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Public Private Partnership for WTO Dispute Settlement

Enabling Developing Countries

Amrita Bahri

Public Private Partnership for WTO Dispute Settlement is an interdisciplinary work examining the growing interaction between business entities and public officials. Crucially, it identifies how this relationship can enable developing countries to effectively utilize the provisions of the World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Understanding (WTO DSU).
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Index

Enabling Developing Countries

Amrita Bahri

ad hoc PPP approach 38
see also India and WTO DSU
Advisory Centre on World Trade Organization Law (ACWL) 26, 2930, 46, 163, 202, 2067
Airbus 89
aircraft industry 32, 36, 60, 889, 1313
alternative dispute resolution see WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), overview
‘ambulance chasing’ by law firms 2089
American Meat Institute 76
anonymity see confidentiality and anonymity requirements
anti-dumping duties 36, 43, 109, 1647
appeal rights 1845
arbitral tribunals
see also WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), overview
Australia and WTO DSU
EC – Export Subsidies on Sugar (Australia)889
sugar industry 31, 44, 46, 48, 889
banana industry 756, 78, 889
Bangladesh and WTO DSU
Bangladesh Tariff Commission (BTC) 43
India’s anti-dumping duties and 36, 43
TPRM assessments 412
Beijing WTO Affairs Centre 109
BIC (Brazil, India, and China)
explanation of 5
multidisciplinary dispute management 20910
see also individual countries
bilateral/multilateral consultations 445, 72, 834, 99100, 105, 11112, 1834
Bohanes, Jan 17, 245
Bombardier 1313
bottom-up approach 28, 63
Bown, Chad P 29, 40, 478, 206
brain drain 65
Brazil and WTO DSU 12, 38, 12246
Agriculture, Ministry of 1356
Aircraft cases 32, 36, 60, 1313
approachable bureaucracy 66
characteristics of public private partnerships 1223, 14041
complaints filed with SPS Committee vs. WTO DSU 21316
complaints filed with TBT Committee vs. WTO DSU 213
compulsory taxation on businesses 128, 201
Constitution and Consolidated Labor Laws 128
Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, Ministry of 64, 125
domestic capacity-building strategies 323
EC – Export Subsidies on Sugar (Brazil)312, 1335, 210
EC – Measures Affecting Soluble Coffee1389
financing of WTO disputes 61
Foreign Affairs, Ministry of 64, 1256, 129, 141, 210
formal vs. informal PPP arrangement 1445
institutional and procedural framework 12330
instrumental role of national media in 130, 132, 1345
organised private sector 1378, 141, 1978
political pressure on disputes 60
regulatory threat 139, 1424
as self-designated developing country 57
successful performance 312
sugar industry 31, 44, 46, 48
summary conclusion 1456, 2213
US – Upland Cotton312, 1358, 142, 205
use of dispute system (1995–2017) 212, 122
see also General Coordination of Disputes/Dispute Settlement Unit (CGC) (Brazil); Inter-Ministerial Foreign Trade Chamber (CAMEX) (Brazil)
Brazilian Association of Cotton Producers (ABRAPA) 1356, 1378
Brazilian Center for International Relations (CEBRI) 129
Brazilian Soluble Coffee Industry Association (ABICS) 138, 197
burden-reducing waivers 117
Bureau of Fair Trade for Import and Export (BOFT) (China) 1069, 111, 114
bureaucracy 66, 93
Busch, Marc 1920, 25
business entities see private sector; individual companies and corporations
California, Small Claims Legal Advisor Program 217
Camargo, Pedro de 134
Canada and WTO DSU, Aircraft case 32, 36, 60, 1313
capacity building, in developing countries see developing country participation, at WTO DSU; dispute settlement partnerships, lessons learnt; individual Member States
capacity gap 256, 41
Centre for WTO Studies, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT) 49
achievements of 204
consultations with private stakeholders 1556, 168
dispute settlement stages 153
external (detailed) investigation stage 1545
informal initiatives for settlement of dispute 155
internal (preliminary) investigation stage 1534
multidisciplinary dispute management 210
as think tank for Ministry of Commerce 151
chambers of commerce
in India 1512, 156, 160
for organised private sector 171
proposed guidelines 200201, 203
see also individual chambers of commerce
