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Protecting Minority Rights in African Countries

A Constitutional Political Economy Approach

John M. Mbaku

In this enlightening book, John Mukum Mbaku analyses the main challenges of constitutional design and the construction of governance institutions in Africa today. He argues that the central issues are: providing each country with a constitutional order that is capable of successfully managing sectarian conflict and enhancing peaceful coexistence; protecting the rights of citizens – including those of minorities; minimizing the monopolization of political space by the majority (to the detriment of minorities); and, effectively preventing government impunity.
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Index

A Constitutional Political Economy Approach

John M. Mbaku

abortion 115

absolute power 12, 126, 136

accommodation-integration debate 211–17

Adams, John 118

affirmative action 115, 278–9, see also special representation rights

African Christian Democratic Party (South Africa) 71

African National Congress (South Africa) 36–7, 71, 75, 78, 163, 202–3, 222–3

African socialism 133

African Union 73

African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption 73

Afrikaners 18, 26

Agbu, Osita 45

Ahidjo, Ahmadou 31, 99, 134, 227, 243, 258, 262, 286

Ahire, Philip T. 27

Ake, Claude 23, 177

Akufo-Addo, Nana 193, 218

al-Bashir, Omar 177, 236

Alexander, Michelle 144

Algeria 23, 75

Almond, Gabriel A. 176

Al-Shabaab 167, 180

alternative vote 207–10

American Bar Association 105

American Colonization Society 53

American hybrid system 237, 244

American Republic 12, 53, 78, 108–10, 118, 130, 136–7, 139, 143, 175, 290, see also United States

Americo-Liberians 8, 52–3, 112, 120, 158, 202

Anglo-American political system 175–6, see also individual countries

Anglo-Boer war 18, 26

Anglophones 2–4, 54, 58, 65, 88–9, 95, 101, 104, 112, 114–16, 134, 169, 177, 180, 187, 202, 214, 217, 219, 221, 224–7, 233, 239, 262–3, 268, 271–7, 279–80

Angola 133

apartheid 8, 11, 36–7, 55, 63, 89, 91, 104, 112, 122, 143, 163, 165, 168, 202, 208–9, 217, 221–3, 257–8, 262, 282, 284, 296

Arab Spring 36

Aristotle 244–5, 247

assassinations 39

Australia 223, 225

Austria 176–7, 179, 187

First Republic 188

authoritarianism 11, 36, 143, 146–8, 193, 228, 238, 243, 245–6, 258

Bachrach, Peter 150, 250

Bakweri 272

Bali-Nyonga 271

Bamiléké 274

Bamoun 58, 271–2, 274

Banda, Kamuzu 99, 192, 228, 243, 258

Bangwa 271

Barry, Brian 196–7

Basilica of Our Lady of Peace of Yamoussokro 142

Bayart, Jean-François 186

Bédié, Henri Konan 76, 82

Belaid, Chokri 39

Belgium 156–7, 177

Benin 50, 57, 125, 192, 237, 267, 277

Berelson, Bernard R. 260

Berlin Conference 22, 277

Best, Judith A. 128–9, 135, 141–2

Biafra, Republic of 3, 14, 46, 158, 274, 287

bicameralism 89, 139

bills of rights 12, 60, 113–14, 118, 122, 127–9, 155, 161, 163–70, 172, 197, 228, 271, 291–2, 295

limitations of 170–72

Biya, Paul 75, 79, 82, 87–8, 93, 95–6, 101, 177, 202, 224, 239, 262

Blokland, Hans 260–62

Bokassa, Jean-Badel 142

Boko Haram 39, 46, 53, 159, 167, 180, 276

Bollen, Kenneth A. 12, 150–52

Bombet, Emile Constant 77

Bongo, Omar 79

Botswana 41, 199

boundaries 48

Boyce, James K. 44

Boynton, G. R. 196

Brahmi, Mohamed 39

brain drain 147, 153

Brennan, H. Geoffrey 11, 69, 84–6, 124, 184

Buchanan, James M. 11, 65, 69, 84–6, 124, 184, 232, 265

Bugeaud, Thomas Robert 23

bureaucracy 195

Burkina Faso 40, 75–6, 80, 139, 144, 216, 238

Burns, Allan 16

Burundi 2, 80, 158, 177, 204, 216, 218, 223, 229, 236, 238–9, 268, 275

Cabo Verde 199

Cameroon, Republic of 2–4, 8, 23, 25, 31, 50, 54, 57–8, 75, 79–80, 87–9, 93, 95–7, 99–101, 104, 111–12, 114–16, 122, 125–7, 133–4, 137–8, 140–41, 152, 169, 171, 177, 179–80, 183, 186–7, 191, 202, 215, 217, 219–21, 224–7, 233–4, 238–9, 243, 251, 258, 262–3, 268, 270, 272–7, 279–80, 283, 286–7

Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement 95, 141, 239

Canada 13, 126, 150, 152, 154, 163–4, 214, 216–17, 220, 271–2, 274, 276–7, 279, 281–2, 285, 287–8, 290

