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The Two Faces of Institutional Innovation

Promises and Limits of Democratic Participation in Latin America

Leonardo Avritzer

This book evaluates democratic innovations to allow a full analysis of the different practices that have emerged recently in Latin America. These innovations, often viewed in a positive light by a large section of democratic theorists, engendered the idea that all innovations are democratic and all democratic innovations are able to foster citizenship – a view challenged by this work. The book also evaluates the expansion of innovation to the field of judicial institutions. It will benefit democratic theorists by presenting a realistic analysis of the positive and negative aspects of democratic innovation.
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Index

Promises and Limits of Democratic Participation in Latin America

Leonardo Avritzer

Abers, R.N. 56
accountability 379, 44, 757
see also participatory accountability
Actions for the Declaration of Unconstitutionality (ADINs, Brazil) 1023
actors
and participatory budgeting 48, 50, 51
role in implementation of innovation 44
administrative innovation 34, 78, 423
United States 34, 36, 42
Almond, G. 49
Arantes, R.B. 105
Arato, A. 15
Argentina
democratic innovation 25
participatory budgeting 26, 27, 41, 6571, 134
participatory systems 23, 24
authoritarianism 323
autonomy 28
Avritzer, L. 80, 81
Banzer, Hugo 86
Barroso, Luís Roberto 116
Barusco, Pedro 111, 112, 113
Belo Horizonte, participatory budgeting 54, 568, 66
Bohman, J. 18
Bolivia
accountability 37, 38, 39
comités de vigilancia37, 38, 8790, 95, 967, 137
democratic innovation 267
participatory accountability 85, 86, 8790, 94, 95, 967, 136, 137
participatory systems 234
Brasília Teimosa, participatory budgeting 634, 65, 134
Brazil
1988 Constitution 79, 1013, 1045, 1067
accountability 37, 39
administrative/judicial innovation 423
campaign financing 103, 108, 111
corruption 28, 423, 84, 108, 109, 11114, 11617, 118
democratic innovation 25, 278, 1013
democratization 40, 94
environmental issues 1078
Ministério Público (Public Prosecutor’s Office) 89, 278, 423, 102, 1068, 112
national conferences 7980
participatory accountability 778, 7985, 94, 95, 96, 1367
participatory systems 23
policy councils 778, 7985
Workers’ Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) 556, 589, 61, 64, 111, 112, 114, 115
see also judicial innovation, Brazil; participatory budgeting
Buenos Aires, participatory budgeting 668, 70, 134
bureaucracy, and top-down policy-making 31
bureaucratization 1516
Cardoso, Fernando Henrique 112
Cerveró, Nestor 111, 112, 113
classical democratic theory 13
co-deliberation 3940
Cohen, Jean L. 15
Cohen, Joshua 18
Coleman, J. 49
Colombia, judicial innovation 9, 11824, 125, 139
comités de vigilancia (Bolivia) 37, 38, 8790, 95, 967, 137
Coordination of Relations with the Community (Coordinação de Relações Communitárias, CRC) 56
corporations
and administrative/judicial innovation 8, 43
and democratic innovation 278
corruption
Brazil 28, 423, 84, 108, 109, 11114, 11617, 118
United States 35
Costa, Paulo Roberto 111, 112, 113
Couto, C.G. 105
criminal law innovation, Brazil 10910
critical public policy 313
critical theory 1617
cultural trap 19
Cunha, Eduardo 109, 116, 117
deliberation 1720
deliberative institutions 489
deliberative systems 2023
democracy
and accountability 756
capacity to deepen 910, 44
classical theory 13
and deliberation 1819, 20
democratic innovation 34, 245, 269, 100, 131
Brazil 1013
expansion of 910, 4041, 72, 1335
replicability of 4041
democratization 72
Bolivia 86, 94
Brazil 40, 94
Latin America 12, 4, 323, 35
Mexico 85, 9092, 94
United States 336
Dryzek, J. 2021, 22
education, and participatory budgeting 4950
elections
campaign financing, Brazil 103, 108, 111
and participatory accountability 76, 78
electoral fraud, Mexico 9091, 93
electoral primaries 35, 36
Estenssoro, Victor Paz 86
Faguet, J.P. 89
Federal Electoral Institute (Instituto Federal Electoral, IFE) 26, 27, 378, 85, 91, 92, 93, 1356
Federation of Neighbourhood Associations (União das Assoçiapões de Moradores de Porto Alegre, UAMPA) 55
Fischer, F. 32
Fung, A. 1820, 21
Gaviria, César 119, 120
Goodin, R.E. 2021, 22
governance levels, participatory budgeting 489, 52
government
and classical democratic theory 13
and New Institutionalism 1314
predictability of 1314
Gray-Molina, G. 89
Habermas, J. 1415, 1617, 1920
Hall, P. 14
healthcare reforms, Brazil 1046
Hevia, F. 34, 39
inclusion 22
inequalities, and participatory budgeting 567
Ingelhart, R. 4950
innovation
expansion of 2, 257, 4041, 713, 1312
external and internal pressures 712
institutional 12, 3, 4, 100
institutionalist view, critique of 1417
as key aspect of democracy 41, 131
policy innovation 712
political 34, 78
types of 25
see also administrative
