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Negotiating Climate Change

A Forensic Analysis

Aynsley Kellow

This book examines how an error in global meta-policy set climate change negotiations on an unproductive course. The decision to base negotiations on the Montreal Protocol and overlook the importance of interests, it argues, institutionalised an approach doomed to fail. By analysing interests, science and norms in the process, and the neglect of ‘interactive minilateralism’, learning was delayed until the more promising Paris Agreement was finally concluded, only to encounter a Trump Presidency, which (ironically) might offer further learning opportunities.
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Index

A Forensic Analysis

Aynsley Kellow

accountability 74–8

acid rain 5, 30, 34, 35

activist scientists 11, 41, 42, 45, 47, 48, 52, 68, 70, 72–3, 96, 98, 102, 134

ad hoc working groups 103–4

Adani 28, 91

adaptation 44, 45, 79, 114, 120

Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases (AGGG) 11, 48, 102

aerosol pollutants 65–6

AIDS metaphor 79, 82

air temperatures 39, 61, 62

Alinta Energy 86

Alliance of Small Island States (AOSIS) 104

American Clean Skies Foundation 25

anarchism 41–2

Anderegg, W.R. 81

anonymous peer review 56, 68, 95

anthropogenic climate change (ACC) 30, 40, 50, 59, 60, 66, 68, 81, 83, 92, 122, 128, 134

anti-fracking 28, 78

anti-nuclearism 34

arbitrage opportunities, exploitation of 29

‘arenas of power’ approach 15, 28

Argo floats 61

argumentum ad hominem41, 60

argumentum ad populum42, 60, 80

Arking, A. 59

Arrhenius, S. 39, 94

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Forum (APEC) 111

Asia-Pacific Partnership (APP) 100–101, 109, 110, 111, 117

attribution 39, 49–52, 59, 69, 92, 94, 121, 133

Auken, S. 23

Australia 20, 25, 32, 34, 36, 56, 85–6, 91, 110, 116, 117, 125

availability cascades 133–5, 137, 138

availability entrepreneurs 134, 138, 139

Ayres, R. 93

Bali Roadmap (2007) 130

balloon readings 61, 65

bandwagons 137

Basel Action Network 104

Bates, J. 63, 64

BBC 57

Benedick, R.E. 9

Bergen Conference (1990) 102

Berlin Mandate 31, 103

Besel, R.D. 46, 47

‘Beyond Coal’ campaign 25, 77, 90, 115

bilateral initiatives 112, 113–14

binding obligations 2, 3

Biniaz, S. 127

Blair, T. 108

blame attribution 39, 69

Blue Ribbon Commission 24

Boal, I. 10

Bodansky, D. 106

Boehmer-Christiansen, S. 137

Booker, C. 54, 56

‘Bootlegger, Baptist and Boffin’ coalitions 10, 17–18, 20, 21, 22, 25, 28, 38, 76–7, 78, 98, 122, 123, 124, 134, 139

Borenstein, S. 94

bottom-up climate regime 99

Boykoff, M. 81

BP 19, 91, 93

Brennan, G. 4

Brenton, T. 8

Briffa, K. 55, 57, 58

Buchanan, J. 4

Buck, S. 77

bucket readings 62, 65, 125

Bullock, S. 78

Burden sharing Agreement (EU) 30, 31, 32, 76

Bush, G.W. 10, 24, 110, 111, 112, 123

business interests 15–24, 77, 122, 123

Byrd-Hagel Resolution 2, 122

CACAM 104

Cairo Compact (1989) 102

Caldeira, K. 83–4, 96

Canada 9, 34–5, 36, 87, 98, 100, 109, 118

‘cap and trade’ schemes 24, 87, 97–8, 109

capitalism 15, 16, 18, 21, 27, 38, 123

carbon capture and storage (CCS) 111, 112, 113, 114

carbon dioxide (CO2) 7, 8, 16–17, 31, 33, 35–6, 39, 40, 45, 87, 90, 113, 122, 126

carbon leakage 125

Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) 111–12

Carmichael coal mine 28, 91

Cartagena Dialogue 104

Carter, J. 7, 44, 124

Catastrophic Anthropogenic Global Warming (CAGW) 40, 59

catastrophism 10, 44, 80, 92, 134

Cato Institute 26

Central Group 104

Cerny, P.G. 29

certain knowledge 44, 45, 67

CG-11104

Chernobyl 30

Chesapeake Energy 25, 77, 115

China 2, 11, 17, 32, 33, 77, 100, 101, 108, 109, 113–14, 116, 121, 123, 129, 130, 132

