Show Less
You do not have access to this content

General Principles of EU Law and the Protection of Fundamental Rights

Chiara Amalfitano

This insightful book analyses the role that EU general principles have taken in the protection of fundamental rights within the EU since the Lisbon Treaty. In particular, the author focuses on the relationship between written law (the Charter of Fundamental Rights) and unwritten law (the general principles) within the institutional framework of the EU. The book demonstrates that due to their complementary and autonomous function toward the protection of fundamental rights, the general principles still play a key role within the Union despite the binding force of the Charter.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

Index

Chiara Amalfitano

accession 35–53

possible alternatives 54–6

process impasse see European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (ECHR)

provision, and Article 6(2) TEU see Article 6(2) TEU, provision of accession to ECHR

see also relevant Articles below

acquis, integrative role of the general principles and development of acquis of EU 6, 18, 24–5, 163–72, 173–4, 180–81, 193

Adam, R 9

age discrimination 13, 106, 134

Amalfitano, C 23, 24, 56, 91, 138

Anagnostaras, G 23, 49, 92, 189, 195, 196

Anderson, D 160

Andreadakis, S 11, 46, 48, 54–5, 111, 188

Andreangeli, A 88

Anrò, I 36, 132

Arai-Takahashi, Y 177

Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, opt-out regime 162–3

Arestis, G 16

Arnull, A 20, 160, 161

Article 6(1) TEU and Charter of Fundamental Rights 7–14, 62, 111, 126, 160

Constitutional Treaty 8

distinction between rights and principles, unclear 14, 103–9

EU Judges’ and AG’s use before the Lisbon Treaty 10–13

revision procedure 8–9

visibility of protected rights 13–14

Article 6(2) TEU, provision of accession to European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (ECHR) 21, 35–40, 42, 44, 47, 54–5

Protocol No. 8 and conditions to ensure validity of the accession agreement 38–9

Article 6(3) TEU, general principles concerning fundamental rights 1, 14–15, 17–35, 43–4, 45, 57, 58, 61, 94–6, 99, 100, 111, 113, 124, 192

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (ECHR) 1, 20, 21, 26–8, 31, 33, 94–96

general principles beside and beyond the Charter 147–192

Article 19 TEU 3, 17, 26, 32, 33–4, 198

Article 218(11) TFEU, Opinion of the ECJ regarding the compatibility of an agreement with the Treaties 37, 39, 41, 43, 47, 51

asylum cases 49–50, 80–83, 158, 195

autonomy of the EU legal order 6, 42, 47, 52, 59, 101, 147–9, 180, 183–4, 186–7, 193–4

autonomy of the European Court of Justice 60–2, 165, 189

Baratta, R 48

Barnard, C 160

Bassini, M 146, 157, 160

Belling, V 160

Benoit-Rohmer, F 42, 48

Bergé, J-S 191

Berger, M 41

Bernard-Glanz, C 118

Bernardi, A 136

Bernitz, U 13

Berramdane, A 160, 163, 181, 188

Berrod, F 96, 187

Besselink, LFM 8, 23, 41, 160, 163, 182–3

Bestagno, F 51, 119

Biagioni, G 84

Biondi, A 160

Bobbio, N 17

Bonichot, J-C 26, 183

Botta, M 88

Brittain, S 59–60

Bultrini, A 27, 28, 37

Buonanno, M 35

business premises protection 71–2, 77–9

Caflisch, L 40

Cameron, I 102

Cannizzaro, E 41

Cantillon, B 169

Capotorti, F 20, 36, 55

Charter of Fundamental Rights 1–4, 14–15, 32, 58, 99, 100, 112–26, 156–63, 192

and Article 6(1) TEU see Article 6(1) TEU and Charter of Fundamental Rights Explanations 14–15, 16, 33, 58–62, 73–5, 77, 99–100, 105, 108, 183–4, 185–6, 190, 194

and general principles as interchangeable sources 112–15

and general principles, referencing of both sources 115–20

binding legal value 7–14

Constitutional Treaty 8, 20, 38, 164

content 14–17

general principles of law beside and beyond see general principles of law beside and beyond the Charter

Preamble 14–15, 32, 58, 99, 100, 192

Protocol No. 30 on the application of the Charter to Poland and U.K. 156–63

relationship between sources of fundamental rights protection see EU legal order, relationship between sources of fundamental rights protection, Charter of Fundamental Rights

see also general principles; Lisbon Treaty

civil judicial cooperation 83–5

civil unions, recognition of 170–71, 174–6

complementary role of general principles

Charter not applicable ratione temporis 5, 94–5, 106–7, 115, 126, 127, 148, 149–151

