 6, 38, 47, 49, 64–8, 78, 81, 88–90, 96–8, 103, 113, 116–17, 127, 139, 145–9, 159, 166, 168, 173

employment

employment rate 41–4, 52, 57, 65, 151, 158

employment ratio 1–2, 12, 52, 81, 102, 108, 118, 123, 148, 154

employment services 37, 49–50, 63, 65, 70, 150, 159

full employment 1–2, 4, 11, 16, 29, 40–5, 53, 57, 68, 70–1, 82, 84–5, 87, 102, 112, 119, 123, 139, 159, 164–6, 173

full-time employment 5, 12–13, 16, 28, 50, 61, 77, 80, 110, 147–8, 169, 171

overfull employment 41

see also female employment; part-time; unemployment; women’s employment; women’s occupation

Employment Service Agency Bureau, A-Bureau 35, 62–3, 66–7, 76, 85, 138

Eriksson, Nancy 125

Erlander, Tage 39

ethnic segregation 5, 110, 173

see also migrant women

Europe

EU 9, 12–13

European activation policies 172

European labour market 9, 163

Northern Europe 10–11

Southern Europe 5, 10, 12, 14

Western Europe 11, 75

experts 7, 18, 21, 33, 38, 69, 114, 141, 144, 161, 170, 173

see also elite; bureaucratic elites

family

‘The Democratic Family’ 121–3, 167, 169

family relations 1, 3–4, 9, 20

families with children 1, 6, 61, 72, 81, 94, 119, 140

see also fathers; gender equal families; gender equality policy; mothers; women

family policy 6–8, 17, 26, 126–7, 142

see also Swedish Model

fathers 2, 7, 163

female emancipation 100

female employment 1, 97, 151, 165

see also gainfully employed women; women’s employment; women’s occupation

female workforce

female activation 164–5, 173

female dominated occupations 66, 79, 83, 91, 97, 103, 110, 131, 136, 146,

female labour force 12, 17, 24, 26–8, 51–4, 57, 59, 62, 71–6, 90–97, 103, 105, 113–16, 125, 140, 158, 162, 164

female labour participation 16

female paid labour 166, 173

female workers 37, 54, 97, 103–5, 143, 152

see also employment; female employment; women; women’s employment; women’s occupation

feminist welfare state research 8, 18

femocrats 19, 77

Finland 12, 14, 58, 170–171

France 11–14, 170

gainful employment 2, 11, 23, 28–9, 52–3, 70, 73, 90, 112, 124, 126, 129–130, 133–7, 144, 142, 151, 164, 166, 168, 171, 172, 174

see also employment; gainfully employed

gender equality

gender equal families 59, 172

gender equal working life 1, 4, 6, 16, 18, 26, 28, 62, 78, 80, 85, 97–8, 104, 123

gender relations 1–4, 9, 14, 19, 20, 23, 69, 164, 174

gender equality ambition 14, 18, 57, 155, 157, 160, 168–9, 173

gender equality policy 1–2, 8, 13, 20, 77–8, 98, 161, 164–5, 169–170

gender division of labour

gender segregation in the labour market 1, 4–5, 12, 97, 119, 126, 167, 169, 172

gender inequalities 163, 170, 173

Germany 10–12, 58, 171

‘golden age of the welfare state’ 5, 20, 87, 163, 165

Greece 12, 14, 58

Hemmafru byter yrke (The housewife switches jobs) 26, 27, 67, 111, 113–16, 120, 123, 127, 133, 137, 148, 167

historical institutionalism

agency 3, 18, 166

conversion 17

institution 15–18, 20, 23, 26, 27, 48, 77, 127, 161–2, 165–8, 172

layering 17

political institutions 15–18

see also bureaucratic elite; elite; experts

housewife 7, 54, 62, 64, 69, 74, 80, 98, 101, 112, 114, 119, 124–5, 142, 166–7, 174

