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Information Sovereignty

Data Privacy, Sovereign Powers and the Rule of Law

Radim Polcak and Dan J.B. Svantesson

This thought-provoking work elaborates on the assumption that information privacy is, in its essence, comparable to information sovereignty. This seemingly rudimentary observation serves as the basis for an analysis of various information instruments in domestic and international law. It also provides for the method to resolve situations where informational domains of individuals and/or states collide. Information Sovereignty combines a philosophical and methodological analysis of the phenomena of information, sovereignty and privacy. It also encompasses more practical discussions of cybersecurity and cross-border processing of personal data, including in the context of cross-border discovery of digital evidence.
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Index

Data Privacy, Sovereign Powers and the Rule of Law

Radim Polcak and Dan J.B. Svantesson

absolute power 15, 20, 59, 137

actuality 7

adjudicative/judicial jurisdiction see judicial (or adjudicative) jurisdiction

Agencia Española de Protección de Datos (AEPD) 223

Alexy, Robert 87, 101, 150, 186

Amazon 129–30

analogies, drawing upon 48–52, 65, 187

see also metaphors, drawing upon

applied information sciences 10

Aristotle 16

Article 29 Group/Working Party 216, 225, 226

artistic works 27

Asian legal cultures 14

audio cassette recorders 27

Australia 69, 151

data privacy 218, 219, 231

establishment of Commonwealth 81

Gutnick case 37, 43

New South Wales 69

authoritarian regimes 87

banking systems 118

Barlow, John Perry 26, 34, 122, 123

black-letter law 128

blocking see content blocking

Brandeis, LD 82, 97, 104, 111

Canada 46–7, 77

Google Canada case 39

Catherine the Great (Catherine II), Empress of Russia 6, 9, 12, 13, 15–16, 22

‘ought’ of 7–8

ccTLDs (country code top-level domains) 224, 225, 228

certainty 14, 125, 126, 136, 160

chattels 108

chess 13–14

Christianity 66

CIA (Central Intelligence Agency), US 1

civil disobedience 9

CJEU see Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU)

classified data 26

cloud data 37, 54–5

divisibility and fungibility 54

governmental cloud storage services 160

intangibility 54, 55

location 58

mobility 54

uniqueness 55

cloud data exceptionalism 54, 56, 57

Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace (Lessig) 67

comity 70, 146, 149, 150

communication 25, 33

mutual 132, 133

communism 16

comprehensive data protection model 209

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) 183, 185

computer science 10, 234

concentration camps 128

conflict of laws see private international law (conflict of laws)

consent

international information sovereignty 73–9

as international law rule of recognition 74

private information sovereignty 104–8

constitutional courts 95, 100, 159, 186

Czech Republic 84–5, 150

consumer protection agencies 46

content blocking 25, 67, 70

global 225, 226

cooking, as analogy 134

copies, in copyright law 27

copy machines 27

copyright law 27

co-regulatory data protection model 209

Corfu Channel case 70–1

correspondence theory 16

Council of Europe 131, 190

countermeasures, active 160, 161

Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) 17, 18, 131, 212–14, 223, 224, 225

