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Liquid Nationalism and State Partitions in Europe

Stefano Bianchini

This timely book offers an in-depth exploration of state partitions and the history of nationalism in Europe from the Enlightenment onwards. Stefano Bianchini compares traditional national democratic development to the growing transnational demands of representation with a focus on transnational mobility and empathy versus national localism against the EU project. In an era of multilevel identity, global economic and asylum seeker crises, nationalism is becoming more liquid which in turn strengthens the attractiveness of ‘ethnic purity’ and partitions, affects state stability, and the nature of national democracy in Europe. The result may be exposure to the risk of new wars, rather than enhanced guarantees of peace.
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Index

Stefano Bianchini

9/11 219, 264
Academy of Sciences
Academy of the Tartu University 208
Imperial Academy of Science 48
Russian Academy 5
Yugoslav Academy 20
ACIPS Alumni 229
ACTA report 264
Al-Assad, Bashar (1965–) 281
Albanians 21, 38, 523, 122, 186, 216, 252, 273
and Albanian question 62
and Greater Albania 2523
Aleksandar I Karađorđević, King (1888–1934) 100
Aleksandravičius, Egidijus 6, 23, 26, 46, 225
Alexander I, Emperor and Tsar (1777–1825) 15
Alexander II, Emperor and Tsar (1818–81) 56
Alexander III, Emperor and Tsar (1845–94) 44
Alfieri, Vittorio (1749–1803) 16
alphabet 24, 27, 204, 222
Arabic 102
Cyrillic 24, 44, 103
Latin 25, 44, 1023
Amato, Giuliano (1938–) 252
Ambartsumov, Yevgeny 161
anarchists 2, 41
ancien régime 8
Andreeva, Nina (1938–) 208
annexation 4, 10, 12, 30, 36, 49, 65, 75, 98, 110, 119, 124, 133, 159, 161, 197, 209, 222, 2789, 285
Soviet annexation 202, 210, 213
and double annexation 203
Anschluss 75, 109
Antall, József (1932–93) 277
Antemurale 87
anti-Bolshevism 101, 112, 285
anti-Communism 131, 139, 142, 146, 148, 1723, 185, 193, 209
anti-conformism 216
antifascist coalition 130, 139
see also Coalition
anti-religious policies 118
anti-Russian feelings 45, 112, 139, 215, 285
anti-Russian opposition 45
anti-Russian patriots 223
anti-Semitism 25, 312, 107, 126, 145, 193, 296
and anti-Semitism without Jews 155
anti-Soviet reaction 215
Antonov-Ovseenko, Vladimir (1883–1938) 70
apparatchik 148
Arab–Israeli conflict 145
Aralov, Semyon (1880–1969) 94
aristocracy 8, 12, 18, 26, 41, 445, 74, 202, 289
Cossack nobles 56
dvorjanstvo46
and German nobility 423
Magyarized aristocracy 26
Polonized nobles 8, 23, 26
and Swedish lords 42
Aristotle (384–322 BC) 16
Armenians 52, 845, 93
and Armenian State 93
Armia Krajowa126
Armia Ludowa133
Aryan worship 107
Ashdown, Paddy (1941–) 240
assimilation 18, 25, 27, 31, 38, 44, 78, 81, 96, 100, 141, 18081, 248, 287
Association of the Awakening Hungarians 106
asylum seekers see refugees
Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal (1881–1938) 93, 102
atheists 288
Atlantic Charter 79, 129
Atlantic military organization see NATO
atomic bomb 131
Ausgleich see Austro-Hungary
austerity measures 1878, 190, 204, 264
and austerity policy 194
Austro-Hungary see Geographic index
and Ausgleich 50, 55, 61, 96
and Dual Monarchy 5, 50, 55, 59, 63, 80, 96
and federalization of Austro-Hungary 72
and Tripartite Monarchy 556
see also Congress of the Oppressed Peoples
Austro-Marxism 55, 79
autonomy 25, 38, 423, 45, 49, 523, 62, 67, 70, 86, 93, 110, 120, 130, 145, 1578, 160, 164, 202, 209, 228, 253, 270
budgetary autonomy 207
cultural autonomy 55, 7980
and Tomsk Oblast 80
district autonomy 164
economic autonomy 24, 2067
statute of autonomy 182
and territorial autonomy 146
awakening 9, 106
and national awakening 208
Axis 121, 124, 141
backwardness 10, 41
Badinter Commission 154, 269, 272
bailout 189
Bakunin, Mikhail (1814–76) 19
Bălcescu, Nicolae (1819–52) 18, 79
Balkan (con)federation 1368
Balkan League 52
Balkan Pact 138
Balkan route 253
Balkan wars 32, 36, 534, 94, 121
Balkanization 185, 245, 253
Balladur Initiative 154, 217, 248, 277
Baltic Germans see Baltic provinces
Baltic provinces 42, 445, 69
and Baltic Germans 64, 66, 69, 202
Baltic round table 217
United Baltic Duchy 212
see also Baltic states (Geographic index)
Baltische Landeswehr 74
Ban, Matija (1818–1903) 27
Barbarossa, operation 118, 124, 126
Batory, Stefan (1533–86) 6
Bauer, Otto (1881–1938) 55, 80
Bauman, Zygmunt (1925–2017) 56, 169, 259, 265, 296
Beck, Józef (Polish General) (1894–1944) 109
Belgrade agreement 234
Beneš decrees 139, 197
Berisha, Sali (1944–) 273
Berklavs, Eduard (1914–2004) 117, 205
Berlin consensus 254
Berlin wall see walls
Berlin, Congress of 30, 49
Berzins, Andris (1944–) 224
besieged fortress 187
bias 10, 32, 83, 130, 178, 185, 194, 217, 228, 237, 244, 262, 293
Bibó, István (1911–79) 105
Bilandžić, Dušan (1924–2015) 227
Bismarck, Otto von (1815–98) 22
Bloc see Camp
Bohemian historical right 196
Bolkestein directive 250
Bologna process 261
Bonaparte, Napoleon I (1769–1821) 10, 12, 27, 41
and Napoleon Code 10
and Napoleonic campaigns 4, 9, 258
Bonaparte, Napoleon III (1808–73) 16, 20
borders 12, 910, 28, 356, 3940, 47, 49, 52, 556, 58, 623, 66, 69, 76, 78, 81, 85, 8790, 94, 98, 1045, 109, 114, 116, 119, 1278, 1314, 136, 139, 141, 143, 1456, 149, 1515, 157, 164, 1724, 17981, 192, 202, 212, 217, 228, 241, 245, 248, 252, 259, 261, 268, 2739, 2814, 293, 296
administrative demarcation lines 154, 159, 279
and border fence 174
and borders protection 191, 262
and international recognized borders 151
razor-wire fence 174
revision of borders 153
Borot’bism 86
Bošković, Ruđer (or Ruggero Boscovich) (1711–87) 26
Bosnia-Herzegovina see Geographic index
Constitutional Court of Bosnia-Herzegovina 235, 242
federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina 2289
Brandt, Willy (1913–92) 143
Brazauskas, Algirdas (1932–2010) 210
Brčko, status of 234
Breivik, Anders (1979–) 264, 286
Brexit 2623, 2678, 274, 286, 295
Brezhnev, Leonid (1906–82) 143, 186, 2056
and Brezhnev doctrine 171, 172
BRICS 164, 289
British-ness 275
Brodsky, Iosif (1940–96) 296
Broglio, Emilio (1814–92) 100
bronze soldier 220, 224
Brzezinski, Zbigniew (1928–2017) 185
Buchanan, Allen (1948–) 37, 294
buffer zone 223
Bund 46, 80
Bundesbank 253, 259
Burrows, Ronald (1867–1920) 83
Bush, George W. (1946–) 159, 161, 219
Cameron, David (1966–) 194, 263, 268, 286
Camp
Camps of Calais 175
Socialist Camp 130, 143, 145, 171, 186, 2067