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) 9, 108, 121

choice(s) 4, 5, 15, 19

Christoff, P. 117

Christy, J.R. 59, 61

Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) 108

Clean Energy Act 2010 (British Columbia) 35

Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM) 110, 111, 114

Clean Energy Regulator (CER) 86

Clean Energy Research Center (US-China) 114

Clean Power Plan 123, 128, 130, 131, 132

Climate Accountability Institute 92, 93, 96

Climate Action Network 75, 76, 93, 104

climate apostasy 83

climate change 5, 7, 8–9, 23–4, 39, 43–5, 49, 124

see also deniers/denialism; sceptics/scepticism

Climate Change Convention 12

climate change policy 1–6, 15–24, 45, 48, 65, 70, 76, 89

see also global climate policy; policy learning; policy tools/instruments; policy-based evidence

Climate Change Working Group (CCWG) 113–14

climate models/modelling 7, 10, 40, 42, 50, 51, 59, 65, 66, 68, 93, 124, 133

Climate Protection Authority 23–4

Climate Research Unit (CRU) 43, 53–4, 57, 59, 61

climate science 5, 8, 9, 10, 11, 26, 39–69, 72, 74, 83, 122, 124–5, 137–8

see also activist scientists; dissenting scientists/science; junior scientists; ‘scientists behaving badly’

