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Automated and Autonomous Spatial Mobilities

Aharon Kellerman

This ground-breaking book explores a rapidly developing aspect of contemporary life: automated and autonomous spatial mobilities and their social and urban implications. Presenting a wide-ranging discussion on autonomous vehicle (AV) development and its future adoption, this highly topical book points to the emergence of autonomously mobile cities and the new mobility landscapes they will present. Academics, as well as practitioners, in the fields of mobility, transportation, urban planning, geography and sociology will find this an essential read.
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Index

Aharon Kellerman

3G 87, 90, 94, 1034, 161
Advanced Research Projects Agency Network 90
see also Internet
age 6, 89, 133
air traffic control 45, 516, 5864, 73, 124, 1568, 1658
Amazon 124
anti-idling systems 45
anti-lock braking system 107
anti-skid braking system 107
Apple 109
Apple Maps 37
artificial intelligence 1112, 20, 45, 76, 79, 111, 155, 159
assembly lines 25
asynchronous telepresence 98
Audi 45
augmented reality 110
Australia 73, 79, 117, 121, 1234, 159
Austria 36
automated guided vehicles (AGVs) 1067
automated identification system (AIS) 57, 63, 157
automated spatial mobility 212
definition of 1521
automatic train operation (ATO) 678
automatic train protection (ATP) 678
automatic transmission systems 1618, 23, 346, 389, 107, 155, 1679
automation, definition of 813
automation, levels of 1213, 167
automobiles see cars
automobility 1347, 163
autonomous mobility 234, 389
and car driving 338
definition of 1314
human movement automaticity 236, 323, 389
personal autonomy in 2533
autonomous safety technologies 1618, 378, 108
see also individual systems
autonomous vehicles (AVs) 14, 1218, 2023, 3031, 367, 3940, 43, 456, 50, 65, 75, 7981, 90, 1056, 1369, 1513, 1623, 1657, 17073
buses 12023, 125, 136, 151, 159, 1623, 173
cultural notion of automobility 1346
development of car automation 10614
drones 75, 120, 1235, 136, 1434, 147, 150, 1634, 166, 173
environmental effects of adoption 149
freight vehicles 1235
see also trucks
historical interpretations for the introduction of 12630
implications for urban areas 1418
implications of adoption for individuals 13033
interpretations of adoption 1256
prospects and pitfalls for adoption 11420
recreational and touristic dimensions of 148
societal implications of adoption 1334
autonomously mobile cities 1415, 14950, 1634
autopilots 1, 11, 1314, 61, 109
boats 65, 758, 130, 1678
planes 65, 735, 78, 80, 83, 106, 130, 1678
Bán, D. 8
banking 78, 21, 100, 104, 152, 162
Bansal, P. 117
Baudrillard, J. 6
Belgium 356
Bluetooth 143
BMW 45
boats 30, 5863, 65, 78, 1569, 166
see also marine traffic control
autopilots 65, 758, 130, 1678
braking 34, 46, 107
anti-lock/anti-skid 107
emergency 1618, 38, 1078
Brazil 50
broadband 87, 90, 94, 99102, 172
buses 2930, 46, 60, 65, 71, 79, 116, 125, 128, 134, 166, 173
autonomous 12023, 125, 136, 151, 159, 1623, 173
electric see electric vehicles
Cadillac 132
cameras 3, 40, 44, 61, 11011, 129, 155, 173
see also photography technologies
Canada 50, 71
capitalism 10
car accidents see road accidents
car rentals 778, 80, 160
car sharing 2930, 109, 120, 128, 1313, 137, 146, 171