see also European Union

consequence focused approach 215

Crimea 6, 13, 120

cross-border access to data 106

cross-border data flows 211–23

limitations on 212–17

cross-border data transfers ix, 32–3, 191, 207–32

data colonization through global delisting orders 223–30

data privacy law 211–23

legal regimes 3

limitations on data flows 212–17

cross-border discovery 3

cross-border networking 66

culture, regulation of 15

customary international law 52

cyberattacks ix, 73, 175, 182, 183

‘cybercrimes’ 189

cyber-defence operations 3, 168

cyber-diplomacy 108

‘cyberlaw’ 3, 25, 123

cybernetics

language of 14

and law 27

and legal rules 4

Leibniz as godfather of 10

as philosophy of life 10

ultimate goal of 25

Wiener as founder of 9, 108

cybersecurity 3, 88, 155–87, 236

agendas 173

home or abroad distinction 165–7

incident-handling and response 157, 183

intelligence on incidents 176

national 156, 160

no direct link between territory and data 167–73

and object-based security 173–6, 179

and privatized security 158–9

procedural nature 174, 175, 179

territorial versus procedural control of information 179

‘cyber-Somalia’ 172

cyberspace

applicability of law in 26

growth 122

nationality of actions taking place in 51–2

and regulation of the Internet 35–6

cyberstalking ix, 88

Czech Republic 183, 184, 185

Constitutional Court 84–5, 150

Cybersecurity Act Explanatory Report 184, 185, 186

National Security Agency (NSA) 184

Czechoslovakia 12

Daesh 144

Darwin, Charles 11

data

access to 170

accurate, lawful processing 17

availability 26

classified 26

cloud 37, 54

commanding 25–7

content 205

creation and communication of 24

cross-border transfers 207–32

crossing borders 130, 230

exclusivity of sovereign control over 236

versus information 23, 24, 34

location 24, 54, 56, 58

as ‘new oil’ 33

non-personal 205

personal viii, 19, 23

regulation of 24

EU Data Protection Regulation viii, ix, 39, 219–20, 233

sensitive personal 205

subscriber 205

as tangible asset 54

and territory 167–73

traffic 205

truthful 17

types 24

data access 199–205

data economy 23

data exceptionalism 54, 57

data footprints 110

data privacy 2, 153

see also information sovereignty

cross-border data flows 211–23

foreigners, laws applied to 218–23

and information 23

national 3, 209

overlap between private and public international law 42

Data Protection Authorities (DPAs) 190, 212, 215, 254

Data Protection Officer 222

data protection, regulation models 209–10

data sovereignty 96, 166, 209

Datalink 49

death 11

Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace (Barlow) 34–5, 122, 123

defamation 69, 229

definition authorities 130, 131, 137

delisting

global, data colonization through orders 223–30

by Google 18

delocalized security 161–5

dictatorships 15

digital evidence 56, 57

dignity

as filtering method 64–5

human ix, 63, 63–5, 90

as matter of degree 64

as normative concept 91

overlap with privacy 93

and sovereignty 63–5

state 64

Directive, EU Data Protection 44

disaster, Fuller’s ‘distinct routes to’ 216, 237

dispute resolution 116–18

Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) 182

distributive versus non-distributive rights 87

divisibility, cloud data 54

domain names 117, 118

Dropbox accounts 56

due diligence principle 146, 182–5, 222

diligent sovereigns 177–80

international information sovereignty 71, 72–3

Dworkin, Ronald 73–9, 125, 137, 154, 187, 235

effects doctrine 62

efficiency 128–30, 160

Eichmann case 194

email 24

enclaves, artificially created 121

encryption 198

enforcement 188–206

current situation, characteristics 189–92

data access 199–205

multi-factor tests 196, 197

single-factor tests 195–7

enforcement jurisdiction 45, 47–8, 192–5, 237

territoriality and extra-territoriality 56, 57

entropy

countering of 13, 26

decrease of 18

defining 11, 12

envy 16

Euro-Atlantic laws 14

European Commission 212, 216, 226

European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 131

European Court of Justice (ECJ) 38–9

European Union

see also Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU); European Commission; European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR); European Court of Justice (ECJ)