Climategate 43, 52–9, 71, 83, 133, 136

Climatic Change94, 95

Clinton, B. 2, 23, 24, 43, 49, 123

Clinton, H. 90, 93, 98, 123

coal sector 7, 20, 30, 32–3, 77, 130–31

coal-fired electricity 2, 16, 17, 32, 33, 34, 77, 85–6, 114, 115, 123, 131

Coalition for Rainforest Nations 104

cognitive dissonance 125, 136–7

collaboration(s) 56, 68, 97, 111, 112, 114

collective action 15

Columbia River Treaty (1961) 118

Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) 2, 16, 33, 37

‘common but differentiated responsibilities’ 2, 11

comparison of emissions 17

compliance 4, 5, 34, 36, 38, 120, 126, 129

Conference(s) of the Parties (COP) 41, 49, 53, 103, 110, 111

confidence intervals 63, 66

conflicts

between science and engineering 64–5

of interests 10, 76

constituencies (NGO) 105

constructivism 9

contractarian negotiations 4, 5

Convention on Desertification 107

Conway, E.M. 81, 83

Cook, E. 56, 58, 59

Cooler Heads Coalition 78

cooperation 100, 114

Copenhagen Accord (2009) 67, 110–111, 130

‘Copenhagen Consensus’ project 44

corporate social responsibility 21

Cramer, K. 128, 129

credibility 11, 24, 40, 47, 58, 138

Crocker, T. 65

culture 64, 75, 84

Curry, J. 59, 60, 63, 83

DaimlerChrysler 78

Dales, J. 65

data 40, 42, 51, 53–4, 56, 59, 60, 61–2, 63, 64, 65, 66, 132, 135, 138

see also climate models/modelling; research

Davies, K. 136

decarbonization 16, 21, 27, 87, 90, 109

decision-making 38, 135

deniers/denialism 26, 41, 60, 68, 70, 78–84, 92, 93, 96, 134, 136, 137

Denmark 18

depth issue, bucket readings 62

desperation 6

developing countries 2, 11, 23, 31, 77, 85, 108, 109, 116

Diethelm, P. 81, 82

Directions Statement (World Bank) 25, 27, 77, 115

The Discovery of Global Warming80

dissenting scientists/science 41, 53, 55, 59, 69, 70, 78, 79, 98, 113, 134, 136

distributive bargaining 4, 68, 113

divestment 90, 91, 93

Doha Amendment 36, 130

domestic policy(ies) 14, 31, 84, 98, 105, 115, 121, 127

donations 22, 25, 26, 90, 95, 105

‘double standards’ provision 11, 121

Douglas, M. 39, 68–9

dry air 40

DTE Energy 130–31

Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (2011) 104, 111, 130

Eckersley, R. 117

economic impacts assessment 106

economic interests 34

EDF 20

Ehrlich, P. 26, 63

El Niño 60, 63

electricity generation 70, 86, 90

see also coal-fired electricity; gas-fired electricity; hydroelectricity

Emanuel, K. 96

emissions trading 21, 23, 108

Energiewende87, 88, 98, 121, 125

energy competition 9, 18, 20, 27, 28, 29, 78

energy crises 7

energy efficiency 16, 33, 34, 48, 77, 91, 114

energy prices 2, 25, 33, 35, 86, 87, 88, 89

Energy Return on Energy Invested 17

energy sector interests 16–18, 20, 77

energy security 7, 9, 20, 78

energy taxation 18, 28, 31, 102

Enron 21–4, 27–8, 122

environmental altruism 8

Environmental Council 32

Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) 22, 71

environmental non-governmental organizations (ENGOs) 8, 15, 28, 38, 48, 104–5, 124

close relation between the ‘Community’ and 57, 70, 71–4

corporate support and coalitions with 21, 22, 28

denier accusations 78

problem definition 45

reconstructing interests 84–9

representativeness and accountability 74–8, 105

support in shift to gas, US 25

UN opening of access to 19

environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) 82–3

Eon 88

epistemic communities 8, 9, 38, 48, 49, 52, 66, 70, 124, 134, 135, 139

epistemic consensus 5, 9, 40, 49, 50, 70, 96, 97, 125

equity 5, 23

ERM Power 86

Eronen, P. 37

Eurogroups 76

European Bubble see Burden Sharing Agreement

European Commission 32, 75, 76, 97, 129

European Renewable Energy Council 74

European Union (EU) 6, 10, 19, 33, 67, 70, 109, 116, 117, 129, 130, 138

evidence-based presentations 59–60

excess energy 87, 88

executive orders 3, 25, 28, 96

expert questioning, silencing of 55

export credits 25, 115–16

ExxonMobile 25–7, 28, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96

fairness 5, 33

false dichotomies 68, 96, 98

falsification 40, 41, 59, 60, 96, 125, 134

Farallon Capital Management 91

Feldman, D. 8

Festinger, L. 125, 137

Feyerabend, P. 41, 134

Fifth Assessment Report (IPCC) 59, 63

financial sector 18, 29

First Assessment Report (IPCC) 7, 12, 32, 102

Flassbeck, H. 88–9

flows and stocks distinction 11, 35, 36

Folland, C.K. 62

forum shopping 101, 114

fossil fuels 16, 30, 44, 124

see also coal sector; oil and gas sector

Foster, J. 92

Fourier, J. 39

Fourth Assessment Report (IPCC) 73

fracking 2, 25, 28, 78

France 20, 34, 130

Free Trade Agreement (Canada-US) 35

Friends of the Earth (FOE) 67, 75, 76, 80, 93

Frumhoff, P.C. 95

funding 11, 21, 25, 26, 28, 50, 70, 75–6, 92, 114, 115, 120, 128–9, 131

G731, 129, 133

G867, 112, 113

G8+5 Climate Change Dialogue 108–9

G20113, 114

G7711, 32, 33, 104, 110, 117

garbage-can decision-making 38

gas sector see oil and gas sector

gas transmission dispute 37

gas-fired electricity 2, 16, 20, 33

gatekeeping 54, 56

Gelbspan, R. 80

generality of rules 4

genetic fallacy 26, 60, 80

German Council of Experts on the Environment 30

Germany 9, 11, 17, 30–32, 32–3, 75, 87, 88–9, 98, 125

Gillis, J. 78–9

Global Climate Coalition 52, 78

Global Climate and Energy Project (Stanford) 26

global climate policy 1–6, 45, 48, 70, 120, 129

global cooling 7, 44, 50, 65, 135, 138

global framework convention 102

Global Legislators Organization for a Balanced Environment (GLOBE) 108–9

global warming 7, 9, 24, 30, 48, 50, 94, 132, 134, 138

Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS) 66, 90

Goldstein, L. 133

Gore, A. 2, 43, 47, 89, 93, 117, 122, 123

Gough, C. 52

government organized NGOs (GONGOs) 75

Green Climate Fund 128, 131

Green Institute Limited 105

green movement 34

Green Schools 105

greenhouse effect 36, 40

greenhouse gases (GHGs) 2, 11, 30, 66, 94

see also carbon dioxide (CO2); comparison of emissions; emissions trading; mitigation; reduction in emissions; water vapour