car-pooling see car sharing
cars 1, 79, 1214, 2021, 2930, 412, 467, 5861, 634, 67, 75, 79, 825, 98, 101, 103, 128, 1434, 155, 157, 159, 161, 166
automation of 10614
see also autonomous vehicles (AVs)
driving 235, 31, 3340, 50, 856, 923, 104, 106, 108, 115, 11718, 120, 126, 133, 135, 151, 1545, 163, 165, 1712
ownership 23, 1323, 135
Castells, M. 94, 102, 131
censorship 27, 923
central business districts (CBDs) 13940, 146, 148, 150, 164
centralized traffic control (CTC) systems 49, 62, 156
Chaplin, C. 25
China 37, 69, 75, 111, 122
Citymobil2 122
clocks 1012
cloud technologies 143
communications technologies 13, 7, 12, 14, 27, 3031, 3840, 517, 62, 68, 72, 75, 81, 845, 8992, 945, 979, 102, 10910, 131, 139, 1445, 152, 154, 16062
see also individual media
commuting 4, 78, 16, 21, 1312, 1456, 150, 152, 171
company cars 118
computerization 9, 15, 52, 57, 62, 83, 156
congestion see traffic congestion
Contidrom 108
Continental 1089
Continental Farday Future 109
co-presence 949, 102, 104, 162
corporeal mobility 35, 78, 21, 23, 27, 2932, 389, 81, 91, 102, 126, 128, 138, 1445, 149, 152, 154, 160, 163
Coursera system 101
cruise control 1067, 110
cyclists 7, 11819, 134, 144
Davis, N. 1920
de Forest, L. 86
Denmark 36
Deutsche Post 124
digital divide 92
displacement 46
distance learning 100101
Dodge, M. 129
driving see cars
drones 75, 120, 1235, 136, 1434, 147, 150, 1634, 166, 173
Dubai 69
EasyMile 121
e-commerce 100
e-government 100
e-health 100
e-learning 100101
e-navigation 567, 63, 157
e-work 100101
Edison, T. 43
Ehang 18475
electric automatic block system 1920, 48, 129, 169
electric vehicles 35, 657, 712, 75, 109, 114, 12021, 140, 142, 149, 173
electricity 1112, 1921, 43, 479, 53, 612, 66, 71, 76, 94, 129, 1556, 1689
electronic stability program 107
email 7, 32, 84, 92, 94, 989
emergency braking 1618, 38, 1078
employment changes 10, 15, 1334, 1378, 163, 171
en route controlling 4, 513, 62, 73, 156
English language 523, 93
environmental issues 31, 71, 86, 106, 140, 150, 164, 173
ethical questions 119, 136, 162, 165
EUROCONTOL agency 52, 54
European Rail Traffic Management System 50
European Union 50, 52, 54, 118, 1212
event obligations 95
Facebook 31, 100101, 104, 162
facsimile machine 81, 84, 88
factories 25
Färber, B. 118
Federal Aviation Agency/Administration (FAA) 524, 62, 75, 124, 156
Federal Communications Commission 88
Federal Highway Administration 44
Federal Railroad Administration 72
ferries 75
see also boats
filtering systems 32
Finland 36, 7980, 88, 101, 121, 159
first-mile services 141
fixed-line telephone system 1819, 26, 30, 32, 39, 819, 91, 98, 1023, 120, 128, 130, 143, 154, 16061, 1667
float regulators 1011
fluidity 8
Ford’s T-model 412, 47, 1067
forward collision warning 16, 38, 1078
France 36, 41, 69, 73, 111, 1212
freedom of action 13
freedom of association 26, 38, 154
freedom of choice 13
freedom of expression 26, 38, 154
freedom of religion 26, 38, 154
freight trains 723, 79, 159, 166, 172
freight vehicles 1235
see also trucks
Frey, C.B. 15
Frohm, J. 12
fully automated luxury communism (FALC) 15
Future Bus 122
Future Truck 2025 124
gender 6, 27, 85, 89, 92
General Motors 35
Germany 36, 412, 667, 71, 73, 79, 107, 109, 111, 116, 122, 124, 159
Global Positioning Systems see GPS
Google 108
Google Maps 37, 101, 108, 130
Google Waymo 10910
