Show Less
You do not have access to this content

Law and Evil

The Evolutionary Perspective

Wojciech Załuski

Law and Evil presents an alternative evolutionary picture of man, focusing on the origins and nature of human evil, and demonstrating its useful application in legal-philosophical analyses. Using this representation of human nature, Wojciech Załuski analyses the development of law, which he interprets as moving from evolutionary ethics to genuine ethics, as well as arguing in favour of metaethical realism and ius naturale.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

Index

Wojciech Załuski

Adorno, Theodor 27

adultery 90–92

aggression 7, 19–20, 28, 54, 101, 103

primary 28

secondary 28

altruism 2–3, 7, 30, 35, 39–44, 53, 56, 63–4, 72, 77, 79–80, 82, 88, 94, 107

group (tribalism) 2–3, 7, 30, 40–42, 53, 81, 88

kin 2–3, 7, 30, 39–41, 44, 53, 79–81, 88, 94

reciprocal 2–3, 7, 30, 42–4, 53, 56, 72, 80, 82

ambivalence of human nature 2–4, 6–8, 20, 44, 46–8, 51, 62, 78–9, 81–2, 110, 130, 132

first 2–3, 7, 130

second 2–3, 7, 81–2, 130, 132

Arendt, Hannah 25–6, 133

D’Arms, John 14, 16

Armstrong, Karen 54–5, 57

St. Augustine 1, 46, 48, 117

authoritarian (sadomasochistic) personality 27

Axelrod, Robert 42

Ayala, Francisco 45, 109

Barberis, Mauro 1

Baron-Cohen, Simon 32, 37

Basic Norm 113–4

Batson, Daniel C. 35

Beccaria, Cesare 85–6

Becker, Ernst 131

Betzig, Laura L. 65

Boehm, Christopher 25, 66, 70–74

Brissot, Jacques Pierre 85

Broad, Charlie B. 33

Buber, Martin 32

Buddha 54, 56

Butler, Joseph 22, 33, 35

Calvin, John 87

Cameron, Daryl 37

Cartwright, David E. 34–5

children’s rights 92–3

Christianity 46, 58, 74–7, 92, 94, 132

Cinderella effect 39, 44

compassion 33–4

collapse of 36–7

Confucius 54, 56

conscience 6, 21, 29, 38, 72, 77, 120, 122, 132–3

De Coulanges, Fustel 75–7, 79–80, 88, 92, 94

cupiditas 132–3

Daly, Martin 39, 91

Darwin, Charles 7, 39–41, 60, 72, 98–100, 106–7

Dawkins, Richard 41

democracy

Athenian 75–7

evolutionary justification of 78

dignity 74, 76, 79, 84–5, 89, 106, 132

discriminative parental solicitude 39, 93

discrimination against women 88–92

disgust 23–4, 61, 88, 95

Dostoyevsky, Fyodor 38

Draco 83

Duguit, Leon 95

Durkheim, Émile 77, 81, 87

Dziadzio, Andrzej 85

egalitarianism

contemporary (moral) 3, 65, 74–9

primitive 25, 65–74, 78

egocentrism 10–12

egoism 3, 7–14, 26, 28–9, 35, 42, 44, 49, 55, 77, 95

cognitively based 9–13

hybris-based 9, 12–14, 26

instinct-based 9, 12–13

psychological 35

Eliasz, Katarzyna 67

Elster, Jon 13

emotions

as morally neutral tendencies 22–5

their role in discovering genuine ethics 59–61

empathy 2, 5, 7, 22, 30–38, 43–4, 53, 55–61, 95, 102, 130

affective 30–32

cognitive 30–32

contaminated 33–5, 55

ethics of 32

perfect 30–35, 55

pseudoempathy 33–5, 44

truncated 32–4, 55

Engels, Friedrich 67–8

envy 3, 7, 14–19, 22, 29, 37, 68–70

benign 16, 18–19

existential 15–16

just 16, 18–19

malicious 15–19

escalation of reason 59

ethics

Axial Age 54–8

Buddhist 108

Christian 13, 58, 106, 108, 132

evolutionary 2–4, 7–8, 30, 44–5, 53–5, 58, 65, 73, 79–80, 82, 92, 94–5, 101, 107–10, 128, 130

genuine 2–4, 7–8, 30, 44–5, 53–4, 58–9, 62, 65, 73, 74, 79–80, 95, 109–10, 128, 130, 132–3

