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Global Climate Justice

Proposals, Arguments and Justification

Olivier Godard

In this thoughtful and original book, social scientist Olivier Godard considers the ways in which arguments of justice cling to international efforts to address global climate change. Proposals made by governments, experts and NGOs as well as concepts and arguments born of moral and political philosophy are introduced and critically examined. Godard contributes to this important debate by showing why global climate justice is still controversial, despite it being a key issue of our times.
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Index

Proposals, Arguments and Justification

Olivier Godard

ability to pay 70, 1557
Agarwal, A. 55, 64, 77, 178, 185
anthropogenic climate change 1, 567, 110, 131
atmosphere, organization of rights to use 1335
Bali Principles of Climate Justice 656
Barrett, S. 21, 24, 33
Barry, B. 94, 111
‘beneficiary pays’ principle (BPP) 107, 1216, 130
Bolivia 63
Bovens, L. 69, 13940, 143
Brazil 59, 61, 63, 6970, 73
burden-sharing proposals
cosmopolitanist 748
experts 6874
governments 634
international 7882
limitations 823
NGOs 648
Caney, S. 49, 70, 72, 74, 77, 102, 1089, 112, 1235, 132, 1367, 139, 14851, 175, 1778, 187
carbon budgets, equitable sharing of
ability to pay 1557
conditions for possession of natural resources
customary law 13940
extrapolating status of territorial natural resources 138
rightful ownership 14045
distributing rights and duties to populations 136
equality
determining what should be equalized 1367
as source of injustice 1378
equity 1525
future directions for 162
intellectual operations in issue of rights 1313
organization of rights to use atmosphere 1335
principle of responsibility
repayment for past emissions exceeding fair shares 1589
responsibility after 1990 16061
retrospective illusion 160
terrestrial sinks 160
principles of common ownership and equality per capita 1356
right to unchanged local environment
arbitration between conflicting rights 151
concept of environment for self-organizing, open systems 1457
intrinsic fragility 145
link to essential human rights 14850
substantive law 1478
carbon market case 1827
Chauvier, S. 44, 4952, 54, 79, 133, 151
civic order 170, 173, 17782, 192
climate change
definitions and notations 56
equitable burden-sharing proposals 6383
evolution of emissions and concentrations 589
historical emissions data 5962
historical responsibility for
factors of exemption from 11927
premises of 11519
summary of time scales 12930
types of debt 1279
international negotiations and orders of worth 17382
moral conditions for challenging liability of a person 11315
morphology of 57
period of doubt regarding 58
rights involved in 13151
climate justice
adversarial approach to 4
Bali principles of 656
condition for international 789
cosmopolitanist approach to 745, 1567
differences of opinions on 72
intuition and reason 9
justification theory
approach 1645
outlook on 16673
non-cooperation option condemning 198
orders of worth and international climate change negotiations 17382
passionate views and beliefs 164
upstream impacts of regulatory regime 1827
use of fables 13
climate threat
and circumstances of justice 1922
global scale of 1
inability to protect against 3031
responsibility for 190
scientific and geopolitical features of 5762
collective responsibility of states 75, 1089, 12930
common good principle 16670, 176
common humanity
foundation 478
principle 166
commutative justice 1011, 3031, 35, 43
cooperation approach 19
Copenhagen Conference of the Parties (COP 15) 3, 8, 31, 37, 58, 64, 66, 119, 126, 191, 1989
corrective justice 11
cosmopolitanism 4854, 748, 153
customary law 13940
Davidson, M.D. 96, 107, 130
dead, duties toward 1819, 914
debt
odious 109, 112
two types of 1279
deep pocket doctrine 155