Cape of Good Hope 18, 69–70, 97, see also Union of South Africa

Cape Verde 40–41

capital flight 3, 10, 44, 147, 153

capitalism 23, 152

Catholicism 57

Central African Republic 2–3, 10, 142, 177, 183, 204, 216, 218, 236, 251, 272, 287

centrifugal democracies 188

centripetal democracies 187–8

Chad 75, 80, 179, 236, 272, 287

checks and balances 8, 12, 60, 86, 89, 109, 111, 131, 135, 137–40, 143, 165, 168, 211, 228, 230, 264, 291, 294

social checks and balances 230, 264, 294

child marriage 185, 283

children, exploitation of 79, 146

Chiluba, Frederick 243

China 147, 150

Chinese Communist Party 147, 150

Choudhry, Sujit 12, 159–61, 164, 169–70, 198, 207, 209, 212–14, 216, 219–20

Christianity 16, 20, 22, 24, 26, 35, 46, 54, 57–60, 82, 112, 122, 159, 177–8, 220, 227, 272, see also missionaries

Coptic Christianity 39–40, 59–60, 89

Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 57

citizenship 1, 79, 81, 83, 217, 220, 271, 279, 282, 284, 286

differentiated citizenship 271, 282, 284–7

civil servants 9, 13, 29–30, 35, 37–8, 41, 43, 59, 84, 86, 99, 102, 112–13, 130, 214, 219–20, 236, 265–7

civil war 3–4, 158–9, 176, 296

Côte d’Ivoire 40, 81–2, 158

Ethiopia 116

Liberia 40, 46, 103, 116, 134, 158

Libya 156

Nigeria 2, 46, 116, 134, 158

Rwanda 46, 103, 116, 134

Sierra Leone 46, 103–4, 116, 120, 134, 158

South Sudan 156, 171, 181, 204, 215

Sri Lanka 201

Sudan 5, 46, 48, 116, 134, 158

United States 118–19, 122, 288

US 13

classical democratic theory 258–60

climate change 146, see also environmental protection

Coglianese, C. 255

collateral 38

colonialism 1, 7–9, 15–18, 29, 54–8, 98, 103–4, 117, 119, 122–3, 130, 157, 167, 226, 234, 242, 257–8, 263, 270–72, 277, 286–7, 291, 296

goals of 18–28

Communism 73–4, 147, 150, 152, 188

Compaoré, Blaise 80

comparative constitutional law 12, 162–72, 197, 217, 293, 295

comparative politics 12, 172, 175, 197, 293, 295

Comprehensive Peace Agreement (2005) 48

conflict resolution 20, 29, 33, 47, 49, 84, 107, 116–17, 182–4, 186

Congo (Brazzaville) 133, 215, 268, 287

Congo treaty 22

Connor, W. 183

consociational democracy 155, 176, 178–89, 191–2, 195–7, 205–10, 217–18

constituent assembles 64–81

constitutional design 10, 25–6, 33, 35, 53, 56, 117, 153, 155, 160, 162–3, 165, 167, 171–2, 174–5, 197–8, 212–14, 216–17, 219–21, 223, 264, 268, 290, 293–6

constituent assembles 64–81

the constitution-making process 84–100, see also constitution making

importance of process in 48–63

constitutional federalism 90, 135, 140, 274

constitutional law see comparative constitutional law

constitutionalism 34, 52–3, 62, 64, 90, 92, 99, 112–13, 129, 163–4, 167, 170, 290

constitution making 9, 11, 14, 31–4, 43, 49–52, 55, 62–7, 69–73, 75, 77–81, 107, 114, 117, 121, 124, 132, 144, 161, 185, 227, 256, 264, 291–2

process of 84–100

Continental European democratic systems 175–6, see also individual countries

contract law 108

Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) 70–71

Convention on the Rights of the Child 61

cooling period 93

Coptic Christianity 39–40, 59–60, 89

corruption 9, 13, 30–1, 33–5, 37, 39, 42–3, 45, 51, 66, 103, 112, 118, 129–30, 139, 147, 166, 169, 194, 242, 263, 266–7

corvée24

Côte d’Ivoire 2, 4, 40, 75–7, 81–3, 114, 133, 142, 144, 204, 216, 275

civil war 40, 81–2, 158

Council of Deputies (Libya) 156

coups d’état 34, 76, 158, 266

Cowen, Denis V. 70

crosscutting cleavages 198–200, 206, 208, 211

Crowder, Michael 19, 21

culture 1, 17–18, 25, 42, 52, 84, 86, 89, 92, 94, 122, 155, 157, 165, 170, 175, 177, 189, 200, 204, 208, 220–21, 234, 258, 265–6, 272, 274–6, 280, 284–5, 287–8, 294