China Aquatic Products Processing and Marketing Association 111
China Chamber of Commerce of Import and Export of Foodstuffs 111, 210
China Chamber of Commerce for Import and Export of Machinery and Electronic Products 11215
China New Energy Chamber of Commerce of the All-China Federation of Industry and Commerce 11215
China-WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism Centre 109
China and WTO DSU 12, 38, 10121
Accession Protocol 114, 194
Bureau of Fisheries of the Ministry of Agriculture 111, 20910
Commerce, Ministry of 20910
complaints filed with SPS Committee vs. WTO DSU 21316
complaints filed with TBT Committee vs. WTO DSU 213
cultural/psychological barriers 56, 118
domestic capacity-building strategies 323
government role in economic development and trade 64
institutional and procedural framework 10610
Japan – Quotas on Laver39, 11013, 120, 20910
learning by observation 110, 2078
legal framework 1036, 11920
level of transparency 119
mixed/centralised dispute management 60, 645, 117
non-litigious culture 56, 11516
overview 1012
participation vs. exports of goods/services 1718
private sector right to petition 1789
Rules on the Investigation of Foreign Trade Barriers 1778
as self-designated developing country 57
successful performance 32
summary conclusion 11520, 121, 222
think tank contributions 109
training by Ministry of Justice and Supreme People’s Court of China 110
US – Countervailing Measures (China)11315, 120
use of dispute system (1995–2017) 22, 101, 116
see also Bureau of Fair Trade for Import and Export (BOFT) (China); Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) (China)
Chiquita 756, 78
coffee industry 1359, 142
compulsory taxation, proposed guidelines 201
confederations of industries 10, 33, 523, 88, 98, 128, 141, 187, 200201, 206
confidentiality and anonymity requirements 57, 65, 94, 1856, 191
conflict of interests 57
conflict management stages 21112
Confucianism 104, 11516, 118
Cooperatives Europe 200
corporate regulatory capture (Grossman) 5051
cost-benefit analysis, in pre-litigation stage 423, 1567
cotton industry 1358, 205
Cotton Textiles Export Promotion Council of India (TEXPROCIL) 612, 1627, 174, 197
counter-retaliation capacity 434, 61
Court of Justice of the European Union 195
Cuba and WTO DSU, use of dispute system 21
Datagro 46, 134, 210
De Lacy, Keith 48
developing countries, characteristics of 6
developing countries, definitions of 21
developing country participation, at WTO DSU 11, 1334
benefits for member states and business entities 1420
building domestic participation capacity 3034
compliance challenges 236
meaning and self-classification 213
overview 1314, 68
proposals for change at international level 2630
proposed guidelines for domestic management of disputes 1767, 181, 185, 1913, 195, 197, 198208
summary conclusion 221
use of WTO Committee System 21316
Dewey Ballantine LLP 76
DG Trade see Directorate-General for Trade (DG Trade)
diplomatic pressures on disputes 612
Directorate-General for Trade (DG Trade)
comparison of TBR mechanism to USTR Section 301 procedure 99100
Examination Report 86, 91
lack of anonymity provisions 186
Market Access Advisory Committee 82, 845, 86, 91, 98, 180
Market Access Database 41, 812, 95
Market Access Unit 812, 878
Notice of Initiation 85, 94
procedural simplification recommendations 956
requests for court review 1945
TBR Committee 834, 85
Trade Barrier Regulation (TBR) mechanism 838, 9098, 1778, 182, 184, 1945
underutilisation of TBR mechanism 9098, 186
discriminatory protection of trade interests 512, 169, 174
DISCUS (Distilled Spirits Council of the United States) 75, 100
dispute settlement partnerships, lessons learnt 176219
confidentiality and anonymity requirements 1856, 191
creation of ‘strong’ industry representatives 197201
financing of WTO disputes 20110
future research 2268
government obligation to administer/examine petitions 17981
government right to determine suitable course of action 1834
governmental specialised dispute settlement units 1869
individual right to appeal government decisions 1845
individual right to petition 1779
individual right to provide information 1812
individual right to withdraw petition 1823
small claims procedures for non-litigable matters 21118
summary conclusion 21819, 22026