Greenpeace 25, 26, 27, 67, 71, 73, 74, 75, 76, 79, 93, 94

Group of Mountain Landlocked Developing Countries 104

groupthink 135–6

GRULAC 104

Gummer, J. 23

Haas, P.M. 9, 70, 97, 124

Hague Conference and Declaration (1989) 102

Hansen Alternative Scenario 124

Hansen, J. 3, 24, 26, 43, 45, 46, 47, 96, 121

Hare, B. 73

Harold, J. 81

Harper, S. 100

Harrabin, R. 57

Harvey, J. 80

Healey, M. 95–6

hedge funds 29, 91, 115

Heede, R. 93, 94, 95

Hertsgaard, M. 80

hiatus 60, 63, 64

High Efficiency, Low Emissions (HELE) technology 25, 114, 115, 116, 123

historical responsibility 35, 36

historical temperature records 61–2, 65

‘Hockey Stick’ paper 43, 53, 55, 57, 71

Holdren, J. 63

Holmes, J. 138

Holocaust metaphor 41, 70, 79, 80, 82, 83

homogenization of records 61

Hoven, R. 126

Howard, J. 101, 111

Howarth, C.C. 79, 81

Hulme, M. 57, 58, 59, 71

human influence 44, 45, 49, 89

Hume, D. 84

Hybrid Warfare 37

hydroelectricity 16, 35, 115

hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) 108, 114

hypersupercritical plants 16, 77

ICC 15, 19

implementation 1, 4, 106, 114

India 77, 100, 108, 109, 121, 123, 129

Institute of Public Affairs 81–2

institutional bargaining 4, 5, 13, 14, 68, 99, 113, 118, 122

insurance industry 18, 77–8

Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle 16

intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs) 120, 128, 129, 139

intensity reduction 100

interests

norms and 76, 84–9

see also business interests; conflicts, of interest; national interests; significance of interests