customs 5, 9, 11, 20, 24, 42, 52, 84, 94, 122, 165, 185, 226, 266, 281–4, 294

Cyprus 179

Czechoslovakia 73–5, 79–80

Dahl, Robert A. 12, 148–9, 151, 192, 229–69, 293–4

Davis, L. 259–60

de Gaulle, Charles 14, 31–2, 68, 77, 115, 130–31, 144, 273

de Klerk, F. W. 163

de Schweinitz, K. 148

de Vos, Pierre 75

death penalty 115

decentralization 74, 140–41, 203, 273, 275, 277

decolonization project 8–9, 29, 31, 66, 98, 117, 226, 256–7, 270, see also post-independence period

democracy 13, 63, 91–2, 95, 119–20, 131, 163, 192–4, 198–201, 203–5, 222, 224, 235–7, 240–58, 260–61, 263, 288, 291, 294, see also individual democratic models

definition of 146–54

institutionalization of 11, 62, 80, 101, 119, 136, 147, 192–3, 197, 199–200, 219, 228, 240, 242–3, 247–8, 257, 260, 278

democratic despotism 118

democratic legitimacy see process legitimacy

Democratic Party (South Africa) 71, 78

Democratic Republic of Congo 2–4, 79–80, 116, 119–20, 148, 177, 215, 218, 251, 268

Democratic Republic of Korea 148

Deng Gai, Taban 156–7

deprivation 1, 3, 11, 29, 33, 48, 117–18, 146–7, 174, 291, see also living standards; poverty

despotism 103, 118, 121, 229, 293

Deutsch, Karl W. 183

dictatorships 8, 69, 92, 99, 103, 133, 143, 193, 237–8, 245

majority dictatorships 30, 35, 56, 63, 94, 135, 147, 201, 229, 264, 268

differentiated citizenship 271, 282, 284–7

Dinka 5, 156, 171, 177, 181, 204, 215

disease 2

displacement 4, 7, 110

divided societies 1, 4–5, 10–13, 35, 55, 91, 146, 149, 157, 160–62, 167, 169–72, 174–5, 177, 183, 191, 197–8, 200, 203–8, 210–12, 216, 218, 220, 223, 293, see also fragmented societies

Djibouti 54, 277

Doe, Samuel Kanyon 2, 53, 120–21, 158, 202

Downs, Anthony 149–51, 241

downstream legitimacy 60, 96, 98, 291

Duncan, Graeme 258–61

East Germany 148

economic freedom 41, 50–51

economic growth and development 1, 3, 5, 30, 34, 41, 44–7, 55, 67, 80, 89, 99–100, 112, 124, 146–7, 153, 158, 175, 204, 211, 258, 263, 266–7, 270, 285, 288, 296, see also wealth creation

education 16, 26, 89, 119, 165, 194, 204, 208, 221, 233, 239, 250, 259–60, 274–6, 279–80, 283, 293

Egba 16

Egerton, Hugh E. 21

Egypt 2, 39–40, 47, 57, 59–60, 89, 105

Ejobowah, John B. 214–15

elections 5–6, 39, 45, 63, 67, 76, 80–83, 89, 93, 96, 111–14, 120, 132–3, 138, 143, 148–53, 189, 192–4, 199–201, 205–8, 213, 215, 218, 222, 228, 236–8, 240–43, 252, 254, 258–9, 266–8, 291, 293, 295

elites 3, 9, 13, 29–31, 35, 43, 52, 63, 66, 77–8, 86, 92, 99–100, 102–4, 109, 112–13, 121, 123–4, 139, 141, 150–51, 162, 176–81, 186–8, 190, 192–4, 196–9, 202, 207, 218–20, 226–8, 231, 237, 239, 244–7, 249, 257, 267, 270, 278, 283, 293–6

Elster, Jon 55, 60, 62, 66, 74–5, 78–9, 88, 90, 92–3, 96–7

Englin, C. W. 78

entrepreneurial activities 10, 17, 20–23, 26, 37–8, 42, 44, 91, 94, 103, 106, 117, 147, 263

environmental protection 62, 79, 146, 159, 274, 280

Equatorial Guinea 57

Ethiopia 2, 40, 54, 133, 204, 229, 251, 275, 277

civil war 116

ethnic cleansing 6, 45, 159

European Union 266

Ewe 50, 286

external controls 140–41

extremism see religious extremism

Eyadéma, Gnassingbé 192

factionalism 133

failed states 119–20, see also individual states

famine 224

Fatton, Robert Jr 19, 25, 98

faux democracies 143

Federal Republic of Germany 148

Federal Republic of Nigeria 2, 4, 158

federalism 89–90, 95, 97, 111, 113, 128, 135–6, 138, 140, 155, 204, 208–9, 214–16, 274–5, 277, 279, 290–91

constitutional federalism 90, 135, 140, 274

female genital mutilation 185, 283

Fennema, M. 195

financial malfeasance 30, 37, 42–3, 129

first past the post 198

Fombad, Charles Manga 126–7, 137

forced labor 24–5

forced migration 2

foreign investment 10, 47, 49

Founding Fathers (US) 108–9, 122–4, 229

fragmentation

political 158, 174, 176–7, 179–80, 188–9, 214

social 188–91, 196

fragmented societies 176–82, 187, 197, 293, see also divided societies

France 72, 175–6, 285

Third and Fourth Republics 176, 188

Francophones 3–4, 8, 12, 32, 34, 58, 65, 88, 90, 95, 101, 104, 113, 115–16, 123, 126, 132, 134, 177, 180, 187, 202, 214, 219, 226–8, 233, 239, 262–3, 271–6