GPS 11, 1618, 23, 34, 369, 50, 54, 57, 60, 62, 64, 76, 79, 101, 103, 1078, 111, 124, 12930, 1435, 1549, 1612
see also navigation systems
Greece 11, 36
greenhouse gases 149
see also pollution
Guthrie, E.R. 25, 34
gyrocompass 76
hackers 117, 119, 145
Hägerstrand, T. 135
helicopters 75, 7980, 143, 159
highway chauffeur 111
homo viator5
Honda 114
human movement automaticity 236, 389
and personal autonomy 323
human rights 135
hybrid cars 14, 115
ignition 13, 18, 25, 108
India 50
individualism 26, 85, 135, 170
Induct Technology 121
industrial revolutions 1112, 1921, 60, 152
information technology 2, 12, 1920, 36, 40, 61, 69, 71, 74, 76, 79, 86, 9091, 106, 1089, 115, 117, 1289, 134, 138, 155, 159, 1634, 171
information transmission 3, 44, 81, 1024, 138, 163
see also communications technologies; individual methods
co-presence 949, 102, 104, 162
online activity 99102
see also Internet
infrastructure-to-vehicle communications (I2V) 446, 61, 155
insurance 119
Intel 109
intelligent parking 16, 1078
internal combustion engines 14, 2021
International Commission on Air Navigation 52
International Electrotechnical Commission 67
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 57, 60, 63, 157
International Society of Automotive Engineers 11114
internationalization 412, 50, 90
Internet 1, 3, 79, 11, 14, 1819, 267, 3031, 44, 778, 8081, 84, 87, 8994, 1024, 10910, 11718, 126, 128, 13031, 1435, 15052, 16062, 164, 1667
co-presence 949, 102, 104, 162
online activity 99102
Internet cafés 128
Internet of Things 90, 95, 144, 152
Internetness 93
Ireland 36
Israel 109, 111, 116, 118
Italy 36, 56, 76, 107
ITU 94
James, W. 245
Janelle, D.G. 78
Japan 35, 37, 39, 42, 445, 57, 61, 69, 84, 8890, 103, 1069, 111, 114, 121, 124, 136, 155, 1612, 172
joblessness see employment changes
Kaufmann, V. 8
Kellerman, A. 4, 30
Kitchin, R. 129
knowledge-based behavior 34
Kockelman, K.M. 117
Kröger, F. 135
lane-keeping assist systems 1618, 38, 1078, 118, 129
laptops 94, 99, 131, 140
laser scanning 111, 123
last-mile services 116, 121, 124, 141, 144, 173
League of Nations 42, 44, 52
legislation 38, 110, 118, 135
Lessig, L. 92
letter sending 2931
levels of automation (LoA) 1213, 167
Licoppe, C. 99, 102
lighthouses 57, 63
literacy 87, 924
Local Motors 121
location-based services 101, 104, 162
long-distance trains 47, 65, 68, 72, 79, 159
Luxembourg 356
Malaysia 124
Manderscheid, K. 125
manual transmission 356, 39, 155, 167
manufacturing 2, 8, 12, 15, 212, 25, 134, 153, 17072
Marconi, G. 56
marine traffic control 5564, 75, 1578, 1658
marketing 3, 126
Mason, P. 15
mass co-presence 95
McKenzie, R.D. 8
McShane, C. 41
Mercedes-Benz 107, 109, 122, 124
metro systems 12, 30, 6571, 77, 7980, 83, 111, 116, 121, 130, 1416, 148, 150, 15960, 1668, 1723
see also rapid transit systems
Michon, J.A. 34
migration 4, 8
Minorski, N. 76
mobile phones 1, 89, 1819, 267, 3031, 812, 84, 869, 91, 1013, 120, 128, 1312, 143, 145, 150, 16062, 164, 1667, 172
see also smartphones
Mobileye 109
mobility
and automation 813
autonomous 1314, 2339
corporeal 35, 78, 21, 23, 27, 2932, 389, 81, 91, 102, 126, 128, 138, 1445, 149, 152, 154, 160, 163
personal 105, 115, 120, 1257, 130, 133, 135, 138, 145, 1534
physical 1, 78, 14, 16, 26, 2930, 37, 835, 91, 103, 105, 115, 12530, 133, 136, 144, 151, 1612, 165, 171
spatial 38, 24, 1523, 167