intergovernmental conferences 101–2

Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee (INC) 11, 12, 102–3, 106

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 11, 13, 43, 49, 102, 135

argumentum ad populum42

assessment reports 7, 12, 26, 32, 48, 49, 51, 52, 59, 63, 70, 73, 92, 102, 133

gatekeeping 56

negative impact on Kyoto Protocol 5

relationship with ENGOs 71–2, 73–4, 97

science-policy nexus 52

scientific panel 48

Working Group I 44, 50, 53

Working Groups II and III (IPCC) 107

international cohesion 8–9

International Commission on Climate and Energy Security 109

International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) 62

International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) 8, 101

International Energy Agency (IEA) 7, 16, 33, 77, 105–8, 112, 113

International Rivers 115

iterative functionalism 8

Jacques, P. 81, 83

Janis, I.L. 135

Japan 12, 25, 34, 36, 100, 109, 116

Jenkins Jr, H.W 66

Jinping, X. 113, 114

Johns, T.C. 51

Joint Announcement on Climate Change (US-China, 2014) 113

‘Joint Implementation’ for Annex-I 21, 23

Jones, P. 54, 56, 57, 58

junior scientists 70, 97

JUSCANZ 85, 104, 111

Karl, T.R. 60, 63, 64

Karlsson, E. 96

Kennan, G.F. 4, 101, 112

Kent, E.C. 62

Keystone XL pipeline 91

Kinder Morgan 91

Kirshner, D. 22

Kissinger, H. 7

Klein, N. 15, 18, 21, 27

Klein, R. 73, 74

Knappenberger, P.C. 51

Kohl, H. 30, 31, 76

Koonin, S. 90

Krupp, F. 22

Kuhn, T. 41

Kuran, T. 134, 137

Kushner, J. 127

Kyoto Protocol 1–2, 3, 5, 10, 17, 31, 36, 37, 38, 49, 102, 103, 107, 126

labels/labelling 78, 79, 81

Laframboise, D. 72–3, 97

Lash, J. 46

Law of the Atmosphere 6–7, 12

Law of the Least Ambitious Program 4, 14, 118–19

law suits 92, 93, 94, 95–6

Lay, K. 22, 24

Leggett, J. 21

Leibenstein, H. 137

Lewin, B. 8, 44, 50

life-cycle assessment 17

logic of appropriateness 28, 29, 115

logical of consequences 28, 115

logical fallacies 26, 41, 42, 60, 80, 84

Lomborg, B. 44, 45, 79, 81, 132

‘lowest common denominator’ logic 4, 19, 119

Lowi, T.J. 15, 28, 98

lukewarmers 68, 135

McCain, J. 100

McClendon, A. 25

McGee, J. 110, 111

McKee, M. 81, 82

Mckenzie-Hedger, M. 71

McKibben, B. 92, 132

Major Economies Meetings 109–110, 111

manipulation of data 54, 56

Mann, M.E. 41, 44, 53, 55, 56, 58, 60, 68, 92

March, J.G. 28

margin of error 66

marine air temperatures (MAT) 61

May, R. 27

Mead, M. 6, 7

mean global temperature (MGT) 39, 40, 44, 60, 120, 132, 134

media 26, 57, 71, 78–9, 80

Medieval Warm Period 39, 53, 56

Meeting of the Parties (MOP) 117

Meinshausen, M. 73

Merkel, A. 67

metapolicy 2, 14

Michaels, P.J. 21, 24, 51

Milman, O. 3

miners’ strike (1984-5) 20, 32

minilateralism 118–19

misleading data 90

Mission Innovation 112

mistakes 121

Mitchell, J.F.B. 51

mitigation 1, 10, 16–17, 45, 77, 87, 110, 124, 125, 128

Montford, A.W. 53

Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 121

Moore, G.E. 84

Moore, M. 132

Morgan, J. 73

Morseletto, P. 67

Moss, R. 73

multilateral agreements 3–4, 6, 70

multinational corporations 17–18, 19, 20, 27–9

multiple arenas/venues 101–119, 126

Musk, E. 131

‘mutually acceptable arrangements’ 4–5

Naím, M. 118

National Center for Atmospheric Research 51

National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) 42

National Environmental Trust 22

national interests 18, 20, 24–7, 29–37, 75, 78, 129

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) 60, 63, 64, 66, 90

National Wildlife Federation 22, 67

nationally determined contributions (NDCs) 1, 123, 127, 128, 132

Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) 22, 93

natural variability 44, 50, 53

naturalistic fallacy 84

negotiation(s) 4–5, 8, 26, 70–99, 101, 118, 119

New Internationalist80

New York Times57

New Zealand 36, 56, 116

NextGen 92

nitrogen trifluoride (NF3) 17

Nitze, B. 102

noble cause corruption 41, 45, 59, 68, 83, 84, 95, 138

non-binding agreements 10, 111

non-disclosure of data 53–4, 56

non-groups/non-papers 107

Noordwijk Ministerial Conference (1989) 12, 102

Nord Stream 37

Nordhaus, W.D. 67, 125

norm entrepreneurs 70, 74, 84, 96, 97, 98, 123, 124, 134

norms 9, 10, 70–99

norms-based actors 20, 28, 70

nuclear accidents 7, 25, 30, 88

nuclear energy 7, 16, 20, 25, 34–5, 88, 114, 122, 129

Obama, B. 3, 25, 28, 66, 67, 90, 96, 110, 113, 114, 121, 123

observational data 40, 51, 59, 60, 62, 63, 66, 135, 138

observer bodies 105–8

Ocean Data Acquisition Systems (ODAS) 62

OECD 25, 105–8, 112–13, 114, 115, 116

OECD countries 31, 32

official science 42, 48, 137

oil and gas sector 2, 7, 19, 20, 25, 33, 37, 77, 89, 90, 91, 93, 108, 114, 115

O’Keefe, W. 29

Olsen, J.P. 28

Olson, M. 15

O’Neill, S.J. 81

Ontario 87

Ontario Hydro 34–5

Oppenheimer, M. 73, 94, 95, 102

Oreskes, N. 26, 81, 83, 92, 93, 95, 96

Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) 7

Osborne, T. 54, 58

Ottawa Conference (1989) 12, 102

Oxburgh, Lord 109

Pachauri, R. 73, 74

Palmisano, J. 18, 21, 22–3, 29, 30

Paltridge, G.W. 42, 59

Paris Agreement (2015) 1, 2–3, 4, 10, 28, 84, 90, 101, 111, 113, 114, 117, 120–39