evil 1–3, 7–8, 19–20, 29, 37–8, 40, 45, 46–52, 58, 130–133

absolute 1–2, 8, 19, 47, 50

Christian account of 46–8

demonical 2, 8, 50

extreme 1–2, 8

Kantian account of 48–52

moralistic 29, 50

primary 2–3, 44, 132

pure 2

radical 50–51

sadistic 1–2, 8

secondary 2–3, 7, 40, 44, 132

unintelligible 2

error theory 104–5

evolutionary processes see natural selection

expanding circle 57

Feinberg, Joel 2, 115

Filangieri, Gaetano 85

Finnis, John 118

freedom

of contract 93–5

of will 44–6, 51, 130–31

political 67

Freud, Sigmund 19

Fromm, Erich 27

Fuller, Lon L. 110–1, 115

Gaita, Raimond 133

genetic fallacy 106

Ghiselin, Michael T. 20

Gilligan, James 29

Gilovich, Thomas 10

Girard, René 15–6

Gizbert-Studnicki, Tomasz 116–124

Golden Rule 55–8

Goldsmith, Timothy H. 39, 103

goodness 132–3

beyond virtue 133

highest 133

Grabowski, Andrzej 112

De Granada, Luis 15

gravity (pesanteur) 7, 45, 131

Gray, John 129

group responsibility 80–81, 86

Green, Leslie 113

guilt 29, 38, 43, 46, 132

Hamilton, William D. 39

Hammurabi 83, 87–8, 90

Hart, Herbert L.A. 59, 62–5, 111–12, 116, 124, 126–7

Hippias of Elis 16

Hobbes, Thomas 33, 35, 64

Hoftstadter, Richard 99

humanitarian revolution 59, 85–7

Hume, David 62, 104, 112

Hume’s guillotine 104, 112

Huxley, Thomas 6

hybris 12–14, 29

hypocrisy 22

identifiable victim effect 36

impossibilium nulla obligatio 102–3

ius-naturalism 3, 64, 103, 110–129

first metaethical argument for 110–120

second metaethical argument for 120–29

theories of 118–9

Jaspers, Karl 54–5, 57

Jedynak, Stanisław 57

Jenni, Karen 36

Jones, Owen D. 39, 102–3

Joyce, Richard 104–7

Justinian 84

Kalderon, Mark E. 104

Kant, Immanuel 12, 45, 48–51, 56

Kelsen, Hans 57, 113–14, 121–4,

Koestler, Arthur 27–9

Kuryłowicz, Marek 83, 89, 91

Lamarckism 95

Lao-Tse 54

law of law’s leverage 102–3

Lecky, William 57

legal liberalism 87–90

legal moralism 87–8

legal positivism 3, 103, 110–129

leges sumptuariae 87

Levi, Primo 8

lex talionis 82–3

Livingstone Smith, David 22

Loewenstein, George 36

Lorenz, Konrad 19

Lycurgus 88

Mackie, John L. 104

De Maistre, Joseph 62

Malec, Dorota 85

Marmor, Andrei 114

Matza, David 38

Medvec, Victoria H. 10

metaethical realism see moral realism

metaethical views 104–6

McGraw, Kathleen 29

Mercer, Philip 34

Midgley, Mary 20

mimetic desires 15–16

minimum content of natural law 62–4, 128

Moore, George E. 97, 101

de la Mora, Gonzalo Fernández 15–17

moral factionalism 104–7, 107

moral realism 104–6, 120–29

evolutionary argument for 106–10

moralistic fallacy 102

moralization gap 22

moralization process 23–4, 88, 95

Morgan, Lewis Henry 68

natural law see ius-naturalism

natural selection 2, 3, 6, 8, 7, 17–21, 25, 27, 30, 38–9, 42, 44–5, 70, 77, 78, 98, 106, 108, 130

naturalistic fallacy 97, 100–101, 104

Nietzsche, Friedrich 17, 35

normativity of law 110–16, 125

Octavian Augustus 87

Ought implies Can 51, 102

Payne, Keith 37

peccatum mortale 13, 47, 132

perfection 128, 132

Pericles 75

Petrażycki, Leon 95

pharisaism 21–2

Pieper, Josef 46, 131–3

Pietrzykowski, Tomasz 45

Pinker, Steven 59–61

Pity 33–4

Pizarro, David 23–4

Plato 25

Polanowska-Sygulska, Beata 128

Postema, Gerald 112

pure theory of law 113–14

Radbruch, Gustave 120, 123–4

Raz, Joseph 111, 113–5, 124, 127

ressentiment 17

reverence (as opposed to hybris) 13

La Rochefoucauld 35

romantic lie (mensonge romantique) 16

Rousseau, Jean Jacques 67–8

Rozin, Paul 23

rule of recognition 111–15, 117, 119

as a social convention 112–14

rules of the first and second layer 62–5

Ruse, Michael 107–8

Savitsky, Kenneth 10

Schadenfreude 15, 18

Scheler, Max 11, 17, 32, 69

Schneider, Henry 70

Schoeck, Helmut 68–9, 72–3

Schopenhauer, Arthur 9, 11, 18

self-deception 7, 18, 20–21, 37

self-help 80–81

Seneca (the Younger) 23

Singer, Peter 43, 57

Slote, Michael 31

Slovic, Paul 36–7

Smith, Adam 14, 22, 30, 36–7, 39, 56, 61,

Sober, Elliott 41

social Darwinism 98, 106

Socrates 54

Sójka-Zielińska, Katarzyna 58, 81, 86

Solon 87

Spencer, Herbert 98–100

Spinoza, Baruch 133

Strauss, Leo 64, 118

superbia 12–14, 133

Surbey, Michele K. 21

Svendsen, Lars 18, 29–30, 45, 50

Sykes, Gresham M. 38

Sztompka, Piotr 78

Tazbir, Janusz 58

Teilhard de Chardin 101

tendencies of human nature

hierarchical 25–7, 70–73

immoral 8–22

moral 30–43

neutral 22–30

self-assertive 27–8

self-transcending 27–9

theory of genetic group selection 41–2, 71–2

theory of inclusive fitness 39–40

Thomas Aquinas 90, 117–18, 120, 131,

Thomasus, Christian 85

Thucydides 75

Tit for Tat strategy 2, 42–4, 56

Tournier, Paul 38

tribalism see altruism (group)

Trivers, Robert 21, 43

De Unamuno, Miguel 15

Upanishads 11–12

values

incommensurability of 127

pluralism of 126–9

Voltaire 85

De Waal, Frans B. M. 6

Weil, Simone 7, 8, 131, 133

welfare

and emotions 24–5

theories of 24–5

Williams, George, C. 6, 41

Wilson, David S. 41

Wilson, Edward O. 109

Wilson, Margo 39, 91

Woodruff, Paul 13

Załuski, Wojciech 67

Zdziechowski, Marian 8

Zoroaster 54