virtual 1, 3, 68, 1819, 24, 26, 2931, 37, 812, 85, 934, 102, 120, 1268, 131, 138, 142, 1445, 151, 154, 160, 163, 165, 169
Mossberger, K. 94
motorcycles 114, 144
Munro, A.H. 35
National Central Flow Control Facility 58
Navia 121
navigation systems 17, 23, 367, 39, 74, 1078, 130, 155
see also routing
Netherlands 36, 57, 73, 76, 79, 121, 159
New Zealand 124
Next Generation Air Transportation System 52, 54
Nissan 109
Norway 356
Noyman, A. 141
obligations to place 95
Olli 121
online shopping 100
open code 923
Osbourne, M.A. 15
Otto trucks 124
Parcelcopter service 124
parking 378, 59, 11011, 129, 13940, 1468, 150, 164
intelligent parking 16, 1078
parking companion 11011
passenger reservation interfaces 778, 80, 160
pedestrians 66, 72, 111, 115, 11819, 122, 134, 142, 144
lights for 42, 44
people movers 69, 79, 121, 159
personal autonomy 23, 259, 389, 105, 1256, 135, 1534
and human movement automaticity 323
levels of 2932
personal freedom 289
personal mobility 105, 115, 120, 1257, 130, 133, 135, 138, 145, 1534
photography technologies 44, 61, 111, 124, 142, 155
see also cameras
physical mobility 1, 78, 14, 16, 26, 2930, 37, 835, 91, 103, 105, 115, 12530, 133, 136, 144, 151, 1612, 165, 171
planes 2930, 40, 51, 5864, 78, 1569, 166
see also air traffic control
autopilots 65, 735, 78, 80, 83, 106, 130, 1678
police 41, 43, 115, 124, 142
pollution 16, 31, 14950, 164
Portugal 36, 146
Positive Train Control (PTC) system 50
postal service 29
Praetorius, G. 57, 63, 157
Prato, P. 131
privacy 27, 312, 39, 89, 119, 1245
PROMETHEUS 108
public transportation 9, 13, 2931, 37, 40, 46, 61, 65, 7881, 102, 125, 128, 130, 138, 151, 155, 15860, 163, 1723
see also individual modes of transportation
radar 527, 623, 76, 79, 111, 1567, 159
radio 489, 516, 623, 74, 76, 79, 100, 106, 1567, 159
railway systems see train traffic control; trains
ramp-monitoring systems 45
rapid transit systems 6572, 789, 1589
recreation 139, 1478, 150, 164
refuse collection vehicles 120
remote control 1067, 130, 136
remote sensing 44, 61, 155
research and development 2, 44, 118
ride sharing see car sharing
Riding Assist motorcycle 114
Rio Tinto Pilbara iron ore mines 1234
road accidents 16, 38, 10911, 119, 1334, 137, 149
road departure protection systems 110
road junctions 3, 17, 436
road traffic control 417, 5861, 64, 83, 129, 155, 158, 1656, 173
see also traffic lights
robotics 12, 15, 212, 80, 134, 153, 171
Rolls-Royce 80
routers 45, 11, 9091, 103, 161
routing 89, 16, 29, 34, 367, 5051, 62, 84, 87, 103, 108, 12930, 1378, 1445, 156, 161, 163
see also navigation systems
rule-based behavior 34
Russia 37, 50, 71
safety issues 1618, 22, 378, 50, 712, 789, 83, 108, 114, 117, 119, 122, 124, 142, 153, 158, 165, 1678, 170, 172
Scania 124
Schoettle, B. 117
Schwab, K. 19
search engines 8
self-shifting transmission see automatic transmission systems
semi-automatic transmission systems 36
sensors 3, 1112, 40, 445, 68, 129
Sheller, M. 89, 136
ships see boats
Singapore 45, 69, 111, 116, 1212, 124, 141, 146, 148
Single European Sky 52, 54, 58, 62, 156
Sivak, M. 117
skill-based behavior 34
smartphones 9, 24, 31, 37, 39, 879, 946, 99, 101, 1034, 108, 117, 131, 144, 155, 1612, 173
Smicek, N. 15
SMS 879, 99, 103, 128, 154, 161
social networking 31, 100101, 104, 162
software hacking 117, 119, 145
South Korea 69, 89, 103, 118, 161
Spain 36
spatial mobility 3, 24, 1523, 167