Soviet Camp 146, 1857, 243
candidate countries 154, 217, 219, 248, 251, 254, 273, 275
canton 101, 229, 235, 2378, 24041
and cantonization 81, 196
Carbonari, secret society 16
Carpatho-Rusyns 64
Catherine II, Empress (1729–96) 5, 10, 12
Cavour, Camillo Benso (1810–61) 20, 105
Ceauşescu, Nicolae (1918–89) 143
Cebesoy, Ali Fuat (1882–1968) 94
censorship 17, 42, 44, 118, 206
census 186, 237, 278
Central Banks 259
European 258, 297
French 259
German 259
Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) 200
Central Powers 36, 589, 614, 689, 81
centralization 811, 17, 30, 52, 81, 100101, 103, 107, 180, 207
Charles I, Emperor (1887–1922) 72
Charlie Hebdo282
Charter of Fundamental Rights see Rights
Chernobyl 2067
Chernyshevsky, Nikolai (1828–89) 19
Chetniks/Četnici 131, 196
Chicherin, Georgy (1872–1936) 94, 113
Christ, Jesus 106
Christianity 3, 43, 93, 106
and Christians 288
Church see religions
Churchill, Winston (1874–1965) 129, 131, 1367
CIA 151, 209
Cicero, Marcus Tullius (106–43 BC) 26
citizenship 109, 171, 204, 21215, 21718, 22021, 248, 250, 288
and European citizenship 204
non-citizens 221
see also European Union
civil wars 63, 164, 173, 181
American Civil War 19
English Civil War 16
Finnish Civil War 62
Greek Civil War 1368
Russian Civil War 36, 61, 70, 723, 856, 89, 202
Spanish Civil War 2
class struggle 42, 262, 287
Clinton, Bill (1946–) 1, 228
coalition 44, 50, 130, 139, 197, 213, 2389, 243, 248, 274, 289
Cold War 130, 142, 1479, 169, 1723, 176, 197, 204, 244, 256
and Cold War walls 172
collective rights 10, 19, 79, 230, 2323, 236
collective security 113, 179, 294
collectivization 118, 129, 139, 204
colonies 248
colonists 69, 124, 21415
Cominform 138
Commission on the Balkans 252
common currency 136, 178, 194, 204, 250, 2534, 26061, 264, 271, 286, 295
Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) 153
Commonwealth partition 11
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 45, 7, 1112, 15, 256, 43, 46, 66, 74, 87, 101, 178, 2023, 223
Communism 64, 80, 126, 142, 144, 148, 185, 1978, 216, 2245, 236, 250, 284, 287, 290, 293
Communist ideology 139, 172, 192
Communist internationalism 85, 145, 172, 285
national Communism 205
War Communism 71
Communist Parties 73, 121, 137, 145, 186, 205
and Communist Hardliners 202, 207, 209, 21113
Communist Leadership 147, 192
and Communist Party of Soviet Union (CPSU) 145, 203, 209, 211, 213
see also League of Communists of Yugoslavia
competition 3, 25, 32, 161, 226, 256, 265, 277
sub-continental 191
Congress
Communist Party Congress 211
Congress of the Oppressed Peoples of Austro-Hungary 83
Eighth Party Congress 86
Estonian Congress 212
Twentieth Congress of CPSU 145
conscripts 127, 129, 224
consociationalism 294
Constituent Assembly (of Galicia and Bukovina) 72
and constituent peoples 186, 229, 230, 235
Constitution
1974 Yugoslav C. 157, 185
1977 Soviet C. 2023
Constitutional Court 190, 222, 2356, 242, 274, 297
of the RSFSR 84
Spanish Constitutional Court 182, 270, 274
“Continuation war” see Winter war
continuity argument 285
Copenhagen criteria 218, 248, 277
Corriere della Sera83, 1767
cosmopolitanism 4, 89, 13, 29, 172, 193
popular culture 13, 207
and autochthonous cultures 46
transnational culture 193
Cossacks 44
from the Don 70
of Zaporozhia 6
see also aristocracy
Council of Europe 218, 268, 275
coup d’état 121, 124, 143, 269
and 1991 August coup 152, 211
Coustine Astolphe, Marquis de (1790–1857) 41
Creek people 271
Crimea
and Crimean annexation 159
Crimean war 41
Khanate of Crimea 5
crimes against humanity 130, 138, 141, 227
crisis
economic crisis 147, 164, 1878, 191, 194, 199, 256, 260, 266, 270, 286, 295
financial crisis 189, 194, 295
global crisis 251
Croatian-ness 26, 29
Curzon, George Nathaniel Lord (1859–1925) 89
Curzon line 89, 90, 92, 132
Cutileiro, José (1934–) 227
Cvijić, Jovan (1865–1927) 29
Cyprus partition 269
and Turkish military intervention 143, 269
and Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus 159, 177, 269
Czartoryski, Adam Jerzy (or Adomas Jurgis Čartoriskis) (1770–1861) 1415, 17, 234, 29, 43, 79
Czechoslovakism 56, 82, 180, 248
and Czechoslovak language 100
and Czecho-Slovak troops 84
Daesh 130, 281
Danubian–Balkan association of peoples 17
Darwinism 25, 32
Dayton agreement 36, 15051, 155, 227, 230, 241, 245, 247
and Dayton Constitution 229, 235, 2378, 241
Dayton negotiations 231, 2345, 241, 247
and GFAP (General Framework Agreement for Peace) 2289, 2335, 239, 2412
De Maistre, Joseph (1753–1821) 41
debt
foreign debt 1878
and Sovereign debt 188, 190, 253, 266, 271, 294
decentralization 81, 101, 185, 234, 270
Declaration of the Rights of Peoples of Russia 62, 67, 84
Dekanozov, Vladimir (1898–1953) 117
Delors Commission 249
Delors, Jacques (1925–) 24950, 283
democracy 19, 37, 56, 100, 145, 169, 176, 17980, 1834, 191, 1946, 199, 200201, 216, 233, 239, 247, 25660, 265, 280, 282, 288, 289, 29094, 2978
and democratic deficit 251, 258
liberal democracies 81, 2934
national democracy 292
and Swiss liberal experience 294
democratic centralism 102
demography 8, 215, 275
demos 38
Denikin, Anton Russian General (1872–1947) 89
deportation 39, 45, 67, 118, 124, 129, 133, 2045, 207, 209, 224
destalinization 142, 186, 205, 207
Destrée, Jules (1863–1936) 83
diaspora 93, 146, 172, 226
dictatorship 36, 130, 143, 185, 19091, 204, 244, 291, 293
Dimitrov, Georgi (1882–1949) 1368
diplomas 257, 261
Directorate 712, 243
discrimination 14, 38, 106, 215, 230, 242, 262, 297
diversity 22, 38, 165, 167, 170, 172, 180, 191, 257, 264, 285
Dmowski, Roman (1864–1939) 25, 29
Dodik, Milorad (1959–) 2412
Dollfuss, Engelbert (1892–1934) 109
Draghi, Mario (1947–) 258
Dreyfus, Alfred (1859–1935) 312
Dual Monarchy see Austro-Hungary
Dubček, Alexander (1921–92) 172, 197
Dublin regulation 174
and Dublin III 174
Duma 25, 59, 215
Dumbarton Oaks 132
Dvorjanstvo see aristocracy
Eastern partnership 223
ecology
ecological protests 2067
and Dam on the Daugava river 207
and Green protest 207
economy 59, 164, 189, 216, 253, 256, 296
and economic unity 256
global economy 256
social market economy 253, 295
see also crisis
education 48, 27, 312, 41, 44, 46, 489, 7071, 76, 80, 100103, 141, 172, 178, 191, 200, 204, 222, 237, 2567, 26062, 265, 2889, 297
and educational system 71, 101, 237
joint programs 204, 219
transnational education 257
elites 4, 12, 21, 30, 100, 103, 128, 1459, 179, 192, 196, 199, 204, 225, 230, 238, 240, 243, 261, 264, 287, 296