transparency and regulation provisions 18997
see also individual proposed guidelines
distilled spirits industry 75, 88
domestic legal expertise, proposed guidelines 2068
DSU Agreement see WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), overview
economies of scale 1619, 41, 62, 174, 1923, 202, 206, 227
electronic payment services 172
Embraer 1313
emerging superpowers see China and WTO DSU; India and WTO DSU
Essar Steel 1679
European Commission (EC) 60, 61, 81
Article 207
Committee 83, 87, 91
Common Agricultural Policy 133
Council Regulation (EC) No. 33286/94, TBR establishment 83, 86
Court of Justice review of decisions 195
decentralised partnerships 82
defence litigation 889
European Small Claims Procedure 217
Guidelines for Successful Public Private Partnerships 143, 189
industry right to petition 836
reliance on industry 37
use of lawyers 8990
European Confederation of Producers of Spirits 88
European Council
Article 207 procedure (TFEU) 823
establishment of TBR 83
intergovernmental fragmentation 60
European Union (EU) and WTO DSU 38, 81100
comparison to US experience 97100
dispute settlement partnerships in practice 8791
Drug Arrangements 162
EC – Bed Linen1647, 169, 210
EC – Export Subsidies on Sugar (Australia)889
EC – Export Subsidies on Sugar (Brazil)312, 1335, 210
EC – Export Subsidies on Sugar (Thailand)44, 46, 48
EC – Measures Affecting Soluble Coffee1389
EC – Tariff Preferences154, 1614, 169, 223
fisheries industry 199
Generalised System of Preferences (GSP) 1389, 1612
institutional framework 812
inter-governmental institutional fragmentation 60
as leader of government-industry coordination 33
as leader user of system 689
legal framework 827
Market Access Strategy 812, 98
performance review 918
pharmaceutical industry 61
summary conclusion 222
top-down approach 63
TPRM assessments 41
Trade Barrier Regulation 41, 12
see also Directorate-General for Trade (DG Trade)
exemption application, proposed guidelines 17980
expert consultative committees, proposed guidelines 1913
export promotion councils 171, 198200
see also India and WTO DSU; individual councils
‘The Extended Litigation Process’ (Bown) 40
extra-WTO retaliation 44, 612, 96
Federal Register (US) 72
financing of WTO disputes
in Brazil 61
in India 5960, 163, 1656
financing of WTO disputes, proposed guidelines 20110
creation of domestic legal expertise 2068
creation of multidisciplinary dispute management team 20910
creation of standing budget with chambers of commerce/trade associations 2034
creation of standing governmental budget 2023
creation of think tanks 2045
in-house ‘ambulance chasing’ by law firms 2089
NGO role in monitoring 2056
fisheries industry 534, 17071, 199
formal vs. informal PPP arrangements 389, 178
see also individual Member States
Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) 228
free-riders 34
Galanter, M 15
Gao, Henry 117
Garza, Fernanda 17, 245
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 21, 69, 114, 133, 138, 147, 1612, 165, 167
General Coordination of Disputes/Dispute Settlement Unit (CGC) (Brazil)
establishment of 1258
examples of coordination 1338
private sector semi-formal approach 1223, 14041
Gleason, Carolyn 76
Global Sugar Alliance Trade Reform & Liberalisation 48, 197
governance framework 556
see also in-house lawyers
government, proposed guidelines
individual right to provide information 1812
individual right to withdraw petition 1823
obligation to administer/examine petitions 17981
publication of materials 1878, 19091
right to determine suitable course of action 1834
specialised dispute settlement units 1869
standing budgets 2023
government-industry coordination
channels of communication 556, 166
explanation of 334
publication of materials for 1878, 19091
see also WTO DSU partnership framework; individual Member States
Grossman, Gene M 334, 43, 5051, 567, 59
Hathaway, Michael 76
Helpman, Elhanan 34, 567
Hogan Lovells 106, 108
Horn, Henrik 4
Hylands Law Firm 108
IDEAS Centre Geneva 205
India and WTO DSU 12, 38, 14775
anti-dumping duties 36, 43
bureaucratic complexity 66
Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs 157
capacity to mobilise 25
Commerce, Ministry of 15168, 172, 207, 209, 210
Competent Administrative Ministries 15051, 154, 15961
complaints filed with SPS Committee vs. WTO DSU 21316