den Elzen, M.G.J. 6061, 69, 78
differentiation principle 166
discounting
future values, rationale of
common ground 867
inequality between generations issue 879
structural change in price system through time 90
understanding pure time preference 87
morality 8890
as unreliable tool 90
distributive justice
and allocation of emissions quotas 356
importance of 1989
international relations without 434
as limited to field of natural resources 52
theory and nature of 1112
domestic-traditional order 170, 1734, 176, 189, 192, 1947
ecological debt 4, 41, 645, 158
Elster, J. 10, 13, 26, 46, 136
epistemic community model 289, 32, 43
equality
determining what should be equalized 1367
and equity 14
per capita 81, 1356, 178
as source of injustice 1378
equitable sharing of carbon budget see carbon budgets, equitable sharing of
equity
in allocation of rights to reduce emissions 1525, 157, 162
defining 78, 84
distributive 131, 1367
and efficiency 234
and equality 14
and justice 13
see also intergenerational equity
experts
burden-sharing proposals 6874
calculating carbon budgets 132
scientific 313, 43, 173
fame order 170
France 59, 634
future generations
alternative promises to
domestic 1947
industrial 1924
justification orders 1912
discussion of duties toward 1819, 914, 164
limits of justice 1979
transmission of patrimony to 1947
Gardiner, S. 1, 95, 120, 161
GDP
and ability to pay 157
allocating GHG emissions quotas 6871, 73, 188
and capacity for emissions abatement 78
GHG emissions
burden-sharing proposals 6383
and concentrations 589
countries’ historical 5962
long-term convergence of rights 17982
moral arguments 10711
global justice 1213, 43, 49, 54, 114, 186, 187
Godard, O. viii, 6870, 111, 139, 145, 161, 163, 1656, 171, 188, 194
Goldemberg, J. 76, 122, 125
goods
access to bundles of 187
climate stability as superior 107
cosmopolitan 52
and discounting 86, 8990
distribution of 11, 20, 234, 44, 46
ecosystem 158
emissions due to 62, 138, 156, 176
and local justice 13
and market and industrial polities 192
market order fuelled by desire for 170
pluralism of common 54, 191
primary
access to 16, 18, 103, 136
distributive justice 46
inequalities in possession of 142
Rawls’s notion of 20
private and public
distinction between 26
trade-offs between 24
provision of 21
Gosseries, A. 55, 74, 96, 101, 122, 136
grandfathering approach 69, 712, 84, 135, 139, 143, 1734
Guardabassi, P.M. 76, 122, 125
Hayward, T. 51, 136, 178
historical emissions
allocating GHG emissions quotas 7073
country data 5962, 81
cumulative 62, 116
exceeding fair shares, repayment for 1589
Meyer, L.H., on 159
present generation’s lack of control over 121
prior to 1980s/1990s 126
thesis of wrongfulness of 123
historical responsibility
before 1988 1078, 11819, 1267, 12930, 162, 164, 190
applying ahistorical obligation 1078
Brazil’s proposals 63, 6970
collective responsibility of states 75, 1089, 12930
concept 7, 113
from developed world to developing world 12, 65
embracing many types of justice 41
factors of exemption from
‘beneficiary pays’ principle 1216, 130
ignorance 11921, 129
lack of control over past emissions 121
retrospective illusion trap 1267
and future rights according to population 768
vs grandfathering approach 712
and historical emissions 5962
moral conditions for challenging liability of a person 11315, 129, 155
premises of 11519
and repayment for past emissions exceeding fair share 1589
and retrospective determination of fair share 756
types of debt 1279
United States case 81
human rights 4041, 456, 667, 102, 146, 14850, 178
humankind
as collective person 111
natural resources as common property of 74
as unified polity model 3941, 43
coordination variables 41
drawbacks 42
Huseby, R. 122, 1235
ignorance 11921, 12930
see also veil of ignorance
India 61, 64, 73, 78
industrial order 171, 1734, 176, 186, 1924, 197
inequality between generations 879
