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Intellectual Property Jurisdiction Strategies

Where to Litigate Unitary Rights vs National Rights in the EU

Torsten B. Larsen

This timely and practical guide compares the jurisdictional advantages of litigating a national IP right with those of the corresponding European unitary IP right. The study offers IP practitioners a meticulous yet principled basis for their jurisdictional decisions and shows why it is advantageous for infringers to litigate based on a national IP right and rightholders to litigate based on a European unitary IP right.
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EXTENDED TABLE OF CONTENTS

Where to Litigate Unitary Rights vs National Rights in the EU

Torsten B. Larsen

List of figures

List of tables

Preface

List of abbreviations

Table of cases

Table of legislation

Table of treaties, conventions and other instruments

PART I INTRODUCTION

1  Introduction

A  Introduction    1.01

1  Purpose    1.02

2  Example    1.04

3  Scope    1.06

(a)  The IP rights    1.07

(b)  The litigations    1.10

(c)  The international jurisdiction rules    1.15

4  IP jurisdiction strategies    1.19

5  Limits    1.33

(a)  Jurisdiction limits    1.34

(b)  Applicable law limits    1.42

(c)  Substantive IP law limits    1.43

(d)  Recognition and enforcement limits    1.44

B  Structure    1.45

PART II NUMBER OF JURISDICTION RULES

2  Jurisdiction framework

A  Introduction    2.01

B  The jurisdiction framework governing a national IP right    2.03

1  Defendant is domiciled in the EU    2.04

2  Defendant is domiciled in the EFTA    2.05

3  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    2.07

C  The jurisdiction framework governing a European unitary IP right    2.08

1  European Union Trademark    2.09

(a)  Defendant is domiciled in the EU    2.11

(b)  Defendant is domiciled in the EFTA    2.16

(c)  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    2.28

2  Community Design    2.31

(a)  Defendant is domiciled in the EU    2.33

(b)  Defendant is domiciled in the EFTA    2.34

(c)  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    2.35

3  Community Plant Variety    2.37

(a)  Defendant is domiciled in the EU    2.39

(b)  Defendant is domiciled in the EFTA    2.44

(c)  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    2.51

4  Unitary Patent    2.56

(a)  Defendant is domiciled in the EU    2.67

(b)  Defendant is domiciled in the EFTA    2.68

(c)  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    2.69

D  Conclusion    2.75

3  Jurisdiction rules

A  Introduction    3.01

B  The international jurisdiction rules applying to a national IP right    3.03 

1  Defendant is domiciled in the EU    3.04

2  Defendant is domiciled in the EFTA    3.05 

3  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    3.06

C  The international jurisdiction rules applying to a European unitary IP right     3.08