complaints filed with TBT Committee vs. WTO DSU 213
diplomatic pressures on disputes 612
domestic capacity-building strategies 323
EC – Bed Linen1647, 169, 210
EC – Tariff Preferences154, 1614, 169, 223
Export Promotion Councils (EPCs) 1512, 16067, 199, 210
External Affairs, Ministry of 157
Finance, Ministry of 172
financing of WTO disputes 5960, 163, 1656
fisheries industry 534, 17071
Foreign Affairs, Ministry of 64, 161
institutional framework 64, 14852
lack of government-industry coordination 1723
Law and Justice, Ministry of 64
Legal Affairs Department 160
lessons learnt 16974
License Raj policy legacies 149, 171
micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs), role in 1512, 169, 170
participation vs. exports of goods/services 1719
possible discrimination between resourceful/resourceconstrained industries 169, 174
pottery industry 174
procedural stages framework 14950, 15261
Regional and Multilateral Trade Relations Department 159
reliance on domestic legal expertise 31
seafood industry 1734
steel industry 1679, 174
successful performance 32
summary conclusion 1745, 2223
Textiles, Ministry of 162, 165, 210
as third party 16061
trade cooperatives 171, 199
unorganised private sector as constraint 1512, 17072
US – Carbon Steel (India)8, 1679
use of dispute system (1995–2017) 22, 1478
as WTO respondent 15960
as self-designated developing country 57
see also Centre for WTO Studies, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT); Trade Policy Division (TPD), Ministry of Commerce (India)
Indian Institute of Foreign Trade see Centre for WTO Studies, Indian Institute of Foreign Trade (IIFT)
industry empowerment 63, 80, 97, 178, 181
Industry Trade Advisory Center (ITAC) (US) 70
informal PPP arrangements see formal vs. informal PPP arrangements
in-house lawyers
‘ambulance chasing’ by 2089
benefits of 66
in China 106, 108, 2078
in European Union 8990
in India 31, 163, 207, 209
proposed guidelines 2068
Institute for Assessing WTO Commitments concept 206
Institute of Studies on Trade and International Negotiations (ICONE) (Brazil) 129
Integrated Trade Intelligence Portal (I-TIP) 190
Interagency Trade Enforcement Center (ITEC) (US) 70
Inter-Ministerial Foreign Trade Chamber (CAMEX) (Brazil)
examples of coordination 1335, 141, 188
Management Executive Committee (GECEX) 144
Private Sector Consultative Council (CONEX) 128
role of 1268
interministerial management of disputes, proposed guidelines 1889
International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development (ICTSD) 54, 192, 205
international law firms 76, 2089
see also lawyer pairing approach
International Monetary Fund (IMF) 14950
International Trade Administration (US), Market Access and Compliance (MAC) team, Trade and Compliance Center 41
Japan and WTO DSU
Global Quota System 112
Japan – Quotas on Laver39, 11013, 120, 20910
public private partnership levels 61
Jiangsu Laver Association 11113, 117, 120, 197, 210
Jindal Steel 1678
Johannesson, Louise 4
judicial review of decisions, proposed guidelines 1935
King & Wood 108
Kodak 76, 78
Kooiman, Jan 37
laver industry 39, 11013, 120, 20910
Law Firm Study Center (Brazil) 129
lawyer pairing approach 8990, 1067, 108, 112, 163, 2078
learning by observation, in China 110, 2078
least developed countries (LDCs)
cost of monitoring 412
proposed guidelines 193, 195, 197, 2023
UN definition 21
life cycle of trade conflicts 21112
Lindner, Carl 78
litigotiation (Galanter) 15, 112
LMC International 31, 46
lobbying 756, 99
Luthra & Luthra 209
management of WTO disputes see stages of WTO disputes
mandatory action requirement, by USTR 778, 80
Marine Products Export Development Authority (MPEDA) 170
Market Access Unit see Directorate-General for Trade (DG Trade)
market size
definition 16
distinctions based on 30
negotiation/retaliation power and 1619, 1423
Mavroidis, Petros C 4
McDermott Will & Emery 76
Melendez-Ortiz, Ricardo 33
Mexico and WTO DSU, use of dispute system (1995–2017) 22
Michalopoulos, Constantine 29
MICs (middle income countries)
dependency on higher income countries 62
use of dispute system (1995–2017) 213, 30
see also individual Member States
Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) (China) 64
administrative review of decisions 194
burden-reducing waivers 117