Freedom and Justice Party (Egypt) 59

Freedom Front (South Africa) 71

Freedom House 38–9

freedom of assembly 87, 89, 113, 115, 150, 152, 242, 252, 256

freedom of association 271

freedom of expression 113, 242

freedom of movement 39

freedom of opposition 151, 153

freedom of religion 115, 155, 219

freedom of speech 87–8, 151, 153, 252, 256, 271

freedom of the press 87–8, 115, 131, 151–3

French Constitution (1958) 12, 14, 31–4, 62, 68, 77–8, 115, 123, 130–31, 144, 273

Fulani see Hausa-Fulani

fundamental rights 1, 8, 10–13, 29, 35–6, 49–50, 81, 85–9, 91–2, 94, 102, 108–9, 113–14, 117, 120, 127–30, 139, 141, 143, 151, 153, 161, 165–7, 169, 174, 229–30, 252–5, 257, 267–8, 290–93, see also human rights

Gabon 75, 79–80, 125, 133, 215, 251, 287

Galanter, M. 66, 70

Gambia, The 283

Gbagbo, Lauren 76, 82, 144

Gbaya 58

GDP 42

gender 49, 86, 164, see also women

General National Congress (Libya) 156

genocide 159, 180

Burundi 158

Rwanda 3, 46, 92, 103, 120, 128, 158, 166, 217, 262

German Democratic Republic 148

Germany 72–4, 148, 175–6

Weimar 176, 188

Ghana 40–41, 50, 73, 139, 192–4, 199–200, 218, 224, 267, 270, 275, 283–4, 286

globalization 146, 234

Greater Somalia movement 277

Grey, Earl 21, 23–4

group autonomy 204–5

group identity 272–6

group interest 77–9, 133–4, 230, see also interest groups

Guéï, Robert 76–7, 82, 114, 144

Guinea 14, 31, 77, 115, 133

Gwartney, James D. 51

Hamilton, A. 139–40

Hausa-Fulani 4, 28, 56–7, 208

Havel, Václav 79–80

health care 105, 119, 159, 165, 194–5, 279

Herero uprising 21

HMS Flirt23

Honduras 152

Horowitz, Donald 75, 172, 175, 197–8, 201, 203–13, 293

Houphouët-Boigny, Félix 75–6, 114, 142

human capital 2, 10, 37, 42, 44, 105

human development 12–13, 17, 37, 42, 96, 153, 159, 264, 269–70, 287–8, 296

human rights 2, 49, 62–3, 78, 100, 103, 112, 114, 128, 166, 185, 211, 282, see also fundamental rights

human rights conventions 1–2, 61, 73, 186, 281

humanitarian crises 4, 10, 48, 215–16

Hutu 3, 46, 53, 128, 159, 166

Ibibio 57

Igbos 2, 4, 46, 50, 53, 56–7, 216, 275, 277, 280

Ihonvbere, Julius O. 7, 29–31, 53

Ijaw 57

illiteracy 242, 268

immigration 121, 157, 285

immobilism 176, 182

impeachment 85, 143

impunity 11, 13, 34, 37–8, 41, 43–4, 59, 68, 84, 90, 99, 113, 117–18, 121, 129–30, 166–70, 210, 220, 236, 242, 263–7, 293, 295

income distribution 40, 42–3, 231, 264, 268–9

income inequality 36

independence 1, 3, 5, 7–10, 29–31, 33, 56, 100, 116, 122, 124, 131, 139, 174, 257–8, 272, 296

India 162

indigénat167–8, 270

indirect rule 56

industrialization 61

infantilization 2–3, 15, 20, 25, 29–30, 43, 52, 63, 103, 109, 117, 166, 168, 284, 292

information technology 183, 241

Inkatha Freedom Party (South Africa) 71, 222

institutional interest 79–81

institutional reforms 7, 9, 11, 31, 40, 59, 76, 133, 143, 219, 229, 278–9

integration-accommodation debate 75, 211–17, 219, 221–3

Interahamwe militia 46, 166, see also genocide, Rwandan

inter-elite accommodation 179–82

interest groups 51, 64, 77, 94, 97, 103, 133, 186, 251, 292, see also group interest

internal controls 138–40

internal migrations 226–7

International Covenant Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment and Punishment 61

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1, 61

International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1, 61, 73, 165

International Covenant on Political and Civil Rights 73

International Criminal Court 120

international human rights laws 283–4

Internet 241, 251

Ireland 187

Islam 35, 39–40, 46, 53–4, 57–60, 89, 112, 122, 156, 159, 177–8, 219–20, 227, 233, 265–6, 272, 276, 285, see also Shari’a law

