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Meeting the Challenge of Cultural Diversity in Europe

Moving Beyond the Crisis

Robin Wilson

Europe has talked itself into a refugee and security crisis. There is, however, a misrecognition of the real challenge facing Europe: the challenge of managing the relationship between Europeans and the currently stigmatized ‘others’ which it has attracted. Making the case against a ‘Europe of walls’, Robin Wilson instead proposes a refounding of Europe built on the power of diversity and an ethos of hospitality rather than an institutional thicket serving the market.
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Index

Robin Wilson

‘active bilingualism’ 140–41

Adichie, Chimamanda Ngozi 64

Adorno, Theodor 78

Afghan refugees 1

Agier, Michel 55

Ai Weiwei 153

al-Azmeh, Aziz 64, 112

Al Jazeera 66

Allen, Kate 90

al-Qaeda 54, 92 see also bin Laden, Osama

Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) 77, 82

Althusser, Louis 76

American Century, The 155

Amin, Ash 130, 133, 135, 153, 156, 172

Amnesty International 14, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23, 90

Anderson, Benedict 37, 38

Andersson, Jenny 181

Andrevski, Goce 164

Annan, Kofi 92

‘anti-rumour agents’ 139

Apartment, The (Wilder) 163

Arab Jazz (Miské) 148

Arcarazo, Diego A. 177

Arendt, Hannah 105

Aristotle, individual and civic life 132

Armingeon, Klaus 93

assimilationism 95

conservative version of 42

as French model 36–7, 42

irremediable difficulties 56

and Leitkultur 37

Le Pen’s argument 42–3

as model 36–7, 42, 62

multiculturalism versus 39, 43, 45, 62, 66, 102, 103

nation-state paradigm 38

reactionary representations of 37, 40

research and survey 39–40

retreat into 113–14

revolutionary 39

self and other 37

asylum policies, harmonization of 19

asylum-seekers 85, 105

‘bogus’ 9, 166

protection of rights 19

‘terrorists’ with 6, 9

‘asymmetric shocks’ 68

Atocha station bombings 92

Aus Nachbarn Wurden Juden (Rosenstrauch) 50

austerity 72, 74, 93, 170, 172–3

Australia, multiculturalism in 115

Austro-Marxism 80

authoritarianism 76, 78

Azeglio, Massimo 179

Bader, Veit 179

Bagwell, Sue 136

Barcelona

anti-rumour strategies 139

intercultural plan 146

refugees 154

‘Barcelona Declaration’ 24

Barroso, José Manuel 57

Barry, Brian 61

Batayneh, Jude 111

Battle of Kosovo Plain/Polje 54, 110

Bauer, Otto 80, 81

Bauman, Zygmunt 5, 9, 16, 55, 61, 62, 133, 136, 156, 179

cultural diversity 64

Beck, Ulrich 49, 50, 53, 58–60, 123, 125, 127, 163, 170, 178

hospitality 154–5

see also cosmopolitanism

Belfast Friendship Club 138

Bellanova, Rocco 26

Benhabib, Seyla 63, 103

Bennett, Tony 63, 115

Berlusconi, Silvio 57

Berman, Sheri 78–9, 174

Bertelsmann Stiftung 166, 170

Bešlagić, Selim 51

Bianchini, Franco 132

‘bicycling reaction’ 74–5

Big Brother surveillance state 25

bin Laden, Osama 54, 107

Bismarck, Otto von 39

Blair, Tony 174

Bloody Sunday 24

Bobbio, Norberto 80, 122

liberty-authoritarianism axis 81, 84, 98

Bonnici, Owen 23

Borevi, Karin 45, 61

Botkyrka 145

Breivik, Anders 4, 24, 47, 103

‘Brexit’ referendum 83, 92, 170

Brighouse, Harry 121

Brin, Sergey 161

‘British values’, definition of 37–8

Brochmann, Grete 45, 61

Brock, Gillian 121

‘brotherhood and unity’ 11, 47, 51

Brubaker, Rogers 64

Bulley, Dan 154–5

Bunjes, Ulrich 96, 97

Burgess, J. Peter 26

burqa, banning of 113

Bush, George W. 92, 107

Buttiglione, Rocco 57

Cabrita, Eduardo 150

Calhoun, Craig 124

Callamard, Agnes 18

CALM (Comme à la maison) 137

Cameron, David 113

Canadian multiculturalism 114–15

Cannataci, Joseph 25

Cantle, Ted 66, 106, 107

capitalism 28, 38, 49, 61, 147, 163, 178

Čas, Johann 26

Castellanos, Kevin 111

Castles, Stephen 9, 19, 67

Catholicism 112

CEAS see Common European Asylum System (CEAS)