confidentiality and anonymity requirements 1856
expert consultative committees 193
judicial review of decisions 194
organisational chart 107
role of 1034
Trade Barrier Investigation Mechanism (TBIM) 1046, 11015, 17780, 182, 184, 193
Treaty and Law Department, Law Division 1068, 159
underutilisation of TBIM 11520, 197
within legal hierarchy 11920
WTO Affairs, Department of 106
monitoring
costs of for LDCs 412
of foreign compliance by USTR 734
proposed NGO role in 2056
multidisciplinary dispute management team, proposed guidelines 20910
Nall, Frazier & Hathaway 76
National Cattlemen’s Beef Association 76, 78
national media role see Brazil and WTO DSU
Native Produce & Animal By-Products (China) 111
Netherlands Economic Institute 210
new generation industry associations, in China 11718
nongovernmental organisations (NGOs), proposed guidelines 2056
non-litigious culture see China and WTO DSU
Nordstrom, Hakan 28
Office of the United States Trade Representative see United States Trade Representative (USTR)
Official Gazette (China) 111
Official Journal of the European Union (Official Journal) 85
online availability of information 204, 2256
organised private sector
in Brazil 1378, 141, 1978
in China 11415
explanation of 524
Ostry, Sylvia 78
Oxfam International 1367, 205, 210
partnership framework see WTO DSU partnership framework
Permanent Mission of Brazil 1278, 12930, 1323, 141
Permanent Mission of China 109, 172
Permanent Mission of India 150, 151, 1546, 15961, 165, 168, 172
Petersmann, Ernst-Ulrich 28
petition rights, of private sector
with EU TBR 838
evidential requirements 17880
with MOFCOM 1045, 11015
proposed guidelines 1779
with USTR 714, 7680
within formal systems 389
petition withdrawal, right to 1823
Pfizer 78
pharmaceutical industry 61
Plasai, Virachai 55
political institutions, and dispute settlement 5862
political pressure on disputes 757, 99, 100
Powell, Walter 37
Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs) 228
private lawyers
in BIC countries 1011
in China 210
coordination by US/EU based 100
in India 210
legal internships in Brazil 12930
see also lawyer pairing approach
private sector
benefits for in developing countries 1420
compulsory taxation on 128, 201
knowledge of trade barriers 34, 42, 7071
organised 524, 11415, 1378, 141, 1978
right to petition 714, 7680, 1045, 11015, 17780
Shaffer on aggressiveness of US 99
trade rights distinguished from governmental entities 36
unaware 545, 17071
unorganised 524, 1512, 17072
see also individual companies and corporations
procedural simplification recommendations 956
public hearings
by BOFT 111, 119
by DG Trade/EC 85
legitimacy of requests 1812
by USTR 79
public interest litigation (PIL), right to file 1956
public private partnership for WTO DSU, introduction 112
academics, students and researchers 11
four characteristics of WTO DSU 23
guide for government officials 910
outline of book 1112
policy audiences 89
research methodology 78
role of private lawyers 1011
selected WTO members 47
system issues for industry officials 10
see also WTO DSU partnership framework
publication of materials, for government-industry coordination 1878, 19091
publication requirements
by DG Trade 812, 85
by USTR 72, 79
quasi-judicial bodies 1845, 187, 1935
reciprocity
in capacity building 9091, 163
in US/EU PPP arrangements 9091
see also individual Member States
regulatory capture threat 5051, 139, 1424, 197
regulatory practices, proposed guidelines 18997
Reinhardt, Eric 1920, 25
rent-seeking activities 51, 163, 196, 221
Reserve Bank of India 172
resource exchange
during all phases of dispute settlement 48
in capacity building 38, 224
qualifications of legal expertise and 66
in US/EU PPP arrangements 9091
when acting as respondent 489
see also individual Member States
resource interdependency
in BIC arrangements 210
in US/EU PPP arrangement 9091
see also individual Member States
retaliation
anonymity of complainants and 57
by developing countries 245
diplomatic pressures and 612
market size and capacity for 1617, 1920, 58
in post-litigation stage 48
WTO-sanctioned economic 467
see also extra-WTO retaliation
review of determinations, right to seek 185
Scotch Whisky Association (UK) 88, 100
Seafood Exporters Association of India (SEAI) 534, 152, 170