Italy 175–6

Itsekiri 57

Ivorité 76, 82

Jamaica 28

Jammeh, Yahya 194

Janjaweed 128

Japan 150

Jebali, Hamadi 39

Jeffries, Charles Joseph 27

Jim Crow laws 13, 101, 110, 144, 282, 288

John, Kwame 199

Jordan, Donald L. 56

judicial independence 111, 126–7, 137, 155, 164–5, 170, 193, 253

judicial review 59, 90, 111–12, 128, 131, 135, 140, 155, 163, 167, 253–4, 256, 290, 292

Kabila, Joseph 177

Kalenjin 6, 45

Kamerun 17, 21–6, 58, 272, 287, see also Cameroon

Kennett, Jeff 225

Kenya 4–7, 40, 45–6, 54, 116, 120, 144, 158, 179, 183, 193, 204, 215–18, 236, 238, 275, 277

Kenyatta, Uhuru 6, 144

Kibaki, Mwai 6, 45, 216

Kiir, Salva 5, 156–7, 171, 177, 215

Kikuyu 6–7, 45, 215–17

Kimenyi, Mwangi S. 27, 48, 211

Kofele-Kale, N. 273

Kohn, H. 122

Krahn 2, 53, 120, 158, 202

Krouse, Richard W. 244–6, 248–50

Kwon, W. H. 196

Kymlicka, W. 12, 271, 274, 276, 279, 281, 286–7

Lagos 16, 27–8

laïcité285

language 25, 52–3, 57–8, 65–6, 71, 77–8, 81, 86, 89, 122, 135, 149, 155–7, 165, 167–8, 171–2, 180, 187, 191, 200–202, 211, 213–14, 216–17, 219, 221, 225–7, 233, 239–42, 251, 263, 268, 271–5, 277–8, 280–81, 287, 293–4

Law, David S. 111–12

law and order 19–20, 27–8, 106, 119, see also rule of law

Lawson, Robert 51

Lazarsfeld, Paul F. 260

League of Nations 58, 226, 286

Lebanon 178–9

legitimacy 102–7, 123

Lenski, Gerhard 150–51, 153, 241–2

Levi, M. 102, 104

LeVine, Victor T. 18–19, 32–4, 68, 99, 123, 131

LGBT individuals 281, 283

Liberia 2–4, 8, 10, 40, 46, 52–3, 112, 120–21, 123, 158, 176, 202, 218, 229

civil war 40, 46, 103, 116, 134, 158

Libya 10, 59, 157, 177, 204, 223, 229

civil war 156

Lijphart, A. 12, 75, 157, 172, 175–6, 178–9, 181, 186–9, 191–2, 194–8, 200, 203–13, 217–18, 293–4

Lindberg, Staffan I. 193

Lipkin, Robert Justin 111

Lipset, Seymour Martin 12, 148–9, 151, 198, 240

living standards 10, 14, 27, 36, 41–2, 52, 55, 66, 69, 143, 162, 174, 218, 263

Locke, John 53, 132, 136

Low Countries 175–6, 178–9, see also Austria; Switzerland

Lugard, Edward 21

Lugard, Lord Frederick J. D. 21, 56

Lukes, Steven 258–61

Lumumba, Patrice 192

Luo 6, 45, 215–17

Machar, Riek 5, 156–7, 171, 177, 181, 215

Madagascar 133

Madison, James 129, 132–3, 135–6, 140, 229–31, 235, 264, 268–9, 294

Mahama, John 193–4, 218

Maji Maji uprising 21

majoritarian democracy model 198–201, 205–6

majority dictatorships 30, 35, 56, 63, 94, 135, 147, 201, 229, 264, 268, 294

majority principle 230, 232, 241, 265, 268, 294

majority vote 89

Malawi 99, 123, 133, 228, 243, 258

Mali 139

malnutrition 2

Mandela, Nelson 75, 80, 163, 177, 192, 202–3, 284

Mankon 271

Mauritania 133

Mauritius 41

Mbaku, J. M. 7, 27, 29–31

Mbasogo, Teodoro Obiang Nguema 192

Mbete-Kgotsisile, B. 78

McGarry, J. 211–12

McPhee, William N. 260

media 152, 239, 267–8, 295

mercantilism 22–3

Michels, R. 150, 234

military coups 34, 76, 99–100, 105, 133, 266, 295

militias 45–6

minority vetoes 203–4

missionaries 16–17, 22, 24–5, 54, 117

Mobuto Sese Seko 79, 192

modernization 61

Monrovia 52–3, see also Liberia

Montesquieu, Baron de 136

Morsi, Mohamed 40, 59–60

Mosca, G. 234

Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND) 39

Mubarak, Hosni 59

Mueller, Dennis C. 53, 60–61

multinational companies 180

Multi-Party Negotiation Process (MPNP) 70–72, 86

Muslim Brotherhood 59

mutual vetoes 203–4

Namibia 18, 67, 75, 89, 104

Natal 18, 69–70, 97, see also Union of South Africa

National African Company 23

National Democratic Party (Ghana) 193

national integration 1, 100, 117, 121, 123, 176–7, 182, 239, 243, 258, 269, 276, 284–6, 288, 292