see also automated spatial mobility
definition of 48
spatial organization of businesses 13940
see also central business districts
Sperry, E.A. 76
Sputnik 37
Standard J3016 11114
steam engines 1112, 1920
steam power 1112, 1921, 47, 59, 62, 66
steamboats 1920, 56, 589, 63, 756, 157
suburbanization 66, 86, 103, 140, 161
Sweden 356, 55, 88, 111
Switzerland 36, 90, 111, 122
synchronous telepresence 98
tablets 94, 99, 140
taxis 2930, 46, 116, 121, 125, 128, 13032, 134, 146, 148, 171, 173
telecommunications services 6, 12, 31, 85, 89, 91, 1412, 144, 173
see also individual media
telecommuting 100101
Telegram 133
telegraph 489, 812, 845, 88, 102, 1278, 160, 169
telephones see fixed-line telephone system
telework 100101
Tesla 109, 114
text messaging see SMS
tourism 8, 75, 106, 13940, 148, 150, 164
Toyota 124
traffic congestion 37, 45, 93, 142, 14950, 153, 164
traffic control 45, 7, 9, 11, 13, 19, 40, 615, 8081, 102, 138, 151, 155, 15860, 163, 1667, 169
air traffic control 45, 516, 5864, 73, 124, 1568, 1658
comparing mobility modes by automation and autonomy in 5861
marine traffic control 5564, 75, 1578, 1658
road traffic control 417, 5861, 64, 83, 129, 155, 158, 1656, 173
see also traffic lights
train traffic control 4650, 5864, 68, 129, 1556, 158, 166, 169
traffic jams 17, 3031, 467, 85, 107, 110
traffic lights 1, 35, 11, 1618, 4041, 437, 49, 53, 61, 110, 115, 129, 136, 143, 14950, 155, 162, 164, 167, 173
traffic-jam assistant 110
train traffic control 4650, 5864, 68, 129, 1556, 158, 166, 169
trains 1112, 20, 2930, 40, 5865, 723, 78, 80, 1245, 12930, 1559, 166, 172
freight 723, 79, 159, 166, 172
long-distance 47, 65, 68, 72, 79, 159
rapid transit systems 6572, 789, 1589
trams 66
travel agents 778
Trivero, G. 131
trolleybuses 65, 712, 158, 166, 171
trucks 46, 60, 73, 75, 105, 109, 11920, 1234, 134, 136, 137, 142, 151, 163, 166, 173
Tsukuba 108
Turkey 36
Twitter 101, 104, 162
Uber 116, 124
Ukraine 71
unattended train operation (UTO) 68
underground systems see rapid transit systems
unemployment see also employment changes
Union Internationale des Transports Publics 6971
United Kingdom 36, 412, 45, 4750, 52, 557, 60, 62, 668, 71, 73, 76, 7880, 86, 88, 90, 111, 117, 122, 124, 156, 159
United Nations 57
United States 1, 910, 15, 359, 415, 4754, 578, 6062, 667, 69, 71, 736, 789, 82, 846, 88, 90, 92, 100, 103, 10611, 11618, 121, 1323, 136, 141, 1467, 149, 1556, 159, 1612, 164, 169
Urban Traffic Control Software 44
Urry, J. 7, 1346
US Congress 50, 53, 110
UTAUT model 117, 122
utopias 1415
valet parking 111
van Westrenen, F. 57, 63, 157
vehicle-to-infrastructure communications (V2I) 45, 61, 90, 155
vehicle-to-vehicle + vehicle-to-infrastructure communications system (V2X) 10911, 117, 119, 143, 150, 152, 164
vehicle-to-vehicle communication systems (V2V) 38, 45, 90, 107, 10910, 11819, 129, 134
Vessel Traffic Services (VTS) 567, 61, 634, 1578
Viber 133
videophones 120
Virilio, P. 14
virtual mobility 1, 3, 68, 1819, 24, 26, 2931, 37, 812, 85, 934, 102, 120, 1268, 131, 138, 142, 1445, 151, 154, 160, 163, 165, 169
Voice over Internet Protocol 93
walking 27, 2930, 128, cars
water clock 1011
Waze 37, 101, 108, 130
Wellman, B. 97
WhatsApp 133
Wi-Fi 87, 90, 94, 1034, 161, 173
Williams, A. 15
willingness to pay 11718
World Health Organization 133
Yutong driverless bus 122
Zookal 124