Section 301 mechanism see United States Trade Representative (USTR)
semi-formal PPP arrangements see Brazil and WTO DSU
Serodio, Elisabeth 134
Shaffer, Gregory C
on aggressiveness of US business entities 99
on Brazil’s three pillar mechanism 1245
on constraints on law, money, and politics 25
on democratic leaders and special interests 59
on effectiveness of BIC 33
on expansion of ACWL 2930
on institutionalisation of PPP 186
on market size and retaliation power 17
proposes WTO Small Claims Procedure 217
on regulatory capture 50
top-down approach 28
on USTR legal provisions 74
Shanghai WTO Affairs Consultation Centre 109
Shenzhen WTO Affairs Centre 109
Sidley Austin 134, 136, 210
small claims procedures, for non-litigable matters 21118
conflict management stages 21112
proposed guidelines 21718
use of WTO Committee System 21317
solar energy industry 11315
Solar Energy Promotion Alliance 11415
special interest groups (Grossman) 334, 43, 5051, 57
specialised dispute settlement units, proposed guidelines 1869
administer, scrutinise and investigate private sector trade concerns 187
conduct training workshops and seminars 187
interministerial management of disputes 1889
prepare/present cases at WTO 187
publication of relevant materials 1878
see also individual Member States
stages of WTO disputes
capacity building stages 3941
litigation phase of capacity building 40, 446
post-litigation phase of capacity building 40, 469
pre-litigation phase of capacity building 40, 414
stages (chart) 40
standing governmental budgets, proposed guidelines 2023
state-owned industries 63, 64
steel industry 8, 1679, 174
Steptoe & Johnson 108
‘strong’ industry representatives, proposed guidelines 197201
compulsory taxation 201
creation of chambers of commerce 200201
creation of export promotion councils 1989
formation of trade cooperatives 199200
structural asymmetry 534
subsidised legal services see Advisory Centre on World Trade Organization Law (ACWL)
sugar industry 312, 44, 46, 48, 889, 1335, 197, 210
supplementary information 1812
Sutton, Charles 17
Tata Steel 1678
TBI Rules/TBIM see Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) (China)
textile industry 1617, 174
Thai Sugar Association 48
Thailand and WTO DSU
complaints filed with SPS Committee vs. WTO DSU 21316
complaints filed with TBT Committee vs. WTO DSU 213
EC – Export Subsidies on Sugar (Thailand)44, 46, 48
International Committee on Economic Policy 188
successful performance 46
sugar industry 31, 44, 46
use of dispute system (1995–2017) 22
think tanks
in Brazil 129, 204
in China 109
in India 151
proposed guidelines 2045
third parties to WTO disputes
Chinese participation as 110, 2078
Indian participation as 16061
rights of 23
Todora, Michael P 6
top-down approach 28, 63
trade associations
in Brazil 210
contingency funds 2034
export promotion council formation of 1989
foreign coordination by 100
in India 1512, 16064, 170
influence on USTR 76
knowledge of trade barriers 42
new generation type in China 11718
for organised private sector 1712
Union Contributions by in Brazil 128
see also individual trade associations
Trade Barrier Investigation Mechanism (TBIM) see Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM) (China)
Trade Barrier Regulation (TBR) mechanism see Directorate-General for Trade (DG Trade)
trade cooperatives
in India 171
proposed guidelines 199200
Trade Policy Division (TPD), Ministry of Commerce (India) 64
consultations, litigation and compliance proceedings 159
coordination with Competent Administrative Ministries 15051, 154, 15960
cost-benefit analysis 1567
decision-making stage 157
organisational chart 150
role in US – Carbon Steel (India)168
selection of trade lawyers 1579, 160
on TEXPROCIL’s role in case 163
as WTO respondent 15960
trading stakes, impacts of high/small 1619, 28, 45, 52, 623, 1923, 2023, 212, 227
see also individual Member States
training workshops/seminars 110, 187, 198, 199
transatlantic public private partnerships 100
transparency
in Brazil 1434
importance of 143
lack of by MOFCOM 119
in TBR mechanism 95
by USTR 7980
within weak governance framework 556
transparency, proposed guidelines 18997
expert consultative committees 1913
institutionalisation of regulatory practices 1967
limits on judicial review of decisions 1935
public interest litigation (PIL) 1956