Parker, D.E. 62

partisanship 47, 70, 90, 98, 122, 123

pause 60, 64, 132, 133, 134, 138

‘Pausebuster’ paper 63, 64

Pearman, G. 73

peer review 42–3, 55, 56, 68, 93, 94, 95, 114, 132, 133

Pelosi, N. 100, 117

permanence of rules 4

Perry, R. 127, 129

Peterson, T. 64

Petsonk, A. 71

photovoltaic panels 17

Pielke Jr, R.A. 10, 40, 41, 53, 60

Pielke, R. 45, 83

Pimm, S. 80

Pittock, B. 71

Plan of Action on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development 112

Platt’s World Electric Power Plants Database 124

playing fields, overlapping 29

Policy Group (CSLF) 112

policy learning 1, 84, 98, 137

policy tools/instruments 3, 13, 52, 65, 68, 84, 97, 106, 117

policy-based evidence 12, 68, 95, 125, 137–8

politics 17, 30, 40–41, 42, 45, 49–52

Pomerance, R. 46, 49, 50, 117, 122

Pook, M. 59

Popperian falsification 41, 60, 134

postnormal science 41, 52, 58, 68

Prall, J.W. 81

Principia Ethica84

Prins, G. 1, 14, 84, 120

privatization 33

problem definition 43–5, 124

Productivity Commission (Australia) 86

Pruitt, S. 127, 128, 132

public health policy advocates 82

public ownership 20

public policy(ies) 10, 15, 41, 43, 69, 83, 137–8

pull to compliance 5, 34, 36, 38, 120, 126

quality assurance 41, 56, 64, 68, 90

quality of data 61, 65

Ramstorf, S. 58

Raustiala, K. 48, 49, 77

Rayner, S. 1, 14, 84, 120

reciprocity 21, 22, 28, 73, 99, 126

Reddish, I. 71

redistributive multilateralism 111, 113

redistributive policy 15, 98

reduction in emissions 2, 12, 30, 31, 32, 34, 89, 100, 102, 129

regulatory politics/policy 10, 15, 20, 38, 98

relative gains 9–10

renewable energy 16, 17, 18, 20, 74, 85, 87, 88, 89, 114, 115, 125

Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) 85, 86

Renewable Energy Target (RET) 85, 86, 121

reporting requirement 1

representativeness 74–8, 105

reputation(s) 23, 24, 57–8, 74, 96, 121, 137

research 26, 41, 58, 68, 89–90, 100, 106, 112

see also data; peer review

reservations 56, 57

responding 106

Revkin, A.C. 46, 57, 83, 84

RICO 93, 94, 95–6

Ridley, M. 91

Rio Conference (1992) 12, 103

risk(s) 39, 49, 69, 126, 138

Rockefeller Brothers Fund Inc. 92, 93

Roderick, P. 94

Royal Society 27

Rudd, K. 117

rules 4, 23

Russia 36–7, 78, 91, 108, 118

Sand, P.H. 4

Santer, B.D. 50, 51, 59, 92–3, 132, 133

satellite data 61, 64, 65, 132

saving the planet 16, 41, 45, 84

Sceptics Project 71

sceptics/scepticism 26, 28, 59, 61, 83, 98, 133

Schattschneider, E.E. 101

Schmidt, G. 66, 90

Schmidt, H. 30

Schneider, S. 26, 81, 94

Schröder, G. 37, 112

Schulz, N. 71

science see climate science

Science63–4, 94

scientific knowledge 9, 10, 39, 40, 43, 59

scientific method 41, 59, 60

‘scientists behaving badly’ 41, 136

sea surface temperatures (SSTs) 61, 62, 125

Seager, J. 67

Second Assessment Report (IPCC) 26, 49, 51, 52, 92, 133

self-interest 20, 38, 77

Serengeti strategy 60

Shackley, S. 52

shale gas 20, 25, 89, 90, 114

Sharman, A.G. 79, 81, 138

Shell 19, 27, 91, 93, 115

Shue, H. 10, 38, 76, 98

Shultz, G. 102

Siegel, M. 82

Sierra Club 22, 25, 67, 77, 90, 93, 115

significance of interests 9–10, 11, 14, 33–4, 38

‘sinful’ investments 90

single cycle thermal generation 16

The Skeptical Environmentalists79, 81

Smith, J. 57

Smith, L. 63

social constructionism 68, 70

social psychology 133–7

solar power 17, 85

Somerville, R. 57