1  European Union Trademark    3.09

2  Community Design    3.14

3  Community Plant Variety    3.18

4  Unitary Patent    3.26

D  Conclusion    3.31

PART III NATURE OF JURISDICTION RULES

4  General principles

A  Introduction    4.01

B  Principles of effective enforcement of IP rights    4.03

C  Principles of private international law    4.07

1  Predictability    4.08

2  Proximity    4.10

3  Avoiding forum shopping    4.15

4  Avoiding ‘pollution’    4.17

D  Principles of IP law    4.19

E  Conclusion    4.20

5  Defendant’s domicile rule

A  Introduction    5.01

B  The defendant’s domicile rule applying to a national IP right    5.03

1  Defendant is domiciled in the EU/EFTA    5.04

(a)  Art. 4 BR to infringement actions    5.05

(b)  Art. 4 BR to non-infringement actions    5.12

(c)  Art. 4 BR to invalidity actions    5.13

2  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    5.14

C  The defendant’s domicile rule applying to a European unitary IP right    5.15

1  The defendant’s domicile rule in the EUTMR    5.16

(a)  Art. 97(1) EUTMR to infringement actions    5.17

(b)  Art. 97(1) EUTMR to non-infringement actions    5.21

(c)  Art. 97(1) EUTMR to invalidity actions    5.23

2  The defendant’s domicile rule in the CDR    5.24

(a)  Art. 82(1) CDR to infringement actions    5.25

(b)  Art. 82(1) CDR to non-infringement actions    5.27

(c)  Art. 82(1) CDR to invalidity actions    5.28

3  The defendant’s domicile rule in the CPVR    5.29

(a)  Art. 101(2)(a) CPVR to infringement actions    5.30

(b)  Art. 101(2)(a) CPVR to non-infringement actions    5.34

(c)  Art. 101(2)(a) CPVR to invalidity actions    5.35

4  The defendant’s domicile rule in the AUPC    5.36

(a)  Art. 33(1)(b) AUPC to infringement actions    5.37

(b)  Art. 33(1)(b) AUPC to non-infringement actions    5.53

(c)  Art. 33(1)(b) AUPC to invalidity actions    5.54

D  Conclusion    5.55

6  Establishment rule

A  Introduction    6.01

B  The establishment rule applying to a national IP right    6.03

1  Defendant is domiciled in the EU/EFTA    6.04

(a)  Art. 7(5) BR to infringement actions    6.05

(b)  Art. 7(5) BR to non-infringement actions    6.16

(c)  Art. 7(5) BR to invalidity actions    6.17

2  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    6.18

C  The establishment rule applying to a European unitary IP right    6.19

1  The establishment rule in the EUTMR    6.20

(a)  Art. 97(1) EUTMR to infringement actions    6.21

(b)  Art. 97(1) EUTMR to non-infringement actions    6.34

(c)  Art. 97(1) EUTMR to invalidity actions    6.35

2  The establishment rule in the CDR    6.36

(a)  Art. 82(1) CDR to infringement actions    6.37

(b)  Art. 82(1) CDR to non-infringement actions    6.39

(c)  Art. 82(1) CDR to invalidity actions    6.40

3  The establishment rule in the CPVR    6.41

(a)  Art. 101(2)(a) CPVR to infringement actions    6.42

(b)  Art. 101(2)(a) CPVR to non-infringement actions    6.46

(c)  Art. 101(2)(a) CPVR to invalidity actions    6.47

4  The establishment rule in the AUPC    6.48

(a)  Art. 33(1)(b) AUPC to infringement actions    6.49

(b)  Art. 33(1)(b) AUPC to non-infringement actions    6.55

(c)  Art. 33(1)(b) AUPC to invalidity actions    6.56

D  Conclusion    6.57

7  Plaintiff’s domicile rule

A  Introduction    7.01

B  The plaintiff’s domicile rule applying to a national IP right    7.03

1  Defendant is domiciled in the EU/EFTA    7.04

2  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    7.05

C  The plaintiff’s domicile rule applying to a European unitary IP right    7.06

1  The plaintiff’s domicile rule in the EUTMR    7.07

(a)  Art. 97(2) EUTMR to infringement actions    7.08

(b)  Art. 97(2) EUTMR to non-infringement actions    7.15

(c)  Art. 97(2) EUTMR to invalidity actions    7.17

2  The plaintiff’s domicile rule in the CDR    7.18

(a)  Art. 82(2) CDR to infringement actions    7.19

(b)  Art. 82(2) CDR to non-infringement actions    7.21

(c)  Art. 82(2) CDR to invalidity actions    7.22

3  The plaintiff’s domicile rule in the CPVR    7.23 

(a)  Art. 101(2)(b) CPVR to infringement proceedings    7.24

(b)  Art. 101(2)(b) CPVR to non-infringement actions    7.27

(c)  Art. 101(2)(b) CPVR to invalidity actions    7.28

4  The forum delicti rule in the AUPC    7.29

D  Conclusion    7.30