Hungary 58

husband 3, 12, 63, 101, 104, 119, 121, 126, 132, 156, 166, 173

Iceland 14, 170

individualization 8

industrial worker 4, 5, 30, 42, 51, 96–100, 103–6, 114, 135–6, 148, 172

see also women industrial worker

industry 4, 5, 25, 34, 37, 45, 47, 51, 54, 58–9, 66–7, 75, 79, 87, 93, 97–105, 110, 113–14, 117, 130–133, 144, 147, 170–172

see also industrial worker; male-dominated industry; women’s employment; women’s opportunities

Italy 10–14, 58, 170

Jönsson, Ingeborg 26, 63–4, 71, 76, 86, 89, 113, 123, 129, 155, 157, 162, 166, 168

see also activation section; civil servants; National Labour Market Board, AMS

Jönsson, Ove 63, 76

see also civil servants; National Labour Market Board, AMS

Keynes

Keynesian 9, 41, 44

Klein, Viola 6

see also Myrdal, Alva

Kontenta 148–9

labour force 2–3, 9, 17, 26–46, 51–4, 56–62, 64–5, 68, 71–4, 76, 86, 88–90, 94, 97, 101, 103–5, 108, 113–14, 116, 125, 127, 140–142, 158, 162, 164, 166

see also work force

Labour Market Commission 29, 34–6, 38, 94

labour market education centre (AMU-center) 79

see also labour market training

Labour Market Institute 50

see also labour market training

labour market training

adjustment courses 91–2

advanced training courses 3, 79, 91, 96

introductory courses 66, 91, 98

preparatory courses 95

reactivation courses 63, 91, 95–6, 144

refresher courses 91, 95–6

see also active labour market policy; activation policy; National Labour Market Board, AMS; Labour market education centre (AMU-center); politics of full employment; Public Employment Service; women; women’s employment

labour migration

labour immigration 42, 46, 53, 58–9, 166, 171

labour shortage 2, 7, 9–10, 31–3, 35, 42, 45–6, 56, 58, 68, 73, 75, 87, 90, 95–6, 100, 103, 125, 141, 147, 152–3, 163, 165–6

Larsson, Allan 24, 159

Leijon, Anna-Greta 63, 77–8, 85, 96, 113, 137, 154

see also activation section; Delegation for Gender Equality between Women and Men

Liberal

liberal party 7, 30–31, 63

liberal women’s policy 73

Luxembourg 12, 14

male breadwinner model 1, 8, 11, 51, 57, 69, 163, 167, 173

see also adult worker model; dual breadwinner model

male-dominated sectors 5, 66, 79, 170

see also industry

mass unemployment 6, 10, 39

maternity care 6

see also women; pregnant women; married women

maternity insurance 6, 14

media

local papers 100, 134

local radio 134–5, 151

local television 134

Swedish Radio 26, 82, 111, 114, 137, 167, 174

Swedish Television 128, 137

see also advertising; attitudes; persuasion

Meidner, Rudolf 38–44, 47, 82–4, 87

see also active labour market policy; National Labour Market Board, AMS; Rehn, Gösta; Rehn-Meidner model

middle class 5, 171

migrant women

immigrant women 58–9, 61, 158

Moberg, Eva 7, 77

mobility

alignment mobility 43

geographical mobility 70, 88

in the labour market 42–3, 45

labour force mobility 31, 34, 88

misalignment mobility 43

see also activation policy; active labour market policy; National Labour Market Board, AMS; politics of full employment; Public Employment Service; Swedish Model

modernity

modern 6, 29, 69–70, 85, 107, 122

Möller, Gustav 33–4, 53

Mossberg, Eije 36

mothers

single mothers 12, 106–8, 140, 171

stay-at-home mothers 29

young mothers 72, 108, 116, 171

see also women; ‘women-friendly welfare state’; women’s employments; women’s wages