innovation 1924
inspired order 170, 192
intergenerational equity
duties to dead and unborn 914
issue of 85, 879
justice between distant generations 94111
and long-term convergence of emissions rights 17982
utilitarian answer 8690
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change (IPCC)
establishment 29, 119
example of international cooperation 2930
coordination variables 30
drawbacks 3033
reports 57, 68, 11920, 152, 158, 179
international cooperation
and global justice
conditions for 534
international justice and Rawls’s Law of Peoples 447 international relations without distributive justice 434
new cosmopolitan frontier 4854
pluralist internationalism of Risse 478
models
epistemic community 289
humankind’s imaginary institution as single political community of world citizens 3943
IPCC 2933
mutually advantageous agreement between self-interested states 339
Paretian 36
necessity as not uniform across climate strategies 22
Paris Agreement preserving existence of 3
principle of sovereignty of states in 80
resolution of uncertainty regarding 58
international institutions
criticism of injustice of 50
lack of democratization in 51
international justice 447, 53, 7980, 153, 157
international relations
and cosmopolitanism 54
and shaping climate protection regime 21
structure of, regarding climate change threat 198
without distributive justice 434
international viewpoint on burden-sharing 7882
internationalism, pluralist 478
intuition 95, 978, 102, 110, 116, 123, 189
intuition-based judgements 89, 4950
investment formula principle 166
Jonas, H. 96, 111, 180, 193
justice
articulating with models of international coordination 2743
beyond 18991
change in problem of 1867
circumstances of 1619
and climate threat 1922
and climate change climate threat 5762
definitions and notations 56
equitable burden-sharing proposals 6383
debate on rights and wrongs 8
between distant generations 94111
and equity 13
injustice 1236, 12930
of economic structures 50
equality as source of 1378
intergenerational 91, 1979
between international and global 4354
intuition-based judgements 89
justification theory 16673
limits of 1979
nature of main fields 1013
norms 1315, 182
scope 910
new upstream issues of 1826
theory
Rawls’s theory 1522
utilitarianism 235
see also climate justice
justification theory
compromise 1712
from justification to coordination 16871
model of ideal polity 1656
nature of 165
objective of 166
orders of worth and climate change negotiations civic order 17782 intermediate situation 1737
realities linked with orders of justification 1678
situations 1723
upstream impacts of regulatory regime change in problem of justice 1867
new upstream issues of justice 1826
Khor, M. 132, 137, 159, 162
Kverndokk, S. 55, 77, 174
Kyoto Protocol 3, 7, 345, 378, 58, 64, 130, 1545, 158, 161, 1756, 178, 188, 190
Law of Peoples 447, 52, 188
lifetime transcending interests
drawbacks 934
and intergenerational equity 87
moral argument 94
as not applying to unborn 96
as source of rights and duties 912
local justice 13, 136, 153
Locke, J. 74, 14045, 162
market order 17071, 1736, 192
Mary Robinson Foundation 66
Meyer, L.H. 96, 1035, 107, 125, 15960
Miller, D. 434, 534, 756, 80, 82, 109, 112, 11415, 117, 119, 123, 130, 153, 178
Moellendorf, D. 2, 70, 74, 76, 78, 1035, 112, 114, 120, 130, 137, 140, 1434, 15052, 157, 188
moral conditions for challenging liability of persons 11315
moral individualism 1089
moral order
global egalitarian 534
universal 48
moral positioning 4852
moral standing 111
moralist approach 18991
mutually advantageous agreement
between self-interested states
model 334
coordination variables 347
obstacles 379, 43
Narain, S. 55, 64, 77, 178, 185
natural resources
civic order and industrial order 17071
and climate justice 66
as common property of humankind 74
customary law 13940
extrapolating status of territorial 138