Center for Integrative Mediation (CSSP) 139

Center for Research on Prejudice in Warsaw 110

Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) 92

Centre of Language and Literacy 140

Cesari, Jocelyne 112

C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group 136

Charlie Hebdo attack 5, 26, 47

Christensen, Cato 141–2

Chryssochoou, Xenia 50, 62

CIA see Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)

Cichocka, Aleksandra 111

cities

challenges 132

cultural distinctiveness 132

diversity and openness 135

ethnic diversity 133

intercultural 134–6, 141, 148

Cities for Local Integration Policy (CLIP) 117–18

citizenship

cosmopolitan, 124, 134, 135

democratic 100, 175

dual 126

European, 175, 180–81

intercultural 115

values of 181

civil society

role for 101

in Russia 101

‘clash of civilizations’ 91

CLIP see Cities for Local Integration Policy (CLIP)

Cohen, Robin 124

Cohen, Stanley 104–5

Cohn-Bendit, Daniel 158

Cole, Simon 27

‘collective narcissism’ 110, 111

Collomb, Gérard 23, 55

‘combating terrorism’ 23

Common Basic Principles on Immigrant Integration Policy 87

Common European Asylum System (CEAS) 9, 16, 19

Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2001) 102

compassion 8–9, 18, 96, 104–5, 129, 138

‘constitutional patriotism’ 57, 111, 116

‘constructed certitude’ 49

Convention on the Future of Europe 176

Copenhagen, diversity charter 147–8

COP21 summit 172

cosmopolitan competence 123

cosmopolitanism 99, 118, 130

characteristic of 125

citizenship 124, 134, 135

‘common sense’ notion of 124

concept of 29

conditions of existence 126

‘constitutional tolerance’ 126

diverse cultural sources and 121

enlightenment 123

intellectual revival of 123

Kant, Immanuel and 121–5

key quality of 123

as positive and inclusive narrative 128

studies 120

in western Europe 42

cosmopolitan law 122

‘cosmopolitan moment’ 123

Costa, António 173

Council of Europe 36, 117, 123, 131, 150, 176, 180

Committee of Ministers’ recommendation (2015) 149

Congress of Local and Regional Authorities 117

Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities 80, 96

ICCs programme 29, 88, 144, 149–50

intercultural dialogue 89, 97–100, 106, 117–18, 129, 142, 149–50

intercultural forum 51, 57, 142

management of cultural diversity 87

1990s minority-rights conventions 97–8

in post-war period 85

under pressure 93

significance of 116

White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue 88, 89, 95

see also white paper (process)

‘counter-modernity’ 49

Course, Daniel D. 110

creative city 132

‘creative cognition’ 164

Crépeau, François 20

cultural creativity 132–3

cultural rights 60

cultural variety 62

Dalal, Farhad 63, 107

Danish Refugee Council 138

Decety, Jean 104

Declaration on Intercultural Dialogue and Conflict Prevention (2003) 97

de Haas, Hein 19, 67

deindividualization 50

Delanty, Gerard 38, 40, 48, 125, 156

deliberative democracy 128–30

Delors, Jacques 88

democratic citizenship 100, 175

den Heijer, Marten 11

Der Tagesspiegel 153

DiEM25 project 175

difference versus diversity 62–5

disorganized capitalism 61

‘diversity advantage’ 131, 135, 148–9, 155

‘diversity connectors’ 137

Dolezal, Martin 79

Dreyfus, Alfred 37

dual citizenship 126

Dublin regulation 2, 162

Dunne, Ciaran 149, 164

Durkheim, Emile 44, 62

Duterte, Rodrigo 90

Empathy

cosmopolitanism and 130

defined 179

education and 90

European countries 8

mutual, lacking 58

see also compassion

enemy stereotypes 53

Erdoğan, Recep Tayyip 42

Eriksen, Thomas Hylland 64

essentialism 62–3

ethnic diversity, cities 133

ethnicity 42, 63–4, 181

and language 40

and religion 49

‘ethnic’ nationalism 40

ethnopolitical entrepreneurs 64

Eurobarometer survey 93, 124, 143, 170, 174, 176, 179

Europe see Council of Europe; European Union (EU)