and political elite 29, 100, 128, 192, 240, 248
emancipation 19, 37, 44, 47, 62, 77, 79, 102
émigrés 18, 213
and anti-Communist émigrés 148, 193, 209
and organizations in exile 172
see also migrations
empires
Austro-Hungarian empire 28, 4950, 823, 97
Byzantine empire 93
colonial empire 37, 82, 845, 92, 183, 240
German empire 2, 61, 69, 202
Habsburg empire 15, 1718, 27, 50, 77, 84, 141
imperial oppressors 81
imperial threats 223
Ottoman empire 6, 18, 28, 41, 4850, 52, 63, 70, 82, 92
pre-modern dynastic empire 56, 183
Roman empire 10, 107
Russian empire 6, 15, 24, 45, 47, 61, 64, 72, 89
Tsarist empire 4, 24, 41, 46, 48, 59, 62, 65, 68, 86, 88, 118, 2012, 208
Ems Ukase 478
English-ness 2756
enlightenment 411, 16, 27, 31, 41, 75, 79, 100101
and rationalism 14, 27
Enosis (union) 143
entity 122, 155, 22830, 234, 2359, 2412, 246, 250, 271, 278, 297
third entity 234
Erasmus program 240, 26061, 296
Estonian rifle corps 128
Estonian-ness 212
ETA 274
ethnic cleansing see ethnic state
ethnic state 92, 109, 133, 147, 181, 231
and ethnic cleansing 26, 39, 40, 94, 122, 124, 127, 130, 133, 1389, 1412, 153, 180, 193, 232, 247, 264, 269, 287
ethnic key 227, 230, 237, 24041, 2434
and ethnic plurality 158, 189
ethnic ratio 103, 186, 189, 191, 2356, 2389
ethnic separation 39, 246
ethnocracy 38
Ministry for Ethnic Relations (Estonian) 213
and multiple ethnic independent states 149
ethnos 29, 38, 182
Eurasian Economic Union 161
Euro-Atlantic Institutions 217
community 233, 236, 240, 289
liberal democracies 293
perception 212
Eurobarometer 258
European Stability Initiative 229
European Union (EU) 3, 154, 217, 284
and communitarian legislation 218
conditionality 218, 2423, 245, 248, 254
enlargement eastward 169172, 175, 217, 220, 223, 242, 25051, 260, 273, 276
enlargement fatigue 223, 258
EU membership 39, 154, 177, 190, 204, 21719, 22023, 2423, 248, 251, 268, 271, 273, 276, 274, 28990
EU Parliament 164
EU political union 204, 258, 285, 297
European Central Bank 258, 297
European citizenship 204
European Commission 1745, 230, 251, 253, 25860, 268, 271, 281, 289, 297
European Community 154, 191, 208, 227
European confederation 216
European Council 154, 182, 242, 248, 250, 272, 282
European Court of Human Rights 230, 281
European Higher Education Area (EHEA) 172, 256, 261
European widening and deepening 187, 249
Eurozone 18990, 251, 254, 25860, 264, 297
Eurostat 221
Evans, Arthur Sir (1851–1941) 83
extermination 1212, 124, 126, 130
family 14, 17, 23, 43, 122, 175, 187, 201, 213, 232, 246, 256, 259, 285, 291
Farage, Nigel (1964–) 267
fascism 2, 25, 107, 139, 2245
and nostalgic fascism 182
Faulkner, William (1897–1962) 169
Faymann, Werner (1960–) 173
federation 1521, 367, 55, 65, 84, 879, 92, 103, 113, 136, 13849, 152, 157, 159, 163, 18081, 18591, 1967, 199, 218, 2289, 231, 2336, 242, 271, 278, 281
and decentralized federation 189
federal component 136, 155, 157, 186
and federal ideas 21, 180
socialist federations 37, 148, 1545, 18081, 183, 222, 265, 269, 279, 2934
feminism 5
and anti-feminism 25
festivals
folk music festival 206, 208
jazz festival 206
Lāčplēsis festival 208
song festival 296, 208
summer rock festival 208
Tallinn Song Festival Grounds 208
Fichte, Johann Gottlieb (1762–1814) 10, 14, 25, 31
Finci, Jakob (1943–) 230, 237, 247
Fischer, Joshka (1948–) 258
Fitoussi, Jean Paul (1942–) 254
Flemish nationalists 276
folklore 13, 24, 46, 276
Ford, Gerald (1913–2006) 128
forest brothers 129, 133, 204
four common spaces 219
four plus two agreement 212
Four Year Diet 11
Fourteen Points 812
Franco, Francisco (1892–1975) 2, 270
Franz Ferdinand, Archduke of Austria-Este (1863–1914) 55
Fraser, Robert 247
Frederick the Great, King (1712–86) 5
freedom, of peoples 8, 15, 3031, 35, 105, 129, 204, 244
Freikorps74
frozen conflicts 155
Gaddafi, Muammar (1942–2011) 281
Gaj, Ljudevit (or Ludwig Gay) (1809–72) 28
Garašanin, Ilija (1812–74) 15, 20, 29
Garibaldi, Giuseppe (1807–82) 1920, 1045
Gellner, Ernst (1925–95) 265
gender 32, 193, 259, 285, 291
and gender equality 257, 282
General Framework Agreement for Peace (GFAP) see Dayton agreement
genocide 26, 39, 93, 121, 126, 138, 141, 180, 227, 2312, 249
Georgian war 2223
Gerasimov, Gennady (1930–2010) 171
German exodus 139
German Reich 22, 61, 63, 85, 119, 197
German unification 4, 20, 37, 56, 1489, 160, 275
GDR clause 275
German National Assembly 17
German precedent 149, 181, 275
Great German Duchy 61
Germany
Greater Germany 85
and Nazi Germany 75, 118, 224
see also empires
glasnost’206
globalization 16970, 177, 179, 1813, 1867, 191, 204, 222, 225, 244, 260, 279, 282, 289, 295
Good Friday see Ireland
Gorbachev, Mikhail (1931–) 144, 148, 1523, 183, 186, 203, 2067, 20912, 216
Gorbunovs, Anatolijs (1942–) 214
governance 11, 177, 187, 189, 191, 194, 199, 226, 230, 2323, 23540, 243, 246, 256, 258, 266, 287, 2945, 297
Great Patriotic War 225
Great Terror 103
see also terror 62, 73
Greece
Greek National Union 101
Greek People’s Liberation Army (EAM-ELAS) 1378
Grexit 189, 264, 286
and Italian invasion of 137
Gulyás, Gergely (1981–) 175
Gundulić, Ivan (or Giovanni Gondola) (1589–1638) 26
Hagia Sophia 93
Hahn, Johannes (1957–) 230
Hangö 116
Hasani, Sinan (1922–2010) 189
Havel, Václav (1936–2011) 198, 200
Helsinki-86 group 207
Helsinki conference 128, 159, 205
Herder, Johann Gottfried (1744–1803) 9, 13, 24, 31, 275
heritage 200, 2067, 288
and national heritage 207
heterogeneity 42, 76, 1723, 175, 194, 257, 281, 292
Hetmanate712
Hezbollah 281
High Representative (HR) 233, 240
high speed trains 257
Hitler, Adolf (1889–1945) 36, 75, 104, 107, 10910, 11314, 116, 119, 1215, 1278, 130, 1334, 138, 141
Hlinka, Andrej (1864–1938) 101
Holbrooke, Richard (1941–2010) 227, 247
Hollande, François (1954–) 283, 286, 295
Holocaust 39, 126, 197, 2245
see also Shoah
Holodomor 133
Holy Alliance 18
homogeneity 25, 31, 100, 130, 1723, 1789, 182, 222, 247, 262, 2656, 288, 291, 292, 294
and homogenization 9, 14, 25, 30, 148, 169, 173, 179, 181, 1934, 196, 200201, 215, 222, 227, 2312, 2378, 245, 247, 256, 259, 265, 288
and liberal homogeneity 179, 247, 293
Horthy, Miklós (1868–1957) 98
House Inquiry 81, 247
Hoxha, Enver (1908–85) 1367
human capital 261, 288
human rights see rights
and European framework convention for minority rights 275
human traffickers 173
Hungarian Credo 106
Hungarian Cultural League 106
Hungarian National Defense Association 106
Hungarian-ness 17
Huntington, Samuel (1927–2008) 287
Husák, Gustáv (1913–91) 197