cross-border data transfers 211–17, 230–2

data privacy laws applied to foreigners 219–20

extra-territoriality 53

legal positivism 7

Member States 131

evidence

access to 188–9

admissibility 162–3

digital 56, 57

exceptionalism

cloud data 54, 56, 57

data 54, 57

external peace 96, 100, 101, 110, 111

extra-territoriality 36

see also territoriality

defining 53

extra-territorial claims 53

and territoriality 52–8, 80

Facebook 35, 39, 66, 106, 129, 221

facts

factual nature of Internet 162

goodness of 16–18

statements of 16

fairness 14, 125, 126, 160

FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation) 1

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 49, 170, 171

Federal Trade Commission (FTC), US 212

file sharing 21, 22

First Amendment, United States 39

Floyd, Keith 134, 233

force, use of 168

forgotten, right to be 17–18, 84, 103

Model Code 227, 228, 229

forum non conveniens146, 150, 151

France

Constitutional Council 21

HADOPI law 21, 22

Internet jurisdiction 37–8

Penal Code 38

Freeculture (Lessig) 15

freedom of information 19, 32

freedom of speech 50, 63, 110, 208

Fuller, Lon L 17, 28, 33

disaster, routes to 216, 237

fundamental rights 138, 150

cross-border considerations 188, 214, 220, 224, 230

cybersecurity 159, 162, 164, 186

privacy 92, 94

fungibility, cloud data 54

gas chambers 128

genocide 128

Germany

changes to constitution 95

cybersecurity 166

Nazi Germany 16, 38, 94, 95, 113, 125

original constitution 94, 95

pre-war 94, 96

Weimar Republic 94, 95

global warming 77

globalization 64

gods of the Internet 65, 66, 130

Golden Age 120, 121, 122

good facts 16–18

good rules 13–16, 18

Google 65, 90, 129, 170, 171, 221

Google Canada case 39, 49

Google search 50

Google Spain case 17, 44, 149, 223, 223–7, 229, 230

Greece, Ancient 65, 131

see also Aristotle; Plato

Grotius, Hugo (Hugo de Groot) 58, 172, 173

Gutnick case 37, 43

habitual residence, law of 39

hacking/hackers 1, 32

HADOPI (Haute Autorité pour la Diffusion des oeuvres et la Protection des droits d’auteur sur Internet) 21, 22

‘Harvard Research Draft Convention on Jurisdiction with Respect to Crime’ (‘Harvard Draft’), 47, 141, 143, 193

hedgehogs and foxes analogy 187

hierarchy of order 131, 135

Hobbes, Thomas 85, 86, 87

Holocaust 128

see also Germany; Nazi Germany; Third Reich; Wannsee Conference

home or abroad distinction, cybersecurity 165–7

‘horse culture’ 123

Hume, David, is/ought dichotomy see is/ought dichotomy (Hume)

hyper-regulation 39, 40, 80, 235, 237

ICT (information and communications technology) 25, 26, 28, 71, 108

idealism 29

ILA Study Group on Due Diligence in International Law (2016) 71

illegality, file sharing 22

impossibility, total and relative 8

impossibilium nulla obligatio est8, 9

individual peace 87, 88, 89, 94, 112

individual sovereignty 111

informatics 10, 19

information

see also information and communications technology (ICT); information law; information overload; information privacy; information sciences; information sovereignty

versus data 23, 24, 34

direct 18

freedom of see freedom of information

incentives for emergence of 18–19

as a natural phenomenon 19–20

as opposite to entropy 11

precision as to meaning 11–12, 23

and target system 12, 17, 18

technologically motivated acknowledgment of significance 25

information and communications technology (ICT) 25, 26, 28, 71, 108

information footprints ix, 108, 109

information law 15

negative ontology 27–31

information overload 11

information privacy, and information sovereignty 3

Information Privacy Law (Solove and Schwartz) 82

information sciences 3, 4, 10

information society 119

information society services 114–15

information sovereignty

see also data privacy; sovereignty

choosing the information sovereign 180–2

and individual data privacy 2–3

and information privacy 3, 94–6

international 32–80

new normative concept 236

of state versus the individual 2–3

and territorial sovereignty 142, 172, 175, 180, 181

‘information superhighway’ 48–9

information theory 108

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) 182

infringement

of dignity 93

indirect 110

of internal or external peace 111

justified, or limitation 100–2

of privacy 64, 84, 111

of sovereignty 64

institutionalism 29

intangibility, cloud data 54, 55

intellectual property (IP) 4, 19, 23

copyright law 27

intelligence agencies 155, 162

interest balancing 64, 146–52, 154

categories of interest 203

internal peace 89, 92–5, 100, 101, 109, 110, 112

international cooperation 107

International Court of Justice (ICJ) 70–1

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 63

international information sovereignty 32–80

analogies and metaphors from offline world 48–52

comity 70

consent 73–9

international legal system 40–3

non-intervention principle 68–9

regulation issues 34–40

territoriality and extraterritoriality 52–8

international law

attack of concept 40

consent as rule of recognition 74

customary 52

environmental 71

human dignity and sovereignty 63

and national criminal procedure laws ix–x

private see private international law (conflict of laws)

public see public international law

and sovereignty 58–9, 62

theories of international legal obligation 75

international legal system 40–43

international peace 94, 96, 99, 100

Internet

see also Facebook; social media; Twitter; World Wide Web (WWW)