European banking system 68

European budget 173

European Central Bank (ECB) 70, 73

European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (1992) 80–81

European citizenship 175, 180–81

cosmopolitan 134

dual 126

intercultural 115

European Commission 71, 86, 124, 166

Delors, Jacques 88

European Agenda for the Integration of Third-Country Nationals 87

‘European pillar of social rights’ 174

ICCs programme 87

on refugee relocations 2

refugees and security 7

White Paper on Sport (2007) 106

European Convention on Human Rights 26, 123, 181

European Court of Human Rights 10, 60, 101, 117

European Democracy Lab 180

European Economic Community 88

European integration 170, 176, 180

European Investment Bank 71

‘Europeanism’ 156

European Monetary Fund, idea of 71, 173

European Muslims 112

European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) 112

European Parliament 174, 181

civil liberties committee 57

resolution on integration of migrants 134, 159

‘European pillar of social rights’ 174

European Quality of Life Survey (2016) 78

‘European republic’ 180

European Social Charter of the Council of Europe 174

European Social Survey 77, 78, 126–7

on trust 126–7

European Trade Union Congress 173

European Union (EU)

citizenship 180

constitution for 175

crisis 68

debtors-creditors issues 73

Europe 2020 strategy 71

flawed structures 69–71

legitimacy 88

pre-Keynesian devices 71

refugee influx 72–3

unemployment 71, 72

economic governance of 172

European citizens on 170, 172

Fundamental Rights Agency 39

Lisbon Strategy 160

neighbourhood policy 157

refugee policy 13

relocation of refugees 2

summit 174

Europe 2020 Strategy 71, 160

‘The Europe we want’ 177

‘Europe without borders’ 11

Europhilia 171

eurozone crisis 69–72

Evans, Graeme 136

far-right parties 81–3

in Europe 76–7

growth of 81

Fear of Barbarians, The (Todorov) 95

Ferrier, Walter J. 164

Fillon, Francois 43

Finland, immigration in 129

Fiscal Compact 70, 73

Fischer, Joschka 9

Flaubert, Gustave 125

Florida, Richard 147

Fortuyn, Pim 58

Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities 80, 96, 114

France

assimilation in 37

survey in 39–40

voting rights in 134

Fraser, Nancy 60

freedom of expression 101

Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ) 82

Frelick, Bill 13

French Muslims 39–40

French revolution 37, 40, 65

Freud, Sigmund 55, 108, 109

Friedewald, Michael 26

Friedrich Ebert Stiftung 74, 171

Friedrich, Hans-Peter 113

fundamentalism 108, 112

Gastarbeiter, Turkish migrants as 36

Geithner, Timothy 68

General Theory (Keynes) 69

Georgiou, Myria 8

Germany

Alternative für Deutschland in 77, 82

Basic Law 89

Jewish population 50

Prussia-dominated 40

Willkommenskultur 103

Give Something Back to Berlin (GSBTB) foundation 138

Glass Room, The (Mawer) 53–4

globalization

critique of 79

and individualization 102, 123

and influence of the Third Way 174

‘losers of’ 76, 79

and mass migration 102

new migrations of 66

Glynn, Irial 3

Goldblatt, David 124

