The close links between environment NGOs and scientists revealed by the Climategate emails is set out, and then a similarly close relationship between the two within the IPCC, where many of the scientists involved in the production of its assessment reports were relatively junior scientists, with NGO connections, and many of the more senior scientists themselves had demonstrable links with NGOs. The chapter shows that many normative campaigns on climate change issue resonate with the interests of the European Union, and then explores the role of strong normative devices in inhibiting policy learning and recasting energy interests – though in damaging ways. These strong normative forces have heightened partisan divisions and helped elect a US president who placed at risk global climate policy at the very moment when the lessons of the previous 25 years had finally been learned.
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