National Party (South Africa) 71, 222

nation-building 1, 30, 48, 65, 67, 80, 99–100, 114, 116–17, 121–3, 176, 182, 186, 212–13, 216, 218, 220, 222, 239, 243, 258, 269, 273–4, 276, 284–8, 292

natural disasters 37

natural rights 230–31

Ndikumana, L. 44

neocolonialism 146

Netanel, Neil W. 242

Netherlands 176, 189–91, 195–6, 293

New Patriotic Party (Ghana) 193

Niger 57, 75, 80, 139, 179, 238

Niger Delta 22–3, 39, 54, 215

Nigeria 2–4, 14, 19, 21, 23, 27–8, 33–5, 38–9, 45–6, 50, 53–4, 56–7, 75, 100, 105, 122, 139, 159, 176, 179, 183, 192, 208, 214–17, 229, 233, 236–7, 251, 263, 265–7, 272, 274–80, 287

civil war 2, 46, 116, 134, 158

Njawe, Pius 87

Nkrumah, Kwame 192, 270, 284

Nkurunziza, Pierre 177

Northern Ireland 168, 191, 196, 208

Nso’ 58, 271

Nuer 5, 156, 171, 177, 181, 204, 215

Nyerere, Julius 99, 192, 228, 243, 258, 284, 286

Nyobé, Ruben Um 270

Odinga, Raila 6, 45, 216

Ogoni 57

oil and gas 5, 54, 180, 215, 278

Ojukwu, Emeka 3–4, 158

Oku 271

O’Leary, Brendan 211–12

Ondimba, Omar Bongo 192

one state/province, one vote 97

one-party political system 99, 123, 133, 143, 228, 258

opportunism 8, 10, 13, 30–31, 33–5, 51, 66, 76–7, 80–81, 84, 92, 95, 98–9, 103, 110, 112, 114, 119, 122, 129–30, 133, 136, 138–9, 142–3, 186–7, 192, 201, 223, 229, 238, 266, 268, 292, 294–5

Orange River Colony 18, 69, 97, see also Union of South Africa

Oromo 54, 277

Oromo Liberation Front 54

Ouattara, Alassane 76–7, 81–2, 114, 144

outward migration 10

Owona, Joseph 96

Pan Africanist Congress (South Africa) 71

Pappalardo, Adriano 195

parchment prohibitions/barriers 128–30, see also bill of rights

Parti démocratique de la Côte d’Ivoire 76

Patten, A. 220

peaceful coexistence 1, 3, 7–10, 13–18, 29–30, 35, 38, 40, 43–8, 52, 55, 59, 61, 63, 69–70, 91, 96, 99, 103, 112, 116–17, 121, 124, 159, 161–3, 167, 175–8, 181–3, 197, 204, 211, 218–20, 222, 263, 267–8, 270, 286–8, 291, 293, 296

Peel, Robert 27

Pennock, R. 233

People’s Republic of China see China

personal interests 74–7, 100, 112, see also self-interest

pleins pouvoirs law 68

pluralism 155, 191–2, 198, 229–30, 245, 286

Poland 79–80

political equality 229, 232, 234–5, 237, 244–5, 247, 249, 264–6, 268, 294

political fragmentation 158, 174, 176–7, 179–80, 188–9, 214

political liberties 150–53, 228

political participation 99, 168, 200, 239, 245–7, 250, 257–9, 262–4, 267–8, 294

polyarchy 192, 229–49, 257, 294

polyethnicity 272, 274, 276, 282–3, 285

popular sovereignty 111, 152, 232, 234, 237, 244–5, 247, 249, 266, 268, 294

population growth 37, 146

populist democracy 231–5, 265–6, 294

Portugal 22, 152

post-apartheid developments 14, 36–7, 55, 63, 67, 70–71, 75, 78, 80, 82, 91, 114, 122, 163–5, 168, 177, 208, 221, 296

post-constitutional law 86, 107, 159–60, 264

post-independence period 1, 3–5, 7–10, 13, 29–30, 37, 62, 66, 98–100, 103–4, 109–12, 117–19, 121, 123–4, 132, 142–3, 176, 182, 192, 226–9, 238, 243, 256, 258, 266, 268, 270, 274, see also decolonization project

what citizens expected from 30–35

poverty 1–2, 4, 10–11, 14, 27, 29–30, 33, 36–7, 44–5, 48–50, 52, 55, 66, 69, 100, 105, 116–19, 121, 146–7, 158, 162, 165, 174, 192, 202, 218, 242, 263–4, 268–9, 278–9, 291

power-sharing 92, 204–5, 208–9, 222–3, see also consociational democracy

presidents, interests of 79–81

process legitimacy 60, 96–8

property, destruction of 4, 6, 10, 40, 45–6, 105, 120, 215–16, 218

property rights 8, 44, 50–51, 88–9, 275, 284

proportional representation 79, 89, 97–8, 203–4, 206–8

Protestantism 57

public opinion 254–5

Qadaffi, Muammar 156

quality of life 91, 264, see also living standards

quasi guardianship 253–5

Quebec 214, 216–17, 274, 276, 282

race 69–70, 80, 86, 97–8, 101, 104, 112, 122, 128, 144, 164, 167–8, 171–2, 200, 208–9, 221, 262, 270–21, see also apartheid