Charter not applicable ratione personae 151–6

Charter not applicable with respect to certain Member States 156–63

see also general principles

Condinanzi, M 24, 56, 104, 105, 107, 155, 157

confidentiality of lawyer–client correspondence 79–80, 101, 135

Conforti, B 39, 188

conservative role

of the Charter of fundamental rights 182–6

general principles of law beside and beyond the Charter 147–92

guaranteeing specificities of EU legal system 95, 148–9, 166, 180–86

survival in the event of accession to ECHR 186–92

see also general principles

constitutional traditions common to Member States 5, 15, 20, 21, 24, 26, 28–30, 33, 67, 80, 96, 99–102, 118, 127, 166–7, 171, 172–4, 198–9

see also individual countries; national principles

constitutionality issues 136–46

Coppel, J 23

Costanzo, P 55, 66

Cournot, M 91

criminal judicial cooperation 85–7

counter-limits doctrine 22–3, 24, 66, 136, 137, 139–40, 141, 143, 145, 167, 196, 198

Coutron, L 88

Cozzi, AO 174

Craig, P 152

Cupelli, C 136

Curti Gialdino, C 89

D’Alessio, MT 90

D’Andrea, L 196

Daniele, L 8, 26

data protection 34–5, 70, 76, 118, 119–20

Dawson, M 19

de Beco, G 128

De Boer, N 23

de Búrca, G 9, 32, 36, 59, 117

De Hert, P 188–9

De Schutter, O 37

De Witte, B 20, 41

Den Heijer, M 80

Denmark

Ajos case 106, 199

Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, opt-out regime 162–3

Dero-Bugny, D 27

Di Federico, G 10, 79, 143

dialogue between ECJ and ECtHR 4, 49, 54–6, 65–6, 77, 190–91, 195

dialogue between ECJ and Italian Constitutional Court 140, 145, 146

see also individual courts

disability discrimination 128–9, 130–31

discrepancies between the ECJ and the ECtHR jurisprudences, real or apparent 77–93

Dougan, M 12–13

Douglas-Scott, S 42, 43, 48, 49, 58, 59, 65, 66, 90, 188, 195

Dubouis, L 25, 163, 165, 182, 187

Dubout, E 1–2, 41, 104, 182

Dupont-Lassalle, J 118

Dutheil de la Rochère, J 152, 163

Editorial Comment, 41, 97

Eeckhout, P 41

Ekardt, F 101

equality of arms principle 88, 117

EU legal order, relationship between sources of fundamental rights protection 57–109

discrepancies between the ECJ and the ECtHR jurisprudences, real or apparent 77–93

European Court of Justice and enhancement of level of protection guaranteed under ECHR 72–6

European Court of Justice tendency to follow the European Court of Human Rights 65–72

general principles of law and ECHR, relationship between 94–6

homogeneity clause 57, 59–63, 66–7, 71, 72–3, 76, 77, 83, 94, 95–6, 99, 100

ne bis in idem principle 60, 69–70, 72, 84–6

pre- and post-Lisbon comparison 66–8

and third States not members of the Union 63–4

ultra vires doctrine 66, 76

EU legal order, relationship between sources of fundamental rights protection, Charter of Fundamental Rights

and common constitutional traditions 100–103

and ECHR, relationship between 57–64

Explanations relating to the Charter 58–62, 73–5, 77, 99–100, 105, 108

and general principles of law, relationship between 96–103

rights and principles distinction 14, 103–9

European Arrest Warrant (EAW) 11, 23–4, 50, 71, 83, 91–2, 93, 195–6

European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (ECHR) 1, 20, 21, 26–8, 31, 33, 35–40, 57–64, 72–6

accession process impasse and relevance of ECHR in legal systems 40–53

and Article 6(2) TEU see Article 6(2) TEU, provision of accession to European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (ECHR)

as minimum floor of protection 58, 72, 95–6, 118, 126, 132

Opinion 2/1311, 23, 36, 40–45, 46–7, 49, 51, 52, 93, 192, 193

see also accession

European Court of Human Rights 4, 19, 54–6, 77, 94–6, 140, 145, 146, 183–6, 190–91, 195

European Court of Human Rights, cases

A. and B. v Norway 86–7, 184–5

Agrati v Italy 187

Avotinš v Latvia 51, 84, 85, 191, 195

Belcacemi and Oussar v Belgium 178

Bosphorus Hava Yollari Turizmve Ticaret v Ireland 51

Bouvet v France 132

Capital Bank AD v Bulgaria 64

Coëme and Others v Belgium 72, 138, 142

Colas Est and Others v France 78

Cooperatieve Producentenorganisatie van de Nederlandse Kokkelvisserij U.A. v Netherlands 89–90

