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Alternative Marketing Approaches for Entrepreneurs

Björn Bjerke

Consumers have, to a large extent, become their own producers; they are more aware of marketing and are active in adding value to the products and experiences they want. By assessing customers as active agents rather than passive consumers, Björn Bjerke explores alternative ways of marketing for new businesses and social entrepreneurial ventures.
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Chapter 7: Entrepreneurial startups

Björn Bjerke


There are several kinds of entrepreneurial startups. Based on the difference between rational and bricoleurial startups, this chapter provides several models and interpretations of various entrepreneurial startups. It continues by discussing important concepts for the rest of the book, such as ‘market’, ‘customer’, ‘user’ and ‘value creation’. It ends by providing the principles for managerial and social phenomenological marketing for entrepreneurs, which is the very duality on which this whole book is based.

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