Myrdal, Alva 6–7, 84, 125

Myrdal, Gunnar 38, 40

National Board of Education, SÖ 88, 146, 148, 154

National Board of Health and Welfare 33, 35, 47–8, 154

National Federation of Social Democratic Women 125–6

National Institute of Economic Research 40

National Labour Market Board, AMS 2, 22, 29, 36, 38–9, 164

National Unemployment Commission, AK 31–2

Netherlands 12, 14, 170

Neymark, Ejnar 49, 94

Nilsson, Torsten 39

Norway 14, 58, 170–171

‘occupationally disabled’ 56, 61, 110

Ohlin, Bertil 40–41

Olsson, Bertil 39–40, 63, 74, 76, 78, 85–6, 89, 111, 123, 168

see also National Labour Market Board, AMS

paid leave 14, 115, 118

see also maternity insurance; parental leave

paid work 1–4, 6, 8, 11–12, 14, 29, 42, 46, 51–4, 64, 71–3, 76, 81, 84–6, 90, 95, 100–103, 112–13, 123, 128, 130, 132, 136, 139, 141, 143, 153, 160, 163–4, 166–8, 172–4

see also employment; female employment; full-time work; part-time work; women’s employment; women’s occupation

Palme, Olof 77–8

parental insurance

parental leave 2, 13–14, 61, 170

part-time work 4, 54, 60, 65, 71, 81, 84–5, 114–16, 144, 147–8, 170, 173

see also employment; female employment; full-time work; women’s employment; women’s occupation

persuasion

negative attitudes 3, 102–3, 164, 166, 170

opinion-shaping activities 3, 140, 167

opinion-shaping campaigns 4, 70, 113

persuasion campaigns 3, 166, 168

persuasive elements 3, 161–2

political elite 18, 20–22

see also elite; experts; state feminism

political rationalism 21

politics of full employment

full employment policy 2, 29, 44, 53, 57, 70, 82, 84–5, 87–8, 119, 139

see also active labour market policy; Meidner, Rudolf; National Labour Market Board, AMS; Rehn-Meidner model; Rehn, Gösta; solidaristic wage policy

Portugal 12

post-war era 2, 6, 11, 29, 36, 43, 53

Public Employment Service

career guidance counsellors 24

job centre 3, 22, 34–5, 43, 47–9, 64–7, 78–9, 89, 91, 95–6, 98–101, 110, 114, 119, 130, 132–3, 135, 139, 143–4, 146–7, 151–2, 157–62, 166, 168

job centre adviser 24, 49, 66, 135, 144–6, 149, 151, 155–6, 160–162

Public Employment Service Act 48

public opinion 112, 166

see also attitudes; persuasion

publicly funded childcare

Childcare 1, 4, 8, 13–14, 18, 29, 52, 54, 57, 60, 64–6, 69–73, 81, 83, 95, 102–3, 106, 114, 116, 127, 133, 136–7141–3, 146, 149, 154, 158, 163, 166–71

rationality

rational behaviour 122, 165, 169

rational planning 165, 173

reform bureaucracies 22, 165

Rehn, Gösta 38–40, 43–4, 47, 53

see also active labour market policy; Meidner, Rudolf; National Labour Market Board, AMS; Rehn-Meidner model; solidaristic wage policy

Rehnberg, Bertil 24, 34, 38–9, 89

see also National Labour Market Board, AMS

Rehn-Meidner model 40, 43–4, 47, 87

see also active labour market policy; Meidner, Rudolf; politics of full employment; Rehn, Gösta