file sharing 21

Golden Age 122

information society services 114–15

ocean analogy 65

regulation of see regulation of the Internet

sovereignty, challenging 67–8

teleology of 127

usage of the mid-1990s 35

Internet Service Provider (ISP) 40, 126, 129

investigative jurisdiction 45, 46, 237

Ireland 200, 203, 212–13

is/ought dichotomy (Hume) 7–13, 20, 144

‘is’ of Norbert Wiener 9–13

methodological dilemma 135, 136, 137

‘ought’ of Catherine the Great 7–8

Japan 166

Jhering, Caspar Rudolf Ritter von 86–7, 89, 100, 111, 112

judicial (or adjudicative) jurisdiction 45, 46

Juenger, Friedrich K 233

jurisdiction

adjudicative/judicial 45, 46

concept 60

enforcement 45, 47–8, 56, 57, 192–5, 237

exclusive 60

investigative 45, 46, 237

jurisdictional hyper-regulation 39, 40, 80, 235, 237

limitations, jurisdictional 29

over evidence needed 192–3

over offence to be investigated 192–3

prescriptive or legislative 45, 52, 56, 57

in private international law 43–4

public and private international law 40–1

in public international law 44–8

rules 56

scope 43, 44, 80

simultaneous jurisdictional links 54

subject-matter 43

terminology 43

jurisdictional claims 52, 53, 57

Justice and Home Affairs Council 51

Kant, Immanuel 14, 85, 86, 87, 89, 104

Kelsen, Hans 16, 125, 132

La Ligue Contre Le Racisme et L’Antisémitisme 37–8

law

applicability of law in cyberspace 26

black-letter 128

certainty 14, 125, 126, 136, 160

copyright 27

culture, regulation of 7

‘cyberlaw’ 3, 25, 123

data privacy 211–23

fairness 14, 125, 126, 160

‘good’ 216

of habitual residence 39

information see information law

international see international law; private international law (conflict of laws); public international law

known, end of 124–7

legitimacy 40, 93, 120

and natural phenomena 20

normative nature 234

ontology of, naturalist approach to 136

perfect 121

positive 16

privacy as civil law concept 4

provision of incentives for information 18

Pure Theory of Law 7

ultimate purposes 14, 27

United States 39, 101, 106, 201, 217

utility 14, 125, 136–7

validity of a rule 16

‘Law and Borders – The Rise of Law in Cyberspace’ (Johnson and Post) 35

law enforcement 54

‘law of Man’ 120, 121, 127

‘Law of the horse’ 25, 124

Lawson v Accusearch case 45–6

left to one’s self, being 84–6, 87

legal cultures 14–15

legal informatics 10, 19

legal positivism 73, 75

see also positivism

European 7

international 132

legal pragmatism 139

legal traditions, new 120–4

end of known law 124–7

‘Law of the horse’ 25, 124

Legal Traditions of the World (Glenn) 124

legislative jurisdiction see prescriptive (or legislative) jurisdiction

legitimate and substantive juridical advantage 151

legitimate interest 143–6, 182, 202

and substantial connection 143–4, 204

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm 10

Lessig, Lawrence 15, 16, 19, 28, 67, 139

Lessig’s Paradigm 116

let alone, being 65, 82, 97, 100–1, 108, 110, 112

and being left to oneself 86, 87

lex informatica113–20, 124–7, 129, 139

lex mercatoria114, 117, 123, 124

Liar Liar (comedy, 1997) 17

life

and information 18

as a natural phenomenon 10, 11

Lindqvist case 215

LinkedIn 40

lis pendens152

The Little Prince (A de Saint-Exupéry) 8, 13, 20–3, 137, 139, 172, 173

living organisms 11

location

of data 24, 54, 56, 58, 164

of server/service provider 39–40, 197–8

Locke, John 14

locus delicti115

loneliness 86

Lotus case 198, 199

L’Union Des Etudiants Juifs De Franc 37–8

market-destroying measures 190

Marx, Karl 125, 126

mechatronics 10

megacommunity 159

Metamorphoses (Ovid) 120, 157

metaphors, drawing upon 48–52

see also analogies, drawing upon

methodology 135–9

Microsoft 65, 221

Microsoft Warrant case 39, 200, 201, 202, 204

Ministry of Justice (Nazi Germany), lawyers from 129

mobility, cloud data 54

Model Code 227, 228, 229

Morality of Law (Fuller) 17, 28

multi-factor tests 196, 197

multilateralism 149

Murdoch, Rupert 127

Mutual Legal Assistance (MLA) 47, 189

national security 3, 155

see also security

National Security Agency (NSA)