identity 68, 1213, 17, 237, 31, 39, 43, 46, 47, 49, 1789, 183, 198, 200, 206, 21920, 223, 2378, 250, 261, 2745, 278, 280, 285, 2878, 291
and Central European identity 198, 200
identity construction 23, 26
and Nordic identification 219
and supranational Soviet identity 205
ideology 22, 30, 35, 94, 105, 127, 141, 147, 172, 180, 185, 1923, 232
and Communist ideology 139, 172
liberal ideology 245, 265
liberal-democratic front 81
Marxist–Leninist ideology 80
neoliberalism 200, 254, 295
illegal argument 203
illiberal temptations 297
Illyrism 10, 27
and Illyrian provinces 9
Illyrian ideals 20
Imbriani, Matteo Renato (1843–1901) 105
immigration 176, 194, 205, 262, 264, 284, 295
and immigrants 174, 209, 212, 214, 281, 2878, 291
and migrants 182, 191, 1934, 221, 2812, 2846
see also migrations
Imperialism 94, 104, 179, 240
Age of Imperialism 30, 32
inclusiveness 23, 38, 175, 177, 183, 245, 250, 257, 262, 264, 282, 294, 297
independence 12, 5, 8, 12, 14, 1920, 22, 28, 35, 37, 39, 412, 4950, 52, 6170, 724, 779, 815, 878, 934, 110, 117, 119, 127, 130, 134, 141, 146, 148, 1525, 1579, 164, 166, 1778, 18081, 1834, 199, 2013, 20616, 220, 2245, 231, 234, 241, 244, 248, 263, 26672, 2749, 290
and declaration of independence 69, 153, 210, 213, 270, 2789
indigenization (or Korenizacija) 1023, 142
industrialization 78, 100, 197, 204
inequality 44, 194, 197, 286, 293
injustice 106, 193, 273
insurrection
1863 insurrection 45, 47
integration 21, 39, 56, 66, 134, 136, 177, 179, 201, 217, 234, 243, 263, 295, 2967
and EU integration 66, 69, 78, 80, 92, 94, 201, 204, 222, 226, 2445, 24850, 253, 2568, 260, 266, 273, 277, 283, 286, 28890, 2924
interculturality 119, 226, 293
interdependence 3, 147, 169, 172, 1867, 238, 245, 2578, 265, 279, 289, 291
Intermarium see Prometheus
internal passport 102
international
and Communist internationalism 85, 145, 172
socialist international 79
International Court of Justice 269, 279, 281
Internet 292
and Internet connection 257, 296
see also IT communications
Inuit 271
investments 1878, 254
expansive investments 189
Inzko, Valentin (1949–) 2412
Ireland
Belfast Agreement 1
Good Friday 1
and Irish independence 1
Iron Curtain 1712, 216
Iron Guard 101
irredentism 1046
Italia irredenta105
and unredeemed lands 1057
Iskolat66, 69
Islamophobia 193
and Islamic fundamentalists 52
IT communications 257, 265
see also Internet
Izetbegović, Alija (1925–2003) 228, 231
Jadwiga or Hedvig of Anjou, Queen of Poland (1373–99) 7
Jagiellonian rule 7, 132
Janus 146
Jasenovac 122
Jelačić Josip, Ban of Croatia (1801–59) 18
Jesuits 6, 23
Jews 25, 29, 32, 39, 46, 64, 71, 75, 1212, 124, 126, 138, 142, 145, 197, 237
Jewry 130, 224
Judaism 32, 126
and Yiddish 32
Jogaila, Grand Duke, later King Władysław II Jagiełło (1362–1434) 7
Johnson, Boris (1964–) 267
Joseph II, Emperor (1741–90) 5
Josipović, Ivo (1957–) 272
Jović, Dejan (1968–) 183, 192, 272
Juncker, Jean-Claude (1954–) 251, 282
Junker22
Kaczyński, Lech (1949–2010) 88
kajkavian28
Kant, Emmanuel (1724–1804) 14
Karađorđević, Pavle (1893–1976) 121
Karađorđević, Petar II, King (1923–70) 122
Karađorđević dynasty 83
Karađorđevo meeting 227
Karadžić, Vuk (1787–1864) 289
Karavelov, Ljuben (1834/5–1879) 20
Kemal, Mustafa (called Atatürk) 934, 102
Kerensky, Aleksandr (1881–1970) 70
KGB 209
Khazar Khanate 32
Khrushchev, Nikita (1894–1971) 145, 160, 2056
Khudoley, Konstantin (1951–) 117, 128
Klan (TV) 273
Klaus, Václav (1941–) 198200
Knaus, Gerald 240
Kofi Annan plan 269
Kommunist, magazine 205
Kopitar, Juraj (1780–1844) 27
Korean war 129
Kornilov, Lavr Russian General (1870–1918) 59
Kościuszko, Tadeusz (1746–1817) 12, 29
kosher supermarket 282
Kosovo
Kosovar declaration of independence 279
Kosovar Parliament 253
Kosovar Serbs 252
Kossuth, Lajos (1802–94) 14, 1718, 20, 79
Kozyrev, Andrei (1951–) 161
Krajger, Sergej (1914–2001) 190
Krėvė-Mickevičious, Vincas (1882–1954) 117
Kropotkin, Pëtr (1842–1921) 19, 29
Krugman, Paul (1953–) 254, 271
Krūmiņš, Vilis (1919–2000) 205
Kumanovo agreement 155, 157, 234
Kun, Béla (1886–1938) 96
Kurds 93, 130
Kymlicka, Will (1962–) 37, 294
Lambert, Hôtel 15
landowners 22, 24, 41, 45, 55, 59, 65, 71, 8890
Landsbergis, Vytautas (1932–) 210
language 59, 1113, 1718, 22, 24, 268, 31, 427, 48, 57, 66, 80, 82, 100, 102, 105, 128, 141, 160, 166, 169, 196, 204, 21213, 215, 2212, 242, 248, 275, 277, 291, 297
2012 language act 160
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages see minorities
and national language 12, 100, 246
and polycentric language 81
standard language 256, 259
and standardization 8, 13, 100, 165, 245
see also vernacular
Lansing, Robert (1864–1928) 824
and Lansing memorandum 83
Latgalians 42
Landesrat79
Latvians 13, 16, 38, 424, 64, 74, 214, 221
and Latvian provisional national council 69
Lauristin, Marju 220
low cost flights 257, 296
Le Pen, Marie (1968–) 283, 295
League of Communists of Yugoslavia 185, 18990
see also Communist parties; Parties
League of Nations 75, 113, 116
Lebensraum 124
Leibnitz, Gottfried (1646–1716) 5
Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (1870–1924) 37, 62, 66, 68, 7680, 82, 84, 86, 90, 92, 94, 98, 102, 104, 142, 145, 172
LGBT community 220, 257, 285
Lieven, Anatol (1960–) 66, 126, 215
lifestyle 129, 175, 206, 256, 260, 2623, 282, 292, 297
and Western/Christian lifestyle 182
Lincoln, Abraham (1809–65) 19
List, Friedrich (1789–1846) 79
Litbel Republic 74
literature 5, 7, 1213, 16, 234, 31, 46, 102, 106, 105
and international (scholarly) literature 2930, 187
Lithuanian rogue units 126
Litvinov, Maxim (1876–1951) 113
Locke, John (1632–1704) 16
London Pact 104
London School of Economics 268
Louis XIV, king of France (1638–1715) 8
loyalty oath 215
Lublin Union 23, 43
Luxemburg, Rosa (1871–1919) 46, 778
Maapäev 59, 65, 69
Macedonia
and Slavic Macedonians 94, 96, 137
Machiavelli, Niccolò (1469–1527) 261, 293
Magocsi, Paul (1945–) 3, 22, 46, 48, 51, 54, 72, 99, 120, 135, 140, 156
Makhno, Nestor (1888–1934) 71, 89
Manzoni, Alessandro (1785–1873) 100
Maoist ideas 156
Mare nostrum 107
Maria Theresa Habsburg, Empress (1717–80) 5
Markevych, Mykola (1804–60) 47
Marković, Svetozar (1846–75) 28
marriage 285
and mixed marriages 169, 191, 1989, 237, 285
Martin, Felix 240
Marulić, Marko (or Marco Marulo) (1450–1524) 26
Marx, Karl (1818–83) 19, 80
Marxists 41, 44, 55, 79-80
Masaryk, Tomáš (1850–1937) 19, 834, 100, 196, 248
mass media 76, 262, 288
Masurian Lakes, battle 58
matryoshka doll 180