‘good city’ 135

Goodman, Simon 8

Gramsci, Antonio 47, 101, 181

Grande, Edgar 79, 125, 170

Grandi, Filippo 10, 15

Greece, unemployment rate in 71

Group of Eminent Persons 9

Grove, Andy 161

Guerot, Ulrike 180, 181

Guibernau, Montserrat 88

Guidikova, Irena 135, 142–3, 149, 181

Guthmann, Kai 93

Habermas, Jürgen 62, 89, 103, 108, 129, 171, 175, 176

Hagelund, Anniken 45, 61

Hagendoorn, Louk 13

Haider, Jörg 76

Hainmueller, Jens 108

Halikiopoulou, Daphne 76

Hall, Peter 132

Hall, Stuart 5, 63

Hamamatsu 162

Hannerz, Ulf 65

Hansen, Peo 9

Hariri, Saad al- 2

Hartmann, Erich 105

Hassan, Tirana 90

Hay, Colin 127

Hedström, Peter 77

Heibling, Marc 79

Held, David 99, 124, 126

Henjesand, Inge Jan 147

Hirst, Paul 79

Hitler, Jews, description of 83

Hobsbawm, Eric J. 37, 40

Hofer, Thomas 82

Hoffman, Reiner 174

Höglinger, Dominic 79

Hollande, François 134, 171

Hollinger, David 124

Holocaust 104, 110

Holton, Robert J. 120

Honohan, Iseult 129

Hooghe, Liesbet 90

Hopkins, Daniel J. 108

Horthy, Miklós 90

hospitality 154–5

ethos of

‘diversity dividend’ 162–4

integration as investment 165–7

openness 155–9

rehumanizing the refugee 153–5

Host Programme of Copenhagen 138

Hövermann, Andreas 52, 74, 109

Huddleston, Thomas 114, 135, 149

Hufton, Sam 175

human dignity 89, 95

Human Flow (documentary) 153

human rights 57, 58, 61, 65, 90–91, 96

and migrant integration 19

of migrants 157

policing and 92

protections 15, 20, 90

solidarity 139

universal norms 98

violations 14–15, 18, 24

see also European Court of Human Rights

Human Rights Watch 11, 14, 23

Huntingdon, Samuel 91

Hussein, Zeid Ra’ad al- 6, 15

Hutter, Swen 79

ICCs Index 142, 143

identity politics 50, 60, 64, 96

Ignatieff, Michael 50, 80, 109

‘illiberal democracy’ 81

‘imagined community’ 37

immigration 82, 84

attitudes to 77

economic and social impacts 77

in Finland 129

Indian Workers’ Association 44

‘individualistic concept of society’ 65

individualization 65

globalization and 102, 123

inequality

social Europe 174–5

in United States 75

Inglis, David 120, 122

Ingram, James 130

‘INNOGROWTH via diversity’ project 147–8

insecurity 9, 27, 68, 73, 75–6, 84, 88, 111

in labour market 79

integral nationalism 40, 43, 48

integration 62, 87

intercultural see intercultural integration

as investment 165–7

vis-à-vis migrants 159

white paper 99

Intercultural Cities (ICCs) 134–6, 141, 148, 157

programme 101, 106, 117, 130, 131, 139

intercultural strategies 144–5

local authorities in 131

migrant councils 146–7

on multilingualism 102

network members 150

qualitative evaluation of 144

research report 136

intercultural competence

courses 141

development of 107

intercultural dialogue 89, 97–100, 106, 117–18, 129, 142, 149–50

intercultural integration 95, 120, 138–9, 142

feature of 105

implications 100–102

inclusion of other within self 103–7

multiculturalists’ rearguard action 114–17

retreat into assimilationism 113–14

role for civil society 101

white paper 98–100