Soros, G. 28, 91

South Korea 25, 100, 108, 116

Spain 20, 87

Spencer, R. 133

stage-managed testimony 46–9

Stanford University 26, 91

statistics 63, 66, 71, 80

Stavins, R. 135

Steffek, J. 110, 111

‘step-by-step’ model 9

Stern, T. 125, 127, 139

Steyer, T. 91–2, 98, 131–2

Steyer-Taylor Center for Energy Policy and Finance 91

‘Stockholm Consensus’ project 45

Storch, H. van 53, 58, 59

Strong, M. 8

Sturm, C. 88

subsidiary bodies (FCCC) 103

subsidies 20, 21, 32, 85, 87, 88, 114

subversion of peer review 55, 56

sulphate plus greenhouse hypothesis 50–51, 124–5

sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) 17

Summary for Policy makers 50

Sunrise Project campaign 28

Sunstein, C.R. 134, 137

Swart, R. 71

Sweden 34, 104, 110, 112

Sydney Declaration on Climate Change 111

Tata Conference (1989) 102

Technical Group (CSLF) 112

Technology Action Plans 110

Thatcher, M. 20, 32, 33

thermal generation 16, 33, 88

think tanks 26, 27, 81–2, 95, 105

This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. The Climate15

Thorne, P. 64

Three Mile Island 7, 30

Tillerson, R.W. 28, 127

Timmer, J. 79

‘toe in the door’ negotiation 8

Tol, R. 67, 135

Tolba, M.K. 7–8, 9, 11, 12–13, 84, 102, 139

TomKat Center for Sustainable Energy 91

Toronto Conference (1988) 12, 34, 35, 48, 101, 102

transparency 1, 114

Trenberth, K. 57

Trump, D.J. 3, 14, 25, 90, 96, 113, 123, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 138

Trump, I. 127

trust 42, 89, 97, 113, 114, 117, 126

truth 26, 42, 136

2°C target 1, 66–7, 98, 120

Tyndall, J. 39

Umbrella Group 33, 34, 36, 38, 85, 104

uncertainty 4, 5, 11, 13, 49, 57, 59–66, 68, 92, 93, 126

Underdal, A. 3–4, 118

unfairness 36

Union of Concerned Scientists 45, 67, 79, 92, 93, 96

United Kingdom 9, 11, 17, 18, 20, 30, 31, 32, 33, 56, 76, 87, 107–8, 110

United Nations 11, 12, 19, 101, 105

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS I, II and II) 6

United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) 8, 12, 101

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 1, 2, 11, 12, 17, 19, 31, 41, 43, 103–5, 124

United States 2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 14, 23, 25, 32, 36, 56, 89–97, 102, 109, 111, 113–14, 116, 117, 121, 122–3

value slope 10, 12, 41

values 10, 74, 84

vertical disintegration of policy 4, 5

Victor, D.G. 94–5

Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer 6, 8, 9, 11

Villach Conference (1985) 9, 48, 67, 101, 102

Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) buoys 62

voluntary pledge architecture 100, 111

Walker, R.B. 75

War on Coal 90, 93, 96, 114, 123

Ward, B. 27

water vapour 36, 39, 40, 42, 59, 134

Watts, A. 52, 61

Weart, S. 80, 81

weather stations 52–3, 61

Weaver, A.J. 42, 74

Whetton, P. 73

Wigley, T. 54–5, 55–6, 57, 96

wind energy 17, 18, 87

windfall (wallfall) benefits 30, 33

Wirth, T. 46, 47–8, 49, 89, 117, 122

witchcraft 39

world atmosphere fund 102

World Bank 25, 27, 77, 114–15

world climate conferences 8, 101, 102

World Climate Programme (WCP) 101

World Health Organization (WHO) 124

World Meteorological Organization (WMO) 8, 12, 52, 101

World Wildlife Fund (WWF) 71–2, 78, 93

Wright, R. 37

‘wrong trousers’ metaphor 14, 84, 121

Yandle, B. 10, 76–7, 98

Young, O. 4, 5, 6, 13

Zillman, J. 44–5, 51

Zorita, E. 58, 59