Mazzini, Giuseppe (1805–72) 1417, 20, 29, 312, 63, 79, 1045, 294
Mečiar, Vladimir (1942–) 199200
medicine 256, 260
Megali Idea (or Great Idea) 934
Mein Kampf107
Meinecke, Friedrich (1862–1954) 106
Mejlis 59
memorandum 18, 88
Lansing memorandum 83
London memorandum 1389
Memorandum of Budapest 154, 159
Merkel, Angela (1954–) 1734, 254, 284, 286, 291, 295
Meštrović, Ivan (1883–1962) 28
Metaxas, Ioannis (1871–1941) 121
Metelko, Fran or Franc Serafin (1779–1860) 27
métissages141, 169, 280, 293
Mickiewicz, Adam Bernard (or Adomas Bernardas Mickevičius; Адам Бернáрд Міцкевіч) (1798–1855) 23
Middle Ages 9, 16, 56, 132, 275
migrations 3940, 132, 139, 1423, 169, 172, 175, 180, 193, 221, 226, 257, 262, 2812, 288, 289, 292, 294
and emigration 23, 145
see also émigrés; immigration; refugees
Mihailov, Ivan or Vančo (1896–1990) 101
Mihailović, Draža (1893–1946) 225
Miletić, Svetozar (1826–1901) 28
Mill, John Stuart (1806–73) 179, 293
Milošević, Slobodan (1941–2006) 192, 199, 227, 231, 264
Milosz, Czeslaw (or Česlovas Milošas; Чэслаў Мimageлаш) (1911–2004) 23
Milton, John (1608–74) 16
Minić, Miloš (1914–2003) 227, 231
minimum size 78
minorities 25, 31, 389, 81, 82, 100, 107, 110, 114, 130, 133, 1413, 146, 1534, 161, 164, 180, 186, 1967, 200, 2024, 212, 21517, 22022, 224, 237, 239, 248, 272, 275, 278, 288, 2967
European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages 275
European Framework Convention for Minority Rights 275
and Hungarian minorities 119, 122, 164, 196
Jewish minorities 237
Law on National Minorities (Lithuanian) 222
and minority 67, 101, 11819, 124, 164, 197, 215, 217, 22022, 2345, 245, 277, 288, 297
minority language 160, 248, 275
minority policy 5
minority rights 18, 102, 105, 120, 122, 130, 148, 175
minority status 245
and Russian minorities 153, 217, 220
Minsk Accords 1634, 286
missile shield 161
Mitrany, David (1888–1975) 258
Mitterrand, François (1916–96) 148, 216
mobility 3, 16970, 1723, 180, 191, 194, 199, 204, 218, 222, 233, 250, 2567, 26061, 281, 286, 288
and Erasmus program
and mobile citizens 194
mobilization 38, 63, 92, 94, 110, 128, 147, 187, 192, 194, 1989, 245, 256, 266
Moldavia
and Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic of Moldavia 134
Molotov, Vyacheslav (1890–1986) 113, 145
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact 11415, 124, 132, 145, 203, 2089
Monnet, Jean (1888–1979) 258, 294
monolingualism 262
Morris, Steven 221
Mountain Wreath, the 29
multiculturalism 191, 2867, 293
multi-ethnic state 92, 231
multilingualism 82, 204, 256, 261, 296
multinational 4, 356, 556, 7980, 105, 119, 148, 157, 1856, 194
Munich Conference or Pact 110, 11213, 134, 198
murders 133, 224, 282
Mürzsteg, agreement of 50
Muslim 6, 44, 86, 102, 144, 231
Bosniaks 21, 28, 186, 216, 2289, 231, 2347, 252
Bosnian Muslims 28
Mussolini, Benito (1883–1945) 104, 109, 113, 1212, 141
mutilated victory 104
mythology 13, 107, 207
Načertanije29
Narodniks19, 41, 56
nation and autonomous development 147
and civic nature 181, 229, 247, 264
constituent nations 103, 238
ethnic dimension 38, 98, 133, 181, 229, 2467, 264
ethnic state 109, 133, 147, 181
national question 4, 42, 44, 80, 94, 127, 143, 1467, 212, 224, 276
oppressed nations 68, 181
“Soviet nation” 143
suppressed nations 9, 78
titular nation 103
National Pact Declaration 93
National Socialism 292
nationalism 17, 19, 22, 25, 3032, 467, 85, 104, 1067, 110, 1423, 172, 179, 18081, 191, 198, 207, 21516, 223, 225, 231, 261, 2889
economic nationalism 188
ethno-nationalism 25, 31, 130, 172, 198, 264
Great Russian nationalism 78
neo-nationalism 164, 178, 189, 263, 265, 275
and primordial nationalism 31, 81, 107, 204
Russification 24, 44, 47, 65, 143, 2056
nationalization 118, 202
see also re-nationalization
nation-state 3, 12, 25, 30, 35, 389, 76, 79, 100101, 109, 130, 137, 147, 169, 172, 17783, 189, 19091, 2023, 2256, 2446, 256, 25861, 2635, 271, 276, 279, 280, 282, 2856, 29097
Europe of nation-states 285
nation-state political culture 246, 256
nation-state supremacy 246
nativization campaign 205
NATO 130, 143, 155, 159, 161, 198, 204, 21719, 223, 225, 228, 251, 276, 285, 289
Bucharest summit 159
military exercises 261
NATO expansion 161, 217, 289
Russia–NATO Council 219
“natural society” 24
Nazarbaev, Nursultan (1940–) 152
neo-authoritarian temptations 297
neo-colonialist nostalgia 283
neo-nationalism see nationalism
neo-nomadism see nomadism
networks 2, 20, 32, 42, 56, 64, 180, 193, 232, 244, 249, 261, 276, 278
and transnational networks 172, 233, 244
New Europe, magazine 82
New Thinking 207
Nicholas I, Emperor and Tsar (1796–1855) 15, 41, 47
Nicholas II, Emperor and Tsar (1868–1918) 44
Nin, magazine 252, 279
NKVD 129, 133
Nobel Peace Prize 294
nomadism 257, 26062, 280, 288, 293
non-aggression pacts 109, 11314
Non-Aligned Movement 1867
non-citizens 221
normalcy 285
Oberdan, Guglielmo (born Wilhelm Oberdank) (1858–82) 29, 56
Obradović, Dositej (1739–1811) 27, 29
Obrenović, Mihailo Prince of Serbia (1823–68) 20
obscurantism 81
Oder–Neisse line 132
OHR see high representative
Ohrid agreement 234
oligarchic republics 4
oligarchies 12, 238
OMON 211
Orbán, Viktor (1963–) 174, 285, 294
Orbin, Mavro (or Mauro Orbini) (1563–1614) 26
Orsini, Felice (1819–58) 16, 56
OSCE 21718, 220
Ostpolitik 143
otherness 31, 13031, 187, 193, 222, 250, 264, 286
and “Others” 39, 76, 175, 179, 22930, 2378, 266
Paleckis, Justas (1899–1980) 117
Palestinians 281
Panslavism 16
pan-Ukrainian Congress 70
Papacy 8, 15, 23
Paris peace conference 132
see also Paris Peace Treaty 36
parochialism 39, 2712
partisans 26, 101, 126, 131138, 225
Greek partisans 1367
and partisan movement 13031, 1367
partitioning
Bosnia-Herzegovina 227, 231
and Russia 63
partitions
Cyprus partition 269
Czechoslovak partition 151, 187, 196200
ethno/national separation 267, 36, 39, 40, 172, 190, 234, 246, 168, 273, 280, 290
internal partitions 149
Irish partition 1
multilevel partition 1767, 183, 187, 263, 267
Soviet Union collapse 36, 151, 160, 181, 183, 21516, 265
Yugoslav partition 199, 232, 245, 294
Partnership for Peace Program 219
parties
All-Ukrainian Union “Svoboda178, 264
Ataka264, 274
Bildu coalition 274
Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ-Hrvatska Demokratska zajednica) 230, 231, 239, 242
Croatian Party of Rights 29
Democratic Labor Party (Lithuanian) 210
Dutch Freedom Party 178
far-right parties 193, 280, 284, 292
Fidesz 175
Five Stars Movements (Movimento Cinque Stelle) 295