8  Multiple defendants’ rule

A  Introduction    8.01

B  The multiple defendants’ rule applying to a national IP right    8.03

1  Defendant is domiciled in the EU/EFTA    8.04

(a)  Art. 8(1) BR to infringement actions    8.05

(b)  Art. 8(1) BR to non-infringement actions    8.28

(c)  Art. 8(1) BR to invalidity actions    8.29

2  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    8.30

C  The multiple defendants’ rule applying to a European unitary IP right    8.31

1  The multiple defendants’ rule in the EUTMR    8.32

(a)  Art. 8(1) BR to infringement actions    8.33

(b)  Art. 8(1) BR to non-infringement actions    8.36

(c)  Art. 8(1) BR to invalidity actions    8.37

2  The multiple defendants’ rule in the CDR    8.38

(a)  Art. 8(1) BR to infringement actions    8.39

(b)  Art. 8(1) BR to non-infringement actions    8.40

(c)  Art. 8(1) BR to invalidity actions    8.41

3  The multiple defendants’ rule in the CPVR    8.42

(a)  Art. 8(1) BR to infringement actions    8.43

(b)  Art. 8(1) BR to non-infringement actions    8.44

(c)  Art. 8(1) BR to invalidity actions    8.45

4  The multiple defendants’ rule in the AUPC    8.46

(a)  Art. 33(1)(b) AUPC to infringement actions    8.47

(b)  Art. 33(1)(b) AUPC to non-infringement actions    8.58

(c)  Art. 33(1)(b) AUPC to invalidity actions    8.59

D  Conclusion    8.60

9  Forum delicti rule

A  Introduction    9.01

B  The forum delicti rule applying to a national IP right    9.03

1  Defendant is domiciled in the EU/EFTA    9.04

(a)  Art. 7(2) BR to infringement actions    9.05

(i)  Wintersteiger (facts and reasoning)    9.08

(ii)  Wintersteiger (interpretation)    9.12

(iii)  Wintersteiger (impact)    9.51

(b)  Art. 7(2) BR to non-infringement actions    9.65

(i)  Folien Fischer (facts and reasoning)    9.66

(ii)  Folien Fischer (interpretation)    9.68

(iii)  Folien Fischer (impact)    9.70

(c)  Art. 7(2) BR to invalidity actions    9.71

2  Defendant is domiciled outside the EU/EFTA    9.74

C  The forum delicti rule applying to a European unitary IP right    9.75

1  The forum delicti rule in the EUTMR    9.76

(a)  Art. 97(5) EUTMR to infringement actions    9.77

(b)  Art. 97(5) EUTMR to non-infringement actions    9.94

(c)  Art. 97(5) EUTMR to invalidity actions    9.96

2  The forum delicti rule in the CDR    9.97

(a)  Art. 82(5) CDR to infringement actions    9.98

(b)  Art. 82(5) CDR to non-infringement actions    9.104

(c)  Art. 82(5) CDR to invalidity actions    9.105

3  The forum delicti rule in the CPVR    9.106

(a)  Art. 101(3) CPVR to infringement actions    9.107

(b)  Art. 101(3) CPVR to non-infringement actions    9.113

(c)  Art. 101(3) CPVR to invalidity actions    9.114

4  The forum delicti rule in the AUPC    9.115

(a)  Art. 33(1)(a) AUPC to infringement actions    9.116

(b)  Art. 33(1)(a) AUPC to non-infringement actions    9.130

(c)  Art. 33(1)(a) AUPC to invalidity actions    9.131

D  Conclusion    9.132

10  Central division rule

A  Introduction    10.01

B  The central division rule applying to a national IP right    10.03

C  The central division rule applying to a European unitary IP right    10.04

D  Conclusion    10.10

11  Exclusive jurisdiction rule

A  Introduction    11.01

B  The exclusive jurisdiction rule applying to a national IP right    11.03

1  Invalidity is raised in an infringement action    11.04

2  Invalidity is raised in a non-infringement action    11.13

C  The exclusive jurisdiction rule applying to a European unitary IP right    11.14

1  The exclusive jurisdiction rule in the EUTMR    11.15

(a)  Invalidity is raised in an infringement action    11.16

(b)  Invalidity is raised in a non-infringement action    11.18

2  The exclusive jurisdiction rule in the CDR    11.19

(a)  Invalidity is raised in an infringement action    11.20

(b)  Invalidity is raised in a non-infringement action    11.21

3  The exclusive jurisdiction rule in the CPVR    11.22

(a)  Invalidity is raised in an infringement action    11.23

(b)  Invalidity is raised in a non-infringement action    11.24

4  The exclusive jurisdiction rule in the AUPC    11.25

(a)  Invalidity is raised in an infringement action    11.26

(b)  Invalidity is raised in a non-infringement action    11.27

D  Conclusion    11.28

PART IV CONCLUSION

12  Conclusion

Bibliography

Index