Ebrahimian v France 178

Engel and Others v Netherlands 70, 75, 86, 185

Ferrazzini v Italy 75

Foulon v France 132

Goc v Turkey 90

Golder v United Kingdom 58

Goodwin v United Kingdom 65

Grande Stevens and Others v Italy 85–6, 185–6

Guzzardi v Italy 64

Ireland v the United Kingdom 64

J.J. v Netherlands 89

Jóhannesson and Others v Island 86

Jussila v Finland 75

Karner v Austria 64

Keskinen v Finland 90

Kress v France 89

Labassee v France 130, 131, 132

Laborie and Others v France 132

Lautsi and Others v Italy 178

Lobo Machado v Portugal 89

Lucky Dev v Sweden 85, 185

M & Co. v Germany 51, 188

Maggio v Italy 187

Mennesson v France 130, 131, 132

Michaud v France 51

M.M.S. v Belgium and Greece 50, 80–81, 82

Negrepontis-Giannisis v Greece 177–8

Niemietz v Germany 78–9

Nykänen v Finland 85, 185

Oliari and Others v Italy 171, 174–5

Paradiso and Campanelli v Italy 132

Rantsev v Ciprus and Russia 64

S.A.S. v France 178

Schalk and Kopf v Austria 171

Scoppola v Italy 65

Sharifi and Others v Italy and Greece 80

Soering v United Kingdom 92

Stefanetti v Italy 187

Tarakhel v Switzerland 50, 80–81

Torreggiani and Others v Italy 92

Tyrer v United Kingdom 58

Vallianatos and Others v Greece 171

Vermeulen v Belgium 89

X. v Latvia 132

Yvon v France 88

Zolotukhin v Russia 65

European Court of Justice 1, 2–4, 19, 54–6, 72–6, 140, 145, 146, 183–6, 190–91, 195

interpretative authority and autonomy 59, 60, 61, 63, 77, 95, 148, 165, 183, 187–90, 194

tendency to follow the European Court of Human Rights 65–72

European Court of Justice, cases

Aalberts Industries v European Union 69, 122

Abdida 67, 71, 116, 123

Abdullahi 71, 81–2

Abercrombie & Fitch Italia 13, 106, 121

Achbita 107, 178, 179, 197

Adhésion de l’Union à la CEDH (ECJ Opinion 2/13) 4, 11–12, 23, 36, 40–5, 46–7, 49–52, 62, 93, 180, 183, 189, 191, 192, 193, 194

Advocaten voor de Wereld 10

Aguirre Zarraga 83

Åkerberg Fransson 45, 60, 69–70, 86, 97, 177, 185, 189–90, 193

Akzo Nobel Chemicals and Akcros Chemicals v Commission 29–30, 79–80, 101, 135, 150