interculturalist paradigm 140

intercultural literacy 107

intercultural policies 166–7

international law 122

intolerance 76, 109–10

complexity of 78

insecurity and 84

‘intolerant personality disorder’ 111

Ireland, Polish migration to 66

Islam 112–13

and Nazism 83

as ‘religion of intolerance’ 74

Wilders’ notion of 83

Islamism 54

Islamist bombings, in Spain and London 47

Jagland, Thorbjørn 73

Japan, closure to refugees 161–2

Jewish ‘conspiracy’ 110

jihadism 26, 27

jihadist attacks 7–8

Jobs, Steve 161

Jonsson, Heidi Vad 45, 61

Joppke, Christian 63

Juncker, Jean-Claude 7

Juppé, Alan 158

Kajiwara, Kageaki 85

Kant, Immanuel 121

and ‘cosmopolitan right’ 121–5

on international and cosmopolitan law 122

‘pacific federation’ 122

‘perpetual peace’ 122

state of Recht 121

Kelkal, Khaled 54

Keynes, John Maynard 44, 69, 76, 101, 158, 173, 174

‘paradox of thrift’ 72

Keysel, Ian M. 13

Khan, Deeyah 27, 111, 181–2

Khan, Fazlur Rahman 160

Khan, Yasmin 43

Kohlrausch, Bettina 76–7

Kolluoğlu, Biray 41

Konidari, Eleni 42

Koran 83

Kriesi, Hanspeter 79

Kronawetter, Ferdinand 79

Küpper, Beate 52, 74, 109

Kurdi, Alan 7, 104

Kuyper, Abraham 44

Kwok-Bun, Chan 124

Kymlicka, Will 114–15, 117

laïcité 37, 40, 56

Lakoff, George 178–9

Landry, Charles 61, 132

Lausanne agreement (1923) 41

Legrain, Philippe 158, 162, 166

Leitkultur 37

Le Monde 153–4

Le Pen, Jean-Marie 82

Le Pen, Marine 42–3, 89, 178

Leridon, Michele 153

Lešić, Zdenko 51

liberty-authoritarianism axis 81, 84, 98

liberal nationalism 40

Libya, refugees and 14–15

Lisbon

‘community policing’ approach 140

Todos festival in 144

Local Development Agency, Subotica 141

‘losers of globalization’ 76, 79

Lowe, Keith 42

Luciani, Claudia 150

Lukes, Steven 63

Lumpenproletariat 77

Maalouf, Amin 51

Maastricht criteria 72

Maastricht treaty (1992) 69, 123, 175, 177

Macron, Emmanuel 13, 23

‘Madrid Agenda’ 92

Mahli, Amrita 115

‘majority/minority’ dichotomy 97

Mandela, Nelson 106

Marchlewska, Marta 111

market liberalization 88

Marks, Gary 90

Martinez, Xavier 103

Martire, Jacopo 177

Marx, Karl 76, 77

Marzano, Stefan 163–4

mass migration, globalization and 102

mass surveillance 26–7

Mazower, Mark 41

McGrew, Anthony 124

McMahon, Simon 8, 19

Médecins sans frontières (MSF) 14, 17–18

Meer, Nasar 44, 116

Mein Kampf 83

Merkel, Angela 70, 113, 171

‘metacognition’ 125

Meyer, Henning 174

migrant councils 146–7

Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) 142

migration

in nineteenth century 79

public anxieties over 74

and refugee ‘crisis’ 7

as opportunity 159

Migration Policy Group 143

Miller, Mark J. 19, 67

Milošević, Slobodan 54

Minko, Sergiy 145

Miské, Karim 148

Missing Migrants project (IOM) 17

Mitterrand, François 134

Männerparteien 75, 150

Modood, Tariq 44, 116

Mondinsieme 139, 157

‘Monnet method’ 88

moral panics 5–10, 12

‘morbid symptoms’ 47, 57, 95, 97

Moreno-Lax, Violeta 6

Mortimer, Edward 48

Moscovici, Pierre 82

Mostov, Julie 59

MSF see Médecins sans frontières (MSF)