Greater Romania Party (Partidul România Mare) 274
Greek National Union 111
Jobbik178, 264
Junt pel sì178
Latvian Social-Democratic Union 44
Latvian Social-Democrat Workers’ 66
Law and Justice (Prawo i Sprawiedliwość) 178, 274
League of Communist of Yugoslavia 185, 189
previously Communist Party of Yugoslavia 121, 186
National Front (France) 178, 264, 274
New Flemish Alliance (N-VA – Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie) 296
Northern League 178, 264, 274, 295
Party of Democratic Action (SDA-Stranka Demokratske Akcije) 239, 242
Party’s Central Committee 68, 148
Pegida178
People’s Party-Movement for a Democratic Slovakia 199
Polish Socialist Party 46
Popular Unity Candidacy (CUP) 178
Radical Party (of Serbia) 29
Scottish National Party 178
Serbian Democratic Party (SDS – Srpska Demokratska Stranka) 231, 239
Slovak People’s Party 101
Social-Democracy of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania 46
United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP) 178, 194, 267, 274
VMRO 101
Workers’ Social-Democratic Party of Russia 77
see also Communist Party; League of Communists
patriarchalism 259, 292
hierarchies 178
and patriarchal relations 38
reason 220
Patriarchate of Kyiv 277
and of Moscow 71, 277
patriotism 14, 118, 130, 137, 175, 183, 225, 290
and patriotic movements 130
peacemaking missions 50
peasantry 7, 13, 22, 24, 32, 41, 43, 71, 129
and peasants 234, 413, 45, 48, 59, 61, 656, 82, 8990, 110, 118, 129, 133, 204
People’s Democracies 138, 1456
percentage agreement 1367
Perestroika143, 206, 208
Pétain, Marshal Philippe (1856–1951) 130
Petar I Petrović Njegoš, Vladika or Prince-Bishop of Montenegro (1748–1830) 27
Petar II Petrović Njegoš, Vladika or Prince-Bishop of Montenegro (1813–51) 29
Peter I the Great, Tsar and Emperor (1672–1725) 5, 11, 43
Petliura, Symon (1879–1926) 71, 8990
Petöfi, Sandor (1823–49) 17
Petro, Nikolai (1958–) 159
Piast dynasty 132
Piłsudski, Józef General and first President of Poland (1867–1935) 23, 46, 75, 8690, 92, 1323, 203
pipelines
Nord Stream 182
South Stream 182
Plato (428?–348? BC) 16
plural monoculturalism 287, 293
Poland
Congress Poland 86
Kingdom of Poland 15, 24, 46, 66, 69, 86
Rzeczpospolita2023
policy
assimilationist policies 181, 287
budgetary policy 189, 254, 286, 295
energy policy 191
foreign policy 55, 113, 132, 145, 186, 211, 253
policy of appeasement 109, 113
policy of divide et impera64
policy of inclusion 204
policy of neutrality 5
revisionist policy 109
Polish plumber 250
Polit-Desančić, Mihailo (1833–1920) 20, 28, 79
“polonization” 8, 23, 467
see also aristocracy
Pond, Elisabeth (1937–) 249
Poniatowski, Stanisław II August, King of Poland (1732–98) 11
Ponta, Victor (1972–) 273
Popovici, Aurel (1863–1917) 55
Popular Front 203, 210, 212, 214
and Rahvarinne208
Sajūdis208, 210
Tautasfronte208
post-Cold War 147, 169, 180, 182, 248, 265
Potsdam conference 132
power sharing 294
Prague spring 197
Prague, Slavic Congress of 17
Pribičević, Svetozar (1875–1936) 28
Pridnestrovie see Transnistria
Princip, Gavrilo (1894–1918) 56
principality 4, 22, 49, 50, 277
Prometheus 88, 94
and Intermarium (or Międzimorze) 878
Promethean project 23
Prometheus process 88
Pucić, Medo (Orsatto Pozza) (1821–82) 27
Pugo, Boris (1937–91) 211
Pujol, Jordi i Soley (1930–) 270
purity 31, 261, 266,
cultural purity 25
ethnic purity 290
Putin, Vladimir (1952–) 16061, 219, 2789, 289
Pyatakov, Georgy (1890–1937) 86
Quadrangular cooperation 198
quota system 103, 1745, 215
racism 32, 101, 107, 130, 141, 193, 222, 265, 296
and racial differences 32
racial motivation 176
racial superiority 106
Rački, Franjo (1828–94) 20
Rada, Central 59, 7071, 85, 160
railroad, Berlin–Baghdad 52
Rajić, Jovan (1726–1801) 27
Rajoy, Mariano (1955–) 290
Rakovski, Georgi Sava (1821–67) 30
Rama, Edi (1964–) 273
Ramorino, Girolamo (1792–1849) 15
Ranke, Leopold von (1795–1886) 106
rationalism see enlightenment
Red Army 7071, 734, 84, 8990, 110, 116, 118, 1289, 1313, 139, 277, 283
and Hungarian Red Army 98
and Red Army Faction 283
Red Biennium 90
Red Latvian Riflemen Division 73
Reed, John (1887–1920) 70
referendums 78, 923, 189, 199, 213, 216, 220, 225, 234, 241, 26770, 272, 2745, 290
and 1905 referendum 1, 77
Baltic confirmation referendum 128
Bosnian-Herzegovinian referendum 199
British referendum 166, 2623, 268
Catalan referendum 27071
Crimean referendum 15961, 272, 278
Cyprus referendum 269
French and Dutch referendums 250
Greek referendum 254
Kosovo referendum 269
Québec referendum 271
Scottish referendum 2667, 271, 2745
Soviet referendums 1834, 211, 279
refugees 74, 94, 139, 171, 1735, 238, 247, 253, 2812, 284, 286, 2912
asylum seekers 1745, 182, 191, 281, 284, 291, 2945
see also migrations
Regat22
regions 4, 15, 24, 27, 3031, 36, 40, 43, 468, 61, 74, 89, 93, 106, 114, 119, 122, 124, 1334, 139, 144, 159, 164, 1858, 190, 192, 198, 241, 26970, 274, 283
autonomous regions 55, 138, 149, 155, 157, 160, 164
and autonomous status 2, 21, 645, 67, 82, 157, 270, 274
Croatian Communities149
cultural regions 155
macroregional level 1, 3, 21, 75, 87
Serb Autonomous Regions 149
Reichskommissariat Ostland119, 124
Reid, T.R. 249
religion 16, 19, 25, 33, 43, 179, 231, 259, 262, 265, 287, 291
“autocephalous” Ukrainian Orthodox Church 71
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Catholic Church 230, 239
Catholic Church 11, 122
Croatian Catholic Church 225, 297
Lithuanian Catholic Church 143
Lutherans 23, 44
Moscow Patriarchate 71
multi-faith relations 257
Muslims 6, 44, 231
Orthodox Church 44, 71, 193, 277, 289
Polish Catholic Church 23, 45
predominant faith 256
Protestant believers 1
religious beliefs 178, 205, 257, 262, 296
religious education 102
Serbian Orthodox Church 193
Rénan, Ernest (1823–92) 312
re-nationalization 182, 226, 250, 253, 258, 296, 298
see also nationalization
Renner, Karl (1870–1950) 55, 80
republics
autonomous republic 102, 157, 160
constituent republics see nation
and federation of republics and regions 1858, 190, 192
Soviet republics 85, 90, 92, 128, 1534, 183, 206, 211, 216
resentment 1323, 137, 188, 213
respectability 259, 285
restoration 207, 210,
and Vienna congress 4, 223, 27, 45
of independence 212, 214, 224
of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 15
of Romanian unity 277
of sovereignty 174, 177, 259, 295
of state “purity” 266
revisionism 1057, 193, 207, 224
revolutionary ethos 14, 21, 30
and revolutionary ideas 16, 19, 22, 82
revolutions