Czech Republic 184

United States 1

nationality principle 47, 51, 62

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), Centre of Excellence 168

natural phenomena 9

information as 19–20

and law 20

life, as a natural phenomenon 10, 11

natural sciences 29

naturalism 14, 29

naturalist cognitivism 136

Naturalist naturalism 136

Nazi Germany 16, 38, 113, 125

see also Germany; Holocaust; Wannsee Conference; World War II

information privacy and information sovereignty 94, 95

‘New Philosophy for International Law, A’ (Dworkin) 73

New South Wales 69

no harm principle 71

non-cognitivism 135

non-intervention/non-interference, duty of 60, 63, 68–9, 146, 200

non-personal data 205

normological scepticism/non-cognitivism 135

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Centre of Excellence 168

NSA see National Security Agency (NSA), US

object-based security 157, 173–6, 179

objective territoriality principle 62

Office of the Director of National Intelligence, US 1

Olivecrona, Karl 61

ontology, negative, of information law 27–31

organization

appearance of 53

creation 53

implicit 29, 31

improvement 13

of international structures 114

of language of cybernetics 14

normative 29

real 53

of search engines 225

of social structures/society 12, 14

of states 12, 14

of a system 11, 12, 14, 18

‘ought’ (Hume) see is/ought dichotomy (Hume)

over-regulation of Internet 34, 37, 39

Ovid 121, 157

pacta sunt servanda principle 146

paparazzi activities 98

passive personality principle 47, 62

peace

external 96, 100, 101, 110, 111

individual 87, 88, 89, 94, 112

infringements of external or external peace 111

internal 89, 92–5, 100, 101, 109, 110, 112

international 94, 96, 99, 100

perpetual 86

right to 86–9

as ultimate aim of sovereignty 94

as ultimate goal of law 14

Peace Treaty of Westphalia 58

peasants 6, 7, 12, 24

personal data

and infringements of peace 111

legal concept of protection of 26

versus personal information 23

right to protection viii, 19, 106, 111

sensitive 205

PHAEDRA [Improving Practical and Helpful Cooperation Between Data Protection Authorities] II 45