Mudde, Cas 42, 50, 82

Muižnieks, Nils 11, 111

Müller, Jan Werner 83

Müller, Tim S. 77

multiculturalism 95, 124

versus assimilationism 39, 43, 45, 62, 66, 102, 103

in Australia 115

backlash against 114

Beck on 58–9

as British/Dutch model 43–4

in Canada 114–15

‘community’, notion of 59

critique of 61, 62, 117, 124

cultural pluralism 45

dilemma 61

emergence of 44

era of super-diversity 102

as model 43–4, 62

moral relativism of 101

multiculturalists’ rearguard action 114–17

in Netherlands 44

notion of 66

in practice 58, 64

strategy of 58

Sweden 65

multilingualism 102

Muslims

European 112

girls and women

banning of burqa 113

issue of veil in France 56

as ‘suspect’ group 26

Nadler, Arie 51, 52

narcissism 75

collective 110, 111

of minor differences 108

national identity, and assimilationism 37–8

‘national paradigm’ 38

‘national self-determination’ 62

National Socialist German Workers’ Party 41

‘nativism’ 42

Nazism 50, 88

neoliberalism 84

Netherlands 58

multiculturalism in 44

voting rights 134

Neuchâtel 148

‘community policing’ approach 140

ICCs network seminar (2015) 162

Neukölln

intercultural strategy 146

refugee integration 165

Neuner, Gerhard 103

New American Economy 160

New Dane association 148

New York Declaration for Refugees and Migrants 20–21

‘9/11’ attacks 89, 92, 108, 131

Noël, Alain 79

non-refoulement principle 10, 11, 19, 21

Nordic universal welfare states 127

Norway attacks (2011)4, 47

Nougayrède, Natalie 90

Obama, Barack 71, 92, 161

Offe, Claus 177

official nationalism 38

O’Mahony, Patrick 38, 40, 48

Omtzigt, Pieter 26

Orbán, Viktor 81, 90

‘ethnic homogeneity’ 157

ordo-liberalism 68, 69

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 157, 166

Ortoli, François-Xavier 172

Oslo 140

attack in 4, 47

intercultural competence 147

intercultural integration 147

‘Oslo Extra-Large’ (OXLO) campaign 147

Oxfam 11, 14, 15

Palais de l’Europe 112

Pamuk, Orhan 105

Panayiotou, Orestis 111

Paris attacks 1, 8, 22, 108

Paris Peace Conference 41, 62

Parkin, Gemma 11

Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe (PACE) 93, 158–9

Patras carnival 138–9, 146

Pattakos, Michalis 156

Peissl, Walter 26

Pericles, and democracy 155–6

‘perpetual peace’ 122

Perraton, Jonathan 124

‘personality principle’ 80

Petersen, Klaus 45, 61

Pew Research Center 3, 171

Pickett, Kate 74, 75

Podkul, Jennifer 13

Polanyi, Karl 79

Polish migration, to Ireland 66

Polish Prejudice Survey (2009 & 2013) 110

politics of recognition 45, 61

Taylor’s advocacy of 65

Ponthieu, Aurelie 18

populism 73–9, 150

definition of 83

right-wing 79

and xenophobia 73, 74

post-Fordism 61

post-Soviet Russian nationalism 110

post-war Bosnia 59, 108

pre-enlightenment Europe 112

‘Prevent’ strategy in UK 37

print capitalism 38

‘prison fallacy of history’ 60

Protestantism 112

push versus pull factors in refugee movement 15–21

Putin, Vladimir 111, 127–8

‘really existing cosmopolitanization’ 125–6

recognition 44, 63, 65

reciprocal 99

see also politics of recognition

Reding, Viviane 113

ReDi School of Digital Integration 137

‘reflexive modernization’ 49, 65

refoundation of Europe 175–8

refugees 157, 160

Afghan 1

attitudes towards 12

(mis-)categorization of 52

‘crisis’ 1–5, 19, 112

Kurdi, Alan 7, 104

media role in 8

Early Intervention programme in Germany 165

EU policy on 13

flow 1–3, 6, 7

as ‘human waste’ 55

integration 158–9, 165–7

Japan 161–2

Jewish 161

labour market 166

Libya and 14–15

negative perceptions of 6

1951 convention 1

rehumanizing 153–5

rights abuses 15

Rohingya 2

and ‘security’ 6, 9

Somali 106

sympathy for 8

Syrian 13–14

Turkey 2, 13–14

United States 160–61

walls

Hungary 10

Serbia 10–11

Willkommenskultur 12

Refugee Talent Hub 137

Reggio-Emilia 157

Renner, Karl 80

Renzi, Matteo 73, 171

Richard, Orlando C. 164

rights abuses 15

rights, human see human rights

‘right-wing authoritarianism’ 76

right-wing populist parties 84

Rijpma, Jorrit 11

Rio, Ricardo 145

Risse, Thomas 42

Robins, Kevin 38, 45, 64, 66, 95, 96, 135–6, 156

Rogers, Richard 133

Rohingya refugees 2

Rosenstrauch, Hazel 50

Rothstein, Bo 126, 127, 158

Roubini, Nouriel 126

Roy, Olivier 49, 54, 62, 65