Rassemblement des Républicains (Côte d’Ivoire) 76

re-enforced presidencies 133

refugee camps 7

Reilly, B. 209

Reith, Charles 27

religion 1–2, 9–13, 15, 17, 20, 29–30, 35–7, 39, 42–3, 50–60, 62, 66, 69–70, 77–9, 88–9, 107, 113–15, 117, 119, 121–2, 135, 141, 143, 157, 161, 167–8, 171–2, 174–7, 182–3, 186, 189–91, 193, 211, 214, 216, 226, 228, 231, 233–4, 236, 251–3, 258, 261, 266, 271–2, 277, 281, 283, 290, 292, 294, see also individual religions

freedom of religion 115, 155, 219

religious extremism 39, 46, 53, 146–7, 153, 159, 167, 180, 206, 233, 265–6, 276, see also terrorism

rent-seeking 10, 13, 33, 37, 43, 51, 66, 130, 263, 266

republicanism 12

République démocratique du Congo see Democratic Republic of Congo

République du Cameroun 58, 65, 134, 272

resource allocation 50, 182, 215

Revolutionary United Front (RUF) 104

Rivonia Trial 202–3

Rogoff, Martin A. 114, 118, 121

role structure 175–6

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques 249

Royal Niger Company 23

Rudin, Harry R. 24

rule of law 5, 8, 10–12, 30, 35, 37, 42–3, 45, 92, 102, 105, 119, 121, 159, 161, 184–5, 194, 237, 239, 243, see also law and order

ruling class 234, 266, 294, see also elites

Ruto, William 6, 144

Rwanda 2–3, 10, 46, 53, 92, 176, 180, 204, 229

civil war 46, 103, 116, 134

genocide 3, 46, 92, 103, 120, 128, 166, 217, 262

Sacks, A. 102, 104

Satiru revolt 21

Scandinavian countries 175–6, 187, see also individual countries

Schonfeld, W. R. 261

Schwartz, Herman 62

Scotland 214

Scotland Act (1998) 214

scramble for Africa 22

security 87, 105, 119, 153, 247, 266, 294

segmental cleavages 200

self-actualization 117, 134, 159, 263, 283–4

self-determination 48, 58, 208, 274–5, 279, 286–7

self-government 54, 119, 121, 273–7, 279–83, 285–8

self-help associations 33

self-interest 79, 118–19, 184, 206, see also personal interests

Senegal 133

separation of powers 8, 12–13, 32, 53, 60, 64, 86, 89–90, 109, 111, 113, 128, 131, 135–8, 141, 143–4, 164–5, 192–3, 211, 230, 262, 264, 290–92, see also checks and balances

Shari’a law 122, 156, 219, 265–6, 276

Shia Muslims 57

Sichone, Malonzo 75

Sierra Leone 2–4, 10, 28, 46, 99, 123, 228–9, 258

civil war 46, 103–4, 116, 120, 134, 158

Sikawe, Freedom 75

Simeon, Richard 211–12

Singapore 146

Sinhala Only Act (1956) 201

Six-Pack Agreement 163

slavery 13, 53, 78, 101, 109–10, 113, 118, 157, 231, 288

Smith, Adam 11, 124

Smith, Ian 262

social checks and balances 230, 264, 294

Social Democratic Front (Cameroon) 141

social fragmentation 188–91, 196

social justice 62–3

socialism 152

Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America 53

Somalia 10, 54, 119–20, 179, 223, 251, 277

Somalis 49, 54, 275, 277

South Africa 8, 14, 18, 21, 36–7, 55, 63, 67, 70–73, 75, 78–9, 82, 89, 91, 93, 97–8, 104, 112–14, 122, 125, 127, 140, 143, 162–6, 168, 171, 177–8, 202, 208–9, 221–3, 257–8, 262, 277, 282–4, 293–4, 296, see also apartheid; post-apartheid developments

race 217

South Africa Act 70, 97

South Korea 157

South Sudan 2, 5, 10, 48, 157, 176–7, 204, 215, 218, 223

civil war 156, 171, 181, 204, 215

South West Africa 18, 67, 89, 104, see also Namibia

Southern Rhodesia 17, 89, 104, 262, see also Zimbabwe

Sovereign National Conference 93, 95

Soviet Union 73–4

Spain 152, 162

Republic of the 1930s 188

special representation rights 278–9, 282, 285

Sri Lanka 201–2

civil war 201

stable democracies 187–90, 194, 197

stakeholder groups 9, 30, 50–51, 62–3, 67, 78, 81, 94, 98, 107, 114, 116, 162, 165, 211, 219, 222, 229, 263–4, 266, 291–2

standard of living see living standards

starvation 46

Staton, Elizabeth Cady 106

Steiner, Jüg 157, 191–2

Stevens, Siaka 99, 192, 228, 258

strike 87–8

strikes 95

subcultures 4, 16, 23, 161, 176–86, 189–91, 193–5, 197, 199–200, 204, 211, 216, 218, 221, 226, 228–9, 238, 241, 283, 293