physical location of data 24, 58, 164

physical power 103

physics, fundamental law of 11

piracy 21

Plato 85–7, 89, 92, 96, 100

positivism 8, 14, 29, 73

legal 7, 73, 75, 132

pure 139

Potemkin, Grigory 6–31, 53

laws 28–31

Potemkin village 6, 7, 9, 12, 24

practical reason (Kant) 89

pragmatism 14, 137, 139, 234

prescriptive (or legislative) jurisdiction 45, 52, 56, 57

presidential election, US 1–2

privacy

see also cross-border data transfers

as a brand 90

civil law concept 4

cross-border data law 207–8

green environments 86

independent existence of 96–9

individuals 65

information privacy and information sovereignty 94–6, 112

infringement of 64, 84, 111

limitation or justified infringement 100–2

limits to 89–94

overlap with dignity 93

privacy technologies model 210

private information sovereignty 81–4

property and sovereignty 63

reasonable expectation of privacy doctrine, US 101, 103, 153

scope 105

versus security ix

privacy commissioners/ombudsmen 46

Privacy Shield framework 214, 217

private information sovereignty 81–112, 236

being left to one’s self 84–6, 87

carving one out of another 103–4

consent 104–8

information privacy and information sovereignty 94–6

peace, right to 86–9

personal data 108–12

privacy 81–4

private international law (conflict of laws) 40–3

analogies and metaphors, drawing upon 48–9

jurisdiction in 43–4

legitimate interest and substantial connection 143

and public international law 208

private law sphere 42, 84, 88, 208, 236

privatized security 158–61

property and sovereignty 63

proportionality analysis 3, 88, 147

protective principle 47, 143

protective rights 87

public international law 40–3

jurisdiction in 44–8

state sovereignty, informational component 3

public law sphere 42, 99, 208

public sector data, versus public sector information 23

Pure Theory of Law 7

Putin, Vladimir Vladimirovich 1, 120

Radbruch, Gustav 14, 16, 125–6, 129, 135, 136, 160

reasonableness principle 149, 178, 181

Rechtslehre, Reine (Kelsen) 7see also Pure Theory of Law

recording industry 21

Reding, Viviane 220

Regulation, EU Data Protection viii, ix, 39, 219–20, 233

regulation of the Internet 34–40

Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace (Barlow) 34–5

hyper-regulation 39, 40, 80, 235, 237

over-regulation 34, 37, 39

under-regulation 34, 39, 235

un-regulation 34

res iudicata152

rights 61

road network metaphor, Internet regulation 48–9

roadblocks 32

robotics 10

Rolls Royce 90

rule of law 26

rules, goodness of 13–16, 18

Russia

cyber operations 1–2

and global warming 77

invasion of Georgia (2008) 177

as source of cyberattacks 73

Supreme Court 131

Safe Harbour Privacy Principles 212

Saint-Exupéry, A. de 8, 13, 20–3, 137, 139, 172, 173, 234

salience, principle of 74–6, 154

science of government 23, 234

scientific writings 110

scope of jurisdiction 43, 44, 80

search engines 50, 65–6

sectoral data protection model 210

security 2

delocalized 161–5

Europe versus North America 156

object-based 157, 173–6, 179

versus privacy ix

privatized 158–61

real-time, of information systems 175

virtualized 155–8

self-determination 104, 186

self-regulation data protection model 210

sensitive personal data 205

Sidis case 82–4

significant connection 151

Singapore 157, 218, 219, 231

single-factor tests 195–7

social media 1, 39, 40, 66

see also Facebook; LinkedIn; Twitter

sovereignty 58–65, 177

absolute, impossibility of 64

concept 58–9, 61, 98

and dignity 63–5

diligent sovereigns 177–80

and equality of states 59–60, 62

European 60

and human dignity 63–5

individual 109, 111

information see information sovereignty

infringement of 64

international 124

and international law 58–9, 62

Internet challenging 67–8

as matter of degree 64

nation state, pre-dating 58

normative concept 58–9

piercing of the sovereign veil 100

process-based 142

reach of 102

solving of clashes 140–54

spatial 62–3

state see state sovereignty

territorial concept 179

theory 58

spatial paradigm 22–4

spatial sovereignty 62–3

SPEECH Act (Securing the Protection of our Enduring and Established Constitutional Heritage Act, US) 2010 39

spillovers 36

Star Wars33

state sovereignty 3, 113, 197, 209, 236, 237

and data sovereignty 209

and international information sovereignty 58, 66–7

and private information sovereignty 91, 93

statements of facts 16, 17

storage media 24

Street View, Google 170, 171

subjective territoriality principle 62

subscriber data 205

substantial connection 153, 166, 181

and legitimate interest 143–4, 204

sunsets 20, 22, 23, 24, 137

surveillance 89, 97, 98, 216

CCTV 89, 101

Sweden 150

Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare46–7, 72, 168–70, 177–8, 183, 185

target system 12, 17, 18, 115, 222–3

technology, ownership of 66–7

technology-neutral approach 25

telephone network metaphor, Internet regulation 49

territorial sovereignty 179, 190, 191

and information sovereignty 142, 172, 175, 180, 181

territoriality 237, 238

see also extra-territoriality

and extra-territoriality 52–8, 80

functions, failure at 198

objective 53

as stranglehold 197–9

territoriality principle 47, 52, 62

theft 12, 56

theoretic information sciences 10

thermodynamics, second law of 11

Third Reich 113, 128, 129

see also Holocaust; Nazi Germany; World War II

torts, common law 64

traffic data 205

treaties, law of 41

Trinidad and Tobago 231

Trinity College, Dublin 10–11

Twitter 65

under-regulation of Internet 34, 39, 235

Uniform Domain-Name Dispute-Resolution Policy (UDRP) 117, 118

unilateralism 149

United States

cloud computing industry 203

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) 1

Federal Communications Commission (FCC) 49, 170, 171

Federal Trade Commission (FTC) 212

First Amendment 39

intelligence service 213

law 39, 101, 106, 201, 217

privacy cases 81

reasonable expectation of privacy doctrine 101, 103, 153

universality principle 47, 143

unorthodoxy 80

utility 14, 125, 126, 136–7

Verdross, Alfred 96, 102

Viking Scandinavia 66

virtuality 7

virtualization/virtualized security 13, 155–8

defining 157

method 164

volenti non fit injuria104, 107

Wannsee Conference 128, 129

Warren, SD 82, 97, 104, 111

Weimar Republic 94, 95

see also Germany

Weinberger, Otto 132, 235

What is Life (Schrödinger) 11

Wiener, Norbert 108, 121

chess-machine, prediction of 13

information of, with regard to law 15

‘is’ of 9–13

on life as a natural phenomenon 10

on philosophical integration 19

Wikipedia 32

Wittgenstein, Ludwig 30

World War II 94

see also Holocaust; Nazi Germany; Wannsee Conference

World Wide Web (WWW) 34

Yahoo! 37, 38

Zuckerberg, Mark 126, 127