Rubio, Diego 90

rule of law 89–91

non-state violence 92

Russia

civil society in 101

‘social trap’ of mistrust in 127

Russian Federation 93, 127

Rutherford, Jonathan 174

Salmela, Mikko 84

Sarkozy, Nicolas 37

scapegoating 83, 85

Schellinger, Alexander 171

Schierup, Carl-Ulrik 9

Schiller, Christof 159

Schmitt, Carl 50

Schneider, Bernhard 178

Schraad-Tischler, Daniel 159

Schweiger, Christian 71

Sen, Amartya 59

Shafak, Elif 64

Shaw, Jason D. 164

Silke, Andrew 24

SINGA organization 137

Sirriyeh, Ala 8

Sniderman, Paul M. 13

Snowden, Edward 25

‘social-democratic cosmopolitanism’ 130

social Europe 172–5

‘social facts’ 62

Somali refugees 106

Sondhi, Ranjit 61

Soros, George 81

Spain, unemployment rate in 71

Sparta 155–6

Spijkerboer, Thomas 11

Spinner-Halev, Jeff 115

Stability and Growth Pact (1997) 69, 73

‘Start with a Friend’ 138

state of emergency 22–3

Stenner, Karen 78, 109

stereotypes 50–54

definition of 51

derogatory 52

enemy 53

Stoics 121

Stoltenberg, Jens 4

Stråth, Bo 39, 172

Subotica 59

‘super-diversity’ 116

surveillance

laws 25

mass 26–7

Sweden

Islamophobic attitudes in 77

multiculturalism 65

Swedish social democracy 65

Swiss People’s Party 148

sympathy

Kurdi, Alan 104

for refugees 7, 8

see also empathy, compassion

Syrian refugees 13–14

Szydło, Beata 6

Talani, Leila 72

Taylor, Charles 65

Ténczos, Judit 114, 135, 149

Teper, Yuri 110

Terrorism Situation and Trend Reports (TE-SAT) 4

Tett, Gillian 125

theory of cosmopolitanism 120

Thérien, Jean-Philippe 79

Thrift, Nigel 133

Titscher, Antonia 105

Todorov, Tzvetan 24, 64, 91, 95

tolerance 96, 101 see also intolerance

Treaty of Rome 177

Treaty on Stability, Coordination and Governance (2012) 70

Trump, Donald 8, 90–92, 161

trusting Nordics 126–8

Turkey

and Council of Europe 93

refugees 2, 13–14

2001 riots, in northern England 58

UN Educational, Social and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 6, 20

Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity 131

UN Global Compact on Migration 161

UNHCR see United Nations high commissioner for refugees (UNHCR)

UNICEF 18

UN International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 10

Union pour un mouvement populaire (UMP) 113

United Nations high commissioner for refugees (UNHCR) 1, 14, 18, 162

data on refugee arrivals 16–17

revitalized asylum system 21

United States (US)

al-Qaeda threats 92

inequality in 75

jihadist attacks 7–8

refugees 160–61

warning from 91–3

universal norms 95

abrogation of 92

adherence to 93

antidote of 88, 89

commitment to 90

weakening of 91

white paper and 98, 99

urban milieu 132–6

US Federal Reserve 70

Uslaner, Eric M. 115, 127

utopia 178–82

Utøya attack 4, 47

Valdez, Sarah 77

Valletta 144

Valls, Manuel 134

van Gogh, Theo 47, 58

Varoufakis, Yanis 175

Varshney, Ashutosh 59

Vertovec, Steven 124

Vincent, Andrew 45, 62

violence 49

in Europe 3–5

Islamist 111

Vlandas, Tim 76

Volkan, Vamik 109

von Scheve, Christian 84

voting rights for migrants 134

Vu|$$|Ahci|$$|Aac, Aleksandar 11

‘war on terror’ 92

Wauquiez, Laurent 37

Weber, Max 55, 107, 110

Wehling, Elisabeth 178–9

Wennberg, Karl 77

white-nationalist violence 111

White Paper on Intercultural Dialogue 29, 88, 98–100, 150

coherent policy framework 99

initial drafting of 98

interculturalism 100

management of cultural diversity 98

multilingual education 102

task of integration 99

themes of 100

translation of 100

universal norms 98, 99

white paper process 88, 89, 92, 97

White Right: Meeting the Enemy 111

Wilde, Oscar 178

Wilder, Billy 163

Wilders, Geert 83, 178

Wilkinson, Richard 74, 75

Williams, Raymond 136

Willkommenskultur 12, 103

Wilson, Woodrow 41

Wincott, Daniel 127

Witting, Antje 136

Wodak, Ruth 83

Wolffhardt, Alexander 114, 135, 149

Wood, Phil 61, 131

working-class men, study of 61

World Values Survey data 66, 91

Worpole, Ken 136

Wüest, Bruno 79

xenophobia 13, 29, 48, 153, 177

and populism 73, 74

Yarrow, David 79

Yoder, Keith J. 104

Yugoslavia 3, 11, 54, 89

Zaborowski, Rafal 8

Zapata-Barrero, Ricard 28, 102, 116, 120, 142, 166

Zapatero, José Luis Rodríguez 92

Zick, Andreas 52, 74, 109

Zimmermann, Klaus 171