innovation; democratic
innovation; judicial
innovation; judicial
innovation, Brazil
institutional innovation 12, 3, 4, 100
Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional, PRI) 27, 9092, 94
institutionalist view on innovation, critique of 1417
institutions, role of 14
interest aggregation 16
Isunza, E.I. 34, 39
Jepperson, R.L. 14
judicial innovation 35, 79, 1011, 423, 44, 100101
Colombia 9, 11824, 125, 139
judicial innovation, Brazil 45, 89, 423, 1389
anti-corruption enforcement, and danger of innovation 11114
compared with Colombia 122, 1234
conclusions 1246
democratic innovation and 1988 Constitution 1013
Ministério Público, diffuse rights and corruption 1068
negative impact of judicial prerogatives and increase in judicial power 11418
Operation Lava Jato 11114, 115
plea bargaining and presumption of innocence 10910
presidential impeachment process 116
social rights and process of judicialization 1046
Supreme Court 102, 103, 1056, 109, 112, 11518, 125, 138, 139
Latin America
accountability 379, 44
authoritarianism 323
councils and community participation (participatory accountability) 779, 135
democratization 12, 4, 323, 35
participatory systems 234
technical personnel, and social issues 323
Lava Jato, Operation 11114, 115
local assemblies 51, 57, 59
and participatory budgeting 489
local participation, wider influence of 53
Lowi, T. 31
Lula (Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva) 108, 114, 115, 11718
majority aggregation 16
mandatory interfaces 34
Mansbridge, J. 20
Mello, Collor de 109
Mexico
accountability 378
democratic innovation 25
participatory accountability 85, 9095, 96, 97, 1356
participatory systems 23, 24, 26, 27
transparency 923
mini-publics 1, 2023
Ministério Público (Public Prosecutor’s Office, Brazil) 89, 278, 423, 102, 1068, 112
Morales, Evo 90
Moro, Sérgio 11112, 114, 11718, 125
national conferences, Brazil 7980
New Institutionalism 1314
Odebrecht, Marcelo 114, 115
Operation Lava Jato 11114, 115
Parkinson, J. 20
participatory accountability 67, 389, 757, 1358
Bolivia 85, 86, 8790, 94, 95, 967, 136, 137
Brazil 778, 7985, 94, 95, 96, 1367
councils and community participation, Latin America 779, 135
limits and potential 957
Mexico 85, 9095, 96, 97, 1356
participatory budgeting 56, 234, 26, 27, 3940, 44, 467, 723, 1325
Argentina 26, 27, 41, 6571, 134
Argentina and Brazil compared 7071
Belo Horizonte 54, 568, 66
Brasília Teimosa 634, 65, 134
budget-making 478, 51, 133
Buenos Aires 668, 70, 134
citizen education 4950
deliberative institutions 489
expansion of 41, 5865
governance levels 489, 52
origins of, Brazil 558
place within pre-existing administration 62, 66, 73, 133
Porto Alegre 23, 3940, 46, 48, 5053, 557, 58, 65, 66, 134
priority caravans 54
Recife 615, 66, 134
Rosário, 667, 6871, 134
São Paulo 5961, 645, 66, 70, 134
as trademark 73
Pateman, C. 223
Petrobras investigation 11114, 115
Pinheiro, Léo 114, 115
plea bargaining, Brazil 10910, 11114, 115
policy councils, Brazil 37
policy innovation 712
political deliberation 1718
political innovation 34, 78
political learning 4950
political system 1417
and deliberation 18, 20
and democratic innovation 10, 245, 134
and expansion of innovation 267
mini-publics 1, 2023
and participatory budgeting 65, 723, 1345
and participatory systems 24, 1378
strategies for blocking innovation 10
Popular Participation Law (Ley de Participación Popular, LPP) 86, 8790
Porto Alegre, participatory budgeting 23, 3940, 46, 48, 5053, 557, 58, 65, 66, 134
predictability, government 1314
primaries, electoral 35, 36
priority caravans 54
public deliberation 1720
public goods, distribution of 50, 52
public opinion 17
public sphere 15, 1617
Putnam, R.D. 4950
rational choice institutionalism 14
recall 345, 36, 44
Recife, participatory budgeting 615, 66, 134
recruitment process, mini-publics 21
referendum 345, 36, 44
replicability 4041
‘representativeness’ 22
Rodgers, D. 68
Rosário, participatory budgeting 667, 6871, 134
Sabel, C. 18
Sánchez de Lozada, Gonzalo 86
São Paulo, participatory budgeting 5961, 645, 66, 70, 134
Sintomer, Y. 21
Smith, G. 21, 33, 131
social actors, and participatory budgeting 48, 50, 51
social protection view 478
social rights, and process of judicialization, Brazil 1046
Taylor, R.C. 14
technical personnel, and social issues 313
technological development 31
transparency 37, 923
Uhl, A.K. 1223
United States
administrative innovation 34, 36, 42
democratic innovation 28
democratization 336
participatory budgeting 41
plea bargaining 110
professionals, and social issues 32
Uribe, Álvaro 121, 1223, 139
Vaz, A.C.N. 824
Verba, S. 4950
voluntary associations, participation in 4950, 51
Weber, Max 13, 14, 31
critique of 1417, 31
welfare state 478
Wilson, Woodrow 36, 42
Workers’ Party (Partido dos Trabalhadores, PT) 556, 589, 61, 64, 111, 112, 114, 115
Wright, E.O. 1820, 21
Zavascki, Teori 118