publication requirements 19091
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) 195
Article 207 procedure 823
Turkey and WTO DSU, diplomatic pressures on disputes 612
unaware private sector 545, 17071
United Kingdom, small claims court proceedings in England/Wales 217
United Nations, least developed countries, use of term 21
United States of America (US) and WTO DSU 12, 38, 6880
bottom-up approach 63
Commerce Department 167
comparison to EU experience 97100
dispute settlement partnerships in practice 747
fisheries industry 534
influence of corporate electoral campaign contributors 59, 75
institutional framework 6970
as lead user of system 689
as leader of government-industry coordination 33
legal framework 7074
performance review 7780
small claims court proceedings 217
summary conclusion 2223
TPRM assessments 41
US – Carbon Steel (India)8, 1679
US – Countervailing Measures (China)11315, 120
US – Upland Cotton312, 1358, 142, 205
see also individual federal agencies
United States Trade Representative (USTR)
comparison of Section 301 procedure to EU TBR mechanism 99100
confidentiality and anonymity requirements 185
industry information-gathering/fact-finding 759
industry right to petition 38
Industry Trade Advisory Center (ITAC) 70
influence of corporate electoral campaign contributors 59, 75, 78
mandatory action requirement 778, 80
Private Sector Advisory Committee 70
public hearings 1812
reliance on industry 37
role of 6971
Section 135 procedures/expert committees 72, 191
Section 301 procedures/petitions 714, 76, 7780, 1778
Section 302 procedures/bilateral consultations 72
Section 305 procedures/private sector advisory panel 1912
Watch List/Priority Watch List 100
unorganised private sector
explanation of 524
in India 1512, 17072
US Commerce Department (USDOC)
China dispute over SCM Agreement and 114
Industry Trade Advisory Center (ITAC) 70
International Trade Administration 41
US Congress, influence on USTR 75, 76
US Meat Export Federation 76
Venugopal, Krishnan 163
whole-of-government approach 70
withdrawal of petition, right to 1823
Wolfe, Robert 18997
World Bank, country designations 45
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Agreement on Agriculture 133, 135
Agreement on Preshipment Inspection 14
Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM Agreement) 114, 131, 133, 167
Anti-Dumping Agreement 1647
Appellate Body 1516, 110, 114, 131, 133, 159, 1612, 165, 1678
arbitral tribunals 47, 63
Committee System 29, 21316
Enabling Clause 1612
Integrated Trade Intelligence Portal (I-TIP) 190
Ministerial Meetings 27, 29
Most Favoured Nation (MFN) 1614
overview 1, 147
Panels 1516, 47, 89, 110, 114, 119, 131, 133, 159, 1612, 1645, 1678
percentage of members self-designated as developing countries 21
SPS Committee 21317
TBT Committee 21314, 21617
Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) 228
Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM) 412, 206
WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU), overview 12, 1314, 167
Arbitration and Alternative Dispute Resolution 63, 212, 21617
complexity of 1920
cost and affordability of 2, 1920
Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) 24, 47, 58, 160
encouragement of bilateral/multilateral consultation 44
engagement of affected industries 23
inter-governmental process and exclusive authority 3
middle income countries at (1995–2017) 213
proposals for rule changes 278
as two-tier mechanism 2
see also individual Member States
WTO DSU partnership framework 1112, 3567
capacity building stages (chart) 3941
conflict of interests 57
cultural/psychological barriers 567
discriminatory protection of trade interests 512
economic context 624
formal vs. informal 389
legislative, institutional and administrative context 647
litigation phase of capacity building 40, 446
meaning of public private partnership 369
organised/unorganised private sector 524
overview 35
political, social and diplomatic context 5862
post-litigation phase of capacity building 40, 469
pre-litigation phase of capacity building 40, 414
regulatory capture threat 5051
summary conclusion 67
unaware private sector 545
weak governance framework 556
see also dispute settlement partnerships, lessons learnt
Xiamen University, Chinese Society of International Economic Law 10910