relief work

relief works programmes 32

retraining

advanced training 3, 65, 79–80, 86, 88, 91, 96

Riksdag (Swedish Parliament) 39, 48, 54, 148

Rollén, Berit 82–4, 104–5

Second World War 33, 48, 50

‘sex roles’ 7, 116, 154

Social Democratic Party

Social Democrats 21, 30–31, 33, 38–9

social investment 13, 170

social movements

trade union 30, 32, 38, 40, 44, 48, 72, 81, 88–9, 114, 153

women’s movement 2, 7, 18–19, 69, 73, 84, 95, 100, 105, 140, 142, 160, 162

solidaristic wage policy 43–5

see also active labour market policy; politics of full employment

Spain 12, 14, 170

state bureaucracy 18, 162, 165

state feminism

state feminists 140, 159, 161

Stockholm 4, 24, 63, 65, 69, 72, 97, 125, 150, 160

Sträng, Gunnar 39

‘strong state’ 20, 22

see also Swedish Model

Swedish Agency for Public Management (Statskontoret) 130, 136–7

Swedish Confederation of Professional Associations, SACO 89, 127

Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees, TCO 89, 113

Swedish Employers’ Confederation, SAF 47, 81, 88, 113, 127

‘Swedish exceptionalism’ 15, 21

Swedish Model 5, 8, 20–22, 30, 165

see also active labour market policy; family policy; gender equality policy

Swedish Trade Union Confederation, LO 38, 46, 72, 88, 114

taxation

individual taxation 7, 59, 73–4

joint taxation 7, 57, 73, 102–3, 124–5

separate taxation 7, 73, 124–6

textile industry 4, 37

Thomson, Arthur 31, 34, 37, 53

Turkey 5, 58

UK 11–12

unemployment

frictional unemployment 41

unemployed 10–11, 30–37, 41–2, 47, 53, 61, 64–5, 80, 82–3, 87, 91–3, 102, 109–10, 141–2, 146, 150, 152, 159, 166

unemployment benefits 11, 115

unemployment policy 10–11, 30, 33, 36

unemployment rates 172

see also active labour market policy

urbanization 42, 57

Vahlberg, Gustav 38

see also National Labour Market Board, AMS

vocational education 57, 66, 106, 112, 150

vocational training

employment counselling 50–1

‘occupational rehabilitation’ 35, 50, 159

‘partially fit for work’ (partiellt arbetsföra) 50, 54

vocational guidance 35, 37–8, 43, 49–50, 54, 67, 70, 114, 143–4

vocational guidance unit 35, 49

vocational training courses 36, 98

vocational training programmes 10, 66, 106

see also active labour market policy; Public Employment Service

wage earners 3–4, 6, 16, 23, 25, 27, 59, 167

welfare 8–9, 18, 20, 22–3, 26, 29, 33, 35, 44, 47–8, 72, 100, 107, 115, 154, 163, 171–2

welfare state 1–2, 5, 18, 20, 23, 163, 165, 174

wider recruitment (breddad rekrytering) 27, 105, 156

women

childless women 2, 125

gainfully employed women 11, 130

married women 6, 42, 52–3, 56–8, 72, 86, 95, 98, 102, 108, 112, 116, 124–5, 132, 136, 140, 142, 144, 166

middle-aged women 29, 86, 95, 116, 118, 131, 171

older women 2, 58, 143–4

pregnant women 6

unemployed women 64, 166

women industrial worker 4, 96

see also migrant women; mothers

‘women-friendly welfare state’ 18

women’s employment 12–13, 30, 42, 49, 52, 69, 79, 81, 123, 132, 141, 170

see also gainfully employed women

women’s opportunities

in the labour market 3, 51, 60, 67–71, 96, 98–9, 114–19, 122, 127, 132, 136–8, 145, 147, 149, 151–2, 155, 159, 166

women’s organizations 7, 73, 151, 154

women’s wages

women wage earners 4, 16

work–life balance policies 13

working class 5, 51–2, 102

Working Group for Increased Labour Market Information to Families 113, 126, 137–8, 167

working life 1, 3–4, 6, 16, 26, 28, 50, 55, 59, 62, 78, 80, 84–6, 97–8, 104, 108, 116–18, 123, 138, 142, 150, 169

Working Life and Training programme, ALU 50

see also labour market institute; labour market training; retraining; vocational education; vocational guidance; vocational training; vocational training courses; vocational training programmes; vocational training units

Yugoslavia 5, 58