increasing scarcity of 90
ownership 5051, 14045
principle of permanent sovereignty of states over 55, 7980, 138, 162
value of 1923
Neumayer, E. 74, 77, 120, 143, 158, 179
NGOs
ability to influence 21
burden-sharing proposals 648
non-existence issue
limits to rights 99100
parables 979
rights and moral obligations 956
non-identity
potential solutions
abandoning moral individualism for state ethics 1089
applying ahistorical obligation to protect climate 1078
closing time horizon on coexisting generations 11011
enforcing moral and political standing for humankind as collective person 111
utilitarianism 1067
problem 1015, 1245, 12930, 180
Nussbaum, M. 15, 26, 4750, 53, 84
odious debt 109, 112
orders of worth
and climate change negotiations 17382
nature viewed within 17071
principle 166
responding to polity model 166
Oslo Principles on Global Climate
Change Obligations 678
ownership
natural resources 5051, 14045
principles of common 1356
Page, E.A. 9, 108, 1223, 125
Paretianism 33, 36, 82, 106, 153
Pareto approach 235
Paris Agreement 3, 5, 323, 3940, 58, 60, 71, 155, 175, 19091
Paris Conference of the Parties (COP 21) see Paris Agreement
Parks, B.C. 50, 64, 66
patrimony 1947
pluralist internationalism 478
polity model principles 166
‘polluted pays’ principle 133, 147, 151, 163
population
allocating GHG emissions quotas 6871, 73, 756, 174
allocations proportional to 17782
determining countries’ future rights according to 768, 83
distributing rights and duties to 136
Posner, E.A. 24, 33, 36, 70, 82, 106, 112, 136, 177, 186
productive investment 1924
pure time preference 867
Rawls, J. 89, 1112, 1522, 25, 36, 412, 447, 4950, 52, 7071, 73, 77, 878, 923, 95, 188
reason-based judgements 89, 4950
redistribution
and ability to pay 1556
Chauvier on 52
and climate regime 1867, 199
content of duties between states 49
and distributive justice 11, 15, 46
and equity 1523
internal 82
international 48, 80
moral and political foundation of global 4950
moral arbitrariness issues 1089
social willingness for 88
reflective equilibrium 89, 4950
regulatory regime 1827
responsibility
after 1990 16061
causal 60, 70, 114, 129, 155, 158
cognitive 172
collective 75, 1089, 12930
common but differentiated 2, 41, 58, 150, 1545
country 1545, 157
foundations of moral thought on 11314
limits of generational 181
moral 109, 111, 115, 11819, 155, 158, 180, 190
nuances of 11415
outcome 115, 119, 158
political 109, 190
principle of 15861
remedial 114, 121, 158
state 4041, 68, 7071, 1089, 138
see also historical responsibility
retrospective illusion 1267, 160
Risse, M. 478, 50, 52, 76, 78, 135, 140
Roberts, J.T. 50, 64, 66
sacrifice principle 166
self-organizing systems 1457
Sen, A.K. 23, 50, 834, 91, 191
Shelton, D. 26, 40, 67, 111
Shue, H. 2, 8, 18, 25, 55, 69, 72, 745, 778, 83, 11618, 120, 132, 1478, 15053, 1612, 174, 181
social values
dependency on 1315
and utilitarianism 23
sovereignty of states
equal 44
equal per capita criterion 81, 178
equality 69
over natural resources, principle of 55, 7980, 138, 162
rule contradicting 81
and rules of international justice 79, 83
substantive law 1478
Stern, N. 87, 112, 162
Sunstein, C.R. 136, 161, 177
technology, substitution through 1924
terrestrial sinks 160
Thompson, J. 6, 18, 87, 916, 110, 130, 195
Trump, Donald 3
unborn see future generations
UNFCCC (United Nations
Framework Convention on
Climate Change) 12, 78, 32, 4041, 589, 69, 80, 113, 126, 1312, 138, 140, 152, 154, 158, 176, 1789, 190
USA
burden-sharing proposals 64, 81
comparison of emission rights allocations 73
contributions to GHG emissions 61
utilitarianism 12, 235, 8690, 1067
as sacrificial doctrine 16, 87
Vanderheiden, S. 18, 26, 74, 78, 81, 120, 132
veil of ignorance 16, 42, 456, 49, 51, 88, 92, 188
see also ignorance
Visser ’t Hooft, H.P. 18, 36, 103
Weisbach, D.A. 24, 33, 36, 70, 82, 106, 112, 177, 186
Young, H.P. 13, 26, 74, 84, 139