1905 revolution 41, 45, 479
American revolution 11
Bolshevik revolution 58, 67, 70, 145, 187, 224
color revolution 158, 289
February revolution 61, 67, 70, 81
French revolution 8, 1012, 79
Hungarian revolution 1718, 50, 172
industrial revolution 13
Maidan revolution 105, 160, 278
October revolution 67, 79, 98, 102
Orange revolution 278
Russian revolution 456, 66, 87
singing revolution 208
Socialist revolution 62, 66, 68, 78, 90
velvet revolution 197
Rifkin, Jeremy (1945–) 18, 249, 293
rights
Charter of Fundamental Rights 24950
citizenship rights 21314, 248
civic rights 189
collective rights 10, 19, 79, 230, 2323, 236
economic rights 189
ethnic rights 2367
human rights 9, 40, 154, 171, 173, 175, 179, 205, 230, 233, 247, 256, 262, 297
individual rights 810, 16, 18
LGBT rights 178, 220, 257, 285
minority rights 18, 102, 105, 220, 222, 230, 248, 275
new civil rights 257, 285
right of citoyens248
right of self-determination 35, 64, 69, 84, 934, 109, 129, 155, 181, 201, 276
right to secession 78, 84
rights of citizens 4
rights of the peoples of Russia 62, 67, 84
social and cultural rights 14, 38, 44, 81
women emancipation 37, 173, 257, 285
Risorgimento 100, 104
Ritter Vitezović, Pavao (1652–1713) 27
Roma population 64, 1212, 124, 126, 138, 142, 230, 237
Romanian-ness 153
romanticism 13, 24, 27, 31, 75, 81
romantic leaders 13
romantic mainstream 9
and romantic reaction 7
romantic spiritualism 14
romantic vision/ideal 13, 20
romantic works/poems 16, 29
Roosevelt, Franklin Delano (1882–1945) 1289, 131
Rousseau, Jean Jacques (1712–78) 13
Rupnik, Jacques (1950–) 185, 245
Russian speakers 160, 212, 21415, 221
and non-Russian speakers 44
Russian Whites 69
Russian World (Russkij mir) 289
Russification see nationalism
Rusyn population 64, 72, 197
Saakashvili, Mikheil (1967–) 88
Šafařík, Pavel Jozef (1795–1861) 29
Saint Thomas of Aquinas (1225–74) 16
Salò republic 2
samizdat205
sanctions 161, 279
Santer Commission 219
Sarkozy Nicolas (1955–) 286
Schiller, Friedrich (1759–1805) 16
Schmitter, Philippe (1936–) 257, 265
school 7, 18, 25, 31, 445, 47, 79, 102, 106, 204, 208, 221, 237, 242, 265, 289
school for minorities (in Lithuania) 222
school segregation 169
schools of thought 41
Transylvanian School 7
Ukrainian School of Polish Writers 47
secession 37, 62, 789, 82, 84, 161, 2012, 2034, 26971
secularization 57, 29, 238, 2567, 265, 282
Security Council 155, 289
Sédan, battle of 20, 31
Seimas 456, 59, 222
Sejdić, Dervo 230, 237, 247
Sejm11
Silent Sejm12
self-determination 35, 37, 38, 39, 49, 52, 613, 66, 689, 72, 759, 825, 88, 90, 93, 96, 98, 1045, 109, 114, 127, 12930, 148, 154, 161, 164, 1823, 209, 280
see also right of self-determination
Sen, Amartya (1933–) 287
Serbian Society of Great Britain 83
Serbian-ness 26, 29
Serbo-Croatian cultural area 26
see also language (polycentric)
Serenissima 26
Seton-Watson, Robert William (1879–1951) 82, 101
sexual orientation 193, 297
Shakhnazarov, Georgy (1924–2001) 211
Shevchenko, Taras (1814–61) 47
Shoah29, 130, 133, 142
see also Holocaust
shock therapies 254
Shukheyvych, Roman (1907–50) 224
Shukrija/Shukriu, Ali (1919–2005) 189
Sich 110
Sinatra, doctrine 171
Skoropads’kyi, Pavlo Hetman (1873–1945) 71
Slavoserbs29
Smetona, Antanas first President of Lithuania (1874–1944) 67, 75, 11617
Sniečkus, Antanas (1903–74) 205
social market economy see economy
socialism 74, 146, 149, 155, 198, 292
and national roads to socialism 145, 147
and socialism in one country 187
socialist federations 37, 148, 1545, 18081, 183, 222, 265, 269, 279, 294
and post-socialist federations 293
socialist ideas 22, 25, 42
socialist revolutionaries 61
society
and autochthonous cultures see popular cultures
civil society 179, 193, 2323, 252
fluid society 295
intercultural society 173, 232
natural society 14
nomadic and métis society 283
post nation-state society 286, 295
secret societies 16, 19, 21, 29, 49, 55, 106
severely divided 118, 153, 253, 297
Society of Estonian Literati 13
underground society 205
solid bodies 33, 169, 176, 180
solidarity 14, 19, 81, 175, 182, 192, 194, 253, 283, 287
financial solidarity 188
Slavic solidarity 50
transversal solidarity 298
Solidarność 147
Solzhenitsyn, Aleksandr (1918–2008) 152, 206
Sombart, Werner (1863–1941) 79
sovereignty 8, 4950, 98, 105, 116, 1323, 145, 147, 154, 175, 178, 182, 190, 2089, 21112, 220, 226, 245, 282, 284
and co-sovereignty 268
declaration of State sovereignty 210
full sovereignty 1778, 260, 266
neo-sovereignty 274
return to sovereignty 177
sovereignty restoration 174, 177, 259, 295
Sovetskaya Rossiya208
Soviet
RSFSR (Russian Socialist Federal Soviet Republic) 74, 84
Soviet fleet 153
Soviet in Kharkov 70, 85
Soviet Republic of Hungary 72
Soviet Republic of Slovakia 72
sovietization 11718
Supreme Soviet 202, 20913, 215
Soviet Army 1278, 214
Soviet–Finnish war see Winter war
Spanish Minister of Defense 271
Spartacist uprising 90
Spencer, Herbert (1820–1903) 25
Spinelli, Altiero (1907–86) 40
spiritualism see romanticism
Springtime of the Peoples 79
SS division 127, 130
Waffen SS unit 127
Waffen SS-collaborator 224
Stabilization and Association Agreement 242
Stalin, Ioseb Besarionis dze Jugashvili (1878–1953) 78, 80, 86, 92, 1023, 114, 117, 128, 1313, 1368, 144, 145, 215, 225
and Stalinist 2, 128, 138, 146, 186, 205
stalinization 204
Stalingrad, battle of 127
Starčević, Ante (1823–96) 28
state continuity 201, 2034, 212, 218, 285
stateless people 220
Steed, Henry Wickham (1871–1956) 83
Stiglitz, Joseph (1943–) 254
Stojadinović, Milan (1888–1961) 113
Štokavian 289
Stribai (destruction battalions) 129
Strossmayer, Josip Juraj (1815–1905) 20, 28, 79
Sultan-Galiev, Mirsaid (1892–1940) 86
Supilo, Frano (1870–1917) 28, 52, 83
Supreme Council 213
Surkov, Vladislav (1964–) 289
surveillance 179, 296
syncretism 76, 172, 257, 2612, 264, 285, 2923, 297
Syrian ceasefire 286
Széchenyi, István Count (1791–1860) 17
Szekfű, Gyula (1883–1955) 106
Szeklers 119
szlachta24, 41
Tacitus, Publius Cornelius (58–117) 16
Talamoni, Jean-Guy 263
Tannenberg, battle 58
Taryba67, 69
Tekelija, Sava (Thököly Száva) (1761–1842) 27, 29
territory 4, 6, 1112, 17, 22, 42, 49, 5861, 66, 725, 77, 85, 923, 96, 102, 110, 114, 118, 121, 124, 1312, 148, 192, 202, 214, 219, 228, 2339, 241, 261, 267, 274, 284, 291
soil and blood 193, 296
territorial controversies 160, 202
territorial expansion 21, 55, 107, 113, 133
see also regions
terrorism 219, 2823, 286, 292
Daesh terrorists 130
red and black terrorism 283
Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion – RAF) 283
terrorist attacks 16, 193, 282, 286, 292, 2945
war against terrorism 219
Teutonic Order 202
theories 30
conspiracy theories 209
liberalism 37, 84, 179, 2323, 247, 287
monetarist vision 295
neo-Keynesian approach 254
neoliberalism 200, 254, 295
racist theories 264
social Darwinism 25, 32
Third World 147, 186
Thorez, Maurice (1900–64) 117
time–space compression 1, 34, 261, 265, 280, 296
Tito, Josip Broz (1892–1980) 131, 1368, 148, 172, 236
and Titoist 146
Tkalac, Imbro (1824–1912) 20, 28, 79
tolerance 5, 25, 43, 170, 251, 256, 282
Tommaseo, Niccolò (1802–74) 20
Tönisson, Jaan (1868–1941) 65
“tor” 293
transitional period in Latvia 210
treaty
constitutional treaty 182, 24950
Lisbon treaty 250, 268
Moscow peace treaty 73
mutual assistance treaty 114, 116, 133
Novo Ogaryovo treaty 183
Paris peace treaty 36, 132
Polish–Soviet peace treaty 92
Russian–Estonian peace treaty 73
Russian–Finnish peace treaty 116
Schengen treaty 1734, 204, 26061, 273, 276, 2814, 286, 291, 2956
Sévres, peace treaty of 924
Soviet–Lithuanian peace treaty 74, 92
Stability treaty 254
treaty of Brest-Litovsk 5661, 6772, 85, 94
treaty on Friendly Relations and Good-Neighborly Cooperation 221
treaty of Lausanne 36, 63, 94, 142
treaty of Rapallo 11314
treaty of Rīga 63, 74, 218
treaty of Rome 6398
treaty of Tartu 218
treaty of Versailles 37, 63, 75, 84, 878, 90, 93, 96
Trianon treaty 96
Union treaty 92, 102, and new Union Treaty 152, 183, 211
Trianon trauma 96, 106, 110, 134, 142
and Gran Trianon Palace 96
Trieste, and free territory of 134, 1389
Tripartite Monarchy see Austro-Hungary
Triple Entente 55, 93
Trotsky, Leon Davidovich Bronstein (1879–1940) 68, 90, 145
Truman, Harry (1884–1972) 131
and Truman doctrine 1378
Trumbić, Ante (1864–1938) 28
Trump, Donald (1946–) 262
Tucović, Dimitrije (1881–1914) 28
Tuđman, Franjo (1922–99) 227, 228
Tukhachevsky, Mikhail (1893–1937) 90
Türr, István (1825–1908) 19
tyrannicide 16, 56-57
Ukrainian Insurgent Army 133, 224
Ukrainian People’s Republic 70
Ukrainian–EU Association Agreement 160
Ukrainian-ness 278
Ukrainian–Polish war 72
UN see United Nations
underground society see society
unequal treatment 106, 230
unification 811, 17, 20, 25, 2730, 56, 65, 72, 76, 83, 89, 110, 119, 1212, 133, 137, 1812, 212, 226, 228, 266, 2724, 27580
of Germany 4, 20, 37, 56, 79, 109, 1489, 160, 181, 212, 275, 278
of Italy 4, 15, 20, 56, 79, 100, 105
re-unification of Europe 173, 250
Union
banking union 191, 258
Crown Union 212
Dynastic Union 65, 77, 122
EU political union see European Union
Greek Union 36, 50
Lublin Union 17, 23, 26, 43
Mediterranean Union 223
Monetary Union 249
Norwegian–Swedish Union 1, 36, 77, 268
Personal Union 15
and projected and implemented State Unions 15, 18, 2022, 44, 75, 86, 101, 106, 160, 178, 204, 234, 273, 277
Union treaty see Treaty
see also Enosis; Eurasian Economic Union; European Union; Soviet Union
United Christian League 116
United Nations 155, 229, 233, 276
UN General Assembly 269
UN resolution 1244 243
see Security Council
university 5, 191, 208, 220, 245, 261, 288
Dorpat University 13
Humboldt University 245
Tartu University 208, 220
University of Edinburgh 247
University of St Petersburg 13
University of Vilnius 6, 23
University of Zagreb 20
US Congress 83
USSR see Soviet Union
Ustaša 29, 101, 107, 122, 130, 196, 225, 297
Uvarov, Sergey Count (1786–1855) 47
Vācietis, Jukums (1873–1938) 73
Vafiadis, General Markos (1906–92) 137
Valencian Community 274
values 10, 129, 175, 285, 292
and antifascist values 225
civic values 248, 273, 285
conservative values 289
cosmopolitan values see cosmopolitanism
democratic values 8, 249, 282, 297
EU values 175, 282
national/nation-state values 92, 191
sovereign values 250
traditional values 266
Valuev decree 47
Venice Commission 229, 240, 268
vernacular 7, 13, 23, 268, 48, 81, 262
see also language
Versailles order 107, 109
veto 189, 236, 24041, 268, 272
liberum veto 11
right of veto 11, 186
Vienna arbitration 110
and second Vienna arbitration 119, 134
Vienna, Congress of 4, 8, 13, 15, 66
Villeroy de Galhau, François (1959–) 259
violence 1, 16, 256, 39, 445, 73, 76, 93, 100101, 130, 141, 149, 152, 154, 164, 180, 1845, 194, 199, 204, 21112, 238, 246, 263, 271, 274, 276, 2923
visa facilitation regime 273
Visegrád group 198200, 217, 284
voivodeship 75
Voltaire, François-Marie Arouet (1694–1778) 5
Vorontsova-Dashkova, Ekaterina (1743–1810) 5
Vrhovec, Josip (1926–2006) 190
Vukmanović-Tempo, Svetozar (1912–2000) 146
Vyshinsky, Andrei (1883–1954) 117
walls 1716, 195, 257, 281, 292, 296
Berlin wall 172
Chinese wall 176
Cold War walls 172
warlords 150, 228, 232, 245, 247
Warsaw ghetto 126
Warsaw Pact 197, 216
Washington agreement 228, 231, 234
Weidman, Jens (1968–) 259
welfare 217, 246, 2534, 263
welfare expenses 190
welfare system 175, 190
Western Europe 3, 37, 41, 79, 92, 11314, 131, 164, 166, 181, 198, 226, 244
Western diplomats 2323, 246
Western penetration 219
Westphalia, peace of 8
Westphalian principle 259
and Sovereignty notion 260
Wilson, Woodrow, US President (1856–1924) 72, 767, 814, 98, 104, 248, 278
window system 218
Winter war 116, 132
“Continuation war” 119, 132
Soviet–Finnish War 116
Wójtowicz, Krzysztof 289
“Work Collectives” 210
World War I 25, 356, 46, 56, 578, 62, 72, 75, 76, 79, 88, 92, 96, 101, 105, 107, 109, 141, 202, 224, 227, 285
and post-World War I 100, 104, 118, 1312, 134, 141, 145, 181, 196, 203, 247
World War II 2, 39, 121, 127, 134, 139, 148, 193, 196, 212, 220, 2235, 285, 292, 294
and post-World War II 36, 117, 13031, 138, 1423, 172, 178, 179, 2023, 205, 248, 269, 295
Wrangel, Pëtr Russian General (1878–1928) 89
xenophobia 130, 193, 198, 296
and rejection of otherness 31, 131, 222, 250, 264
Yalta, conference of 1312
Yanukovych, Viktor (1950–) 155, 160
Yeltsin, Boris (1931–2007) 1523, 21011, 21516, 219, 289
Young Italy 15
Young Bosnia 16
Young Europe 15
Young Germany 16
Young Latvians 16
Young Poland 16
Young Turks 16, 50, 52
youth rebellion 206
Yudenich, Nikolai Russian General (1861–1933) 73, 89
Yugoslavia
Federal Republic of 155, 157, 131
SFRY 231
Socialist Yugoslavia 157, 190
Yugoslav dismemberment 149, 185, 187
Yugoslav partition 245
Yugoslavism 10, 20, 28, 30, 56, 82, 180
Yushenko, Viktor (1954–) 224
“Zajedno do istine” 241
zero option 21415
Zeus 88
Zhdanov, Andrei (1896–1948) 117
Zhivkov, Todor (1911–98) 141
Žižek, Slavoj (1949–) 282