Suchman, Mark C. 104

Sudan, Republic of 2, 4–5, 10, 46, 112, 128, 176–7, 215, 223, 229, 236, 238–9, 268

civil war 5, 46, 48, 116, 134, 158

Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) 171

Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-in-Opposition (SPLM/A-IO) 157, 171

Sufi Muslims 57

Sundhaussen, U. 94

Sunni Muslims 57–9, 82

Supreme Court

Cameroon 137

Canada 126

Côte d’Ivoire 77, 144

South Africa 202

US 115, 118, 253–5

sustainable development 12, 46, 62

Switzerland 162, 176–7, 179, 187

Taiwan 152

Tamils 201

Tamuno, Tekena N. 19–20

Tanzania 99, 133, 228, 238, 243, 258, 284, 286

taxation 24, 42, 102, 104, 214

Taylor, Charles 120

Technical Committee on Constitutional Means 95–6

terrorism 146, 153, 179–80, 269, see also religious extremism

Tierney, S. 214

Togo 50, 75, 125, 139, 286

Tolbert, William R. 53, 120, 158, 202

torture 29

totalitarianism 245, 261

Touré, Sékou 192

trade unions 87, 163

traditions 5, 9, 11, 20, 25, 42, 52, 55, 94, 185, 226, 266, 274, 281–3, 294

Transitional Government of National Unity 5

transparency 107, 112, 160, 241

Transvaal 18, 69, 97, see also Union of South Africa

Tripartite Conference 95

Trubek, David M. 66, 70

True Whig Party (Liberia) 202

Trump, Donald 231

Tunisia 59, 75, 80

Tutsi 3, 46, 49, 53, 103, 128, 159, 262

Tyler, T. 102, 104

tyranny 8, 12–13, 35, 44, 85, 89, 91, 99, 108, 110, 113, 117–19, 121, 130, 133, 136–9, 158, 166, 168, 223, 230–31, 264–5, 268, 282, 291–2, 294

Uganda 75, 80, 275

UN Trust Territory of Cameroons 14, 32–3, 58, 65, 67–9, 100, 114–15, 131, 187, 227, 270–72

UN Trust Territory of Southern Cameroons 58, 65, 100, 115, 187, 227, 272, 276

underdevelopment 37, 49, 118, 174

unemployment 45, 195

unicameralism 89

Union des populations du Cameroun 270–71

Union of South Africa 14, 18, 26, 70

United Kingdom 22, 27, 61, 63, 150, 154, 163–4, 175, 187, 214, 220

United Nations 1, 48, 73, 156, 226, 286

UDHR see Universal Declaration of Human Rights

United Nations Development Programme 155, 160, 162

United States 13, 62, 66, 72, 87–8, 90–91, 93, 97, 101, 108–13, 129, 132–3, 135, 142–4, 150, 154, 163–4, 167, 171, 175, 183–4, 187, 198, 220, 229–31, 245, 248, 253, 255, 262, 264, 269, 271, 278, 282, 290

American constitutionalism 113–27

civil war 13, 118–19, 122, 288

Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1–2, 61, 73, 185

unstable democracies 187–8

Upper Volta 139, see also Burkina Faso

upstream legitimacy 60, 96–7, 291

Urhobo 57

Uruguay 179

US Department of State 169

van Schendelen, M. P. C. M. 197

Vanhanen, Tatu 149, 240

vigilantism 33, 45, 105, 119, 130

vote pooling 207–10

Voting Rights Act (1965) 262

Walesa, Lech 79–80

water supply 105, 119, 165, 194

wealth creation 1, 3, 10–12, 27, 29, 33–4, 41–4, 48, 51–2, 55, 59, 67, 69, 89, 94, 96, 103, 116–17, 121, 124, 128, 146–7, 153, 158, 162, 174, 178, 267, 269, 285, see also economic growth and development

wealth distribution 40, 231, 264, 268–9

welfare programs 45, 195

West Germany 148

Westminster model of democracy 198–9, 201

Widekum 274

Woermann, Adolf 21–2, 25

women 10, 30, 35, 78, 89, 117–18, 130, 233, 281, 283, 296

female genital mutilation 185, 283

World Bank 41

Wright, Quincy 182

Yoruba 4, 50, 56–7, 275, 277

Zaire 79, see also Democratic Republic of Congo

Zambia 75, 80, 123, 133, 243

Zimbabwe 18, 89, 104, 193, 236

Zulus 277

Zuma, Jacob 75