Al Barakaat International Foundation 17, 21, 181

Alassini and Others 72

Altun 31

AM & S v Commission 79

Amministrazione delle finanze dello Stato v Essevi 18

Aranyosi 49, 71, 83, 84, 85, 92, 93, 121, 123, 189, 195

ASPLA and Armando Álvarez v European Union 69, 122

Association de médiation sociale 104, 108, 109

Audiolux and Others 21

Baldetti 87

Båndkopi 116

Baustahlgewebe v Commission 69

Bayer Crop-Science and Stichting De Bijenstichting 121

Bergemann 28

Berlioz Investment Fund 75, 97

Berlusconi 29–30

BETCU 10, 16

Bickel and Franz 175

Blaizot 31, 33, 145

Bonda 86, 158–9

Bougnaoui and ADDH 107, 178–9, 180, 197

Brasserie du pêcheur v Bundesrepublik Deutschland 156

Bressol 31

Brey 170

Căldăraru 49, 71, 83, 84, 85, 92, 121, 123, 189, 195

Calfa 175

Chatzi 116

C.K. 50, 82–3, 121, 195

Coman 176

Commission v Italy 18

Commission v United Kingdom 170

Connolly 27

Covaci 69

Cowan 175

D. 130–33, 197

Dano 170

Dansk Industri 13, 106, 150, 199

Dansk Jurist- og Økonomforbund 116

DEB 73–5, 135–6

Deckmyn and Vrijheidsfonds 116, 123

Defrenne v SABENA 13, 31, 107

Deltafina v Commission 122

Denkavit italiana 139

Der Grüne Punkt – Duales System Deutschland v Commission 69

Deutsche Bahn and Others v Commission 71, 116

Deutsche Milchkontor 140

Di Puma 87

Digital Rights Ireland 34, 70, 76, 97, 102, 119–20, 121, 123, 149

DK Recycling und Roheisen and Others v Commission 102

Dominguez 104, 107, 150

Dynamic Medien 10, 25, 31, 142

Eifert 67, 97, 120

El Dridi 127–8

Emesa Sugar 89

Eturas and Others 116

European Parliament v Council 10, 31

Factortame 156

Fenoll 107, 113–14, 124, 133–5, 149, 150, 180

FLS Plast v Commission 69, 122

FLSmidth v Commission 69, 122

FOA 129

Förster 140

García-Nieto 170

Garenfeld 116

Garlsson Real Estate 87

Gascogne Sack Deutschland v Commission 69, 122

Gasparini 140–41

Ghezelbash 71

Glatzel 108–9, 116, 129

Google Spain 35, 117, 118, 119, 123

Groupe Gascogne v Commission 68, 123

Grzelczyk 139

Guardian Industries and Guardian Europe v Commission 116, 122

Hay 133, 150, 171

Heimann 104

Hernandez and Others 97

Hoechst v Commssion 28, 77–8

Hungary v Slovakia 17

ICF v Commission 122

ICI v Commission 140

Iida 111

Internationale Handelsgesellschaft 22, 26

Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and Others v Commission 189, 193

Jégo-Quéré v Commission 10

Jobcenter Berlin Neukölln 170

Johnston 27

JZ 183, 190

Kadi 17, 21, 181

Kamberaj 44–5

Kamino International Logistics and Others 150

Kendrion v Commission 68, 69, 122, 123

Khalil and Others 31

King 104, 135

KME Germany and Others v Commission 116

Kossowski 84–5, 189, 195

Kücükdeveci 13, 106, 150

Kühne & Heitz 139

Lanigan 50, 67, 71

Léger 97, 116, 176

Lemmerz Werke v High Authority 140–41

Lock 116

Mangold 13, 29–30, 106, 134

Mannesmannröhren-Werke v Commission 10

Manni 118

Maruko 133, 171

M.A.S. and M.B. 22, 136, 146, 196

Mascolo 137

max. mobil v Commission 10

M’Bodj 71

McB. 67

Meilicke 145

Melchior 109

Melloni 23, 24, 50, 93, 102, 196

Menci 87, 185

Meroni 68

Micheletti 175

Milkova 97, 116

Mills v EIB 29

Minority SafePack – one million signatures for diversity in Europe v Commission 167–8

N. 60–62, 77, 123, 124, 183, 189, 190, 193

National Panasonic v Commission 27

NCC Construction Danmark 21

Neptune Distribution 67

Nikolaou v Court of Auditors 121

Nokia Italia and Others 116

Nold 27, 31, 180

N.S. 49, 71, 80–82, 158, 160–61

Omega 25, 198

Ordre des barreaux francophones and germanophone and Others 68, 189, 193–4

Orizzonte Salute 68

Orkem v Commission 28, 31

Orsi 87

Otis and Others 88, 117

P & O European Ferries (Vizcaya) v Commission 10

P v S and Cornwall County Council 28

Palacios de la Villa 24

Paoletti and Others 123–6, 150–51, 189

Parliament v Council (Tchernobyl) 19

Parris 176

Petruhhin 71, 123

Philip Morris Brands and Others 67

Plantanol 140

Pohotovost’ 109

Presidente del Consiglio dei Ministri 137

Prigge and Others 116

Racke 17

Richardson 139

Römer 107, 133, 150

Roquette Frères SA 27, 28, 79

Rosneft 49

Rumi v Commission 140

Rutili 27

Ryneš 121

SABAM 68

Sähköalojen ammattiliitto 158

Salengo 18

Samba Diouf 68, 116, 149

Sayn-Wittgenstein 25, 116, 142

SC Star Storage 68

Scattolon 12, 98, 183

Schindler Holding and Others v Commission 189

Schmidberger 27

Schoenimport ‘Italmoda’ Mariano Previti 121

Schrems 70, 121

Schröder 139

Schultz-Hoff and Others 159

Schwarz 72

Scialdone 146

Seitlinger and Others 34, 70, 97, 102, 119, 121, 123, 149

Siragusa 97

Spasic 97

Stauder 26, 30

Surgicare 121, 122

Sweden v Council 29

Tall 67, 71

Taricco and Others 22, 66, 71–2, 76, 101, 121, 136–40, 141–6, 164, 185, 196, 197, 198

Tchernobyl (Parliament v Council) 19

Tele2 Sverige 16, 70, 76, 116, 119, 123

Telefónica and Telefónica de España v Commission 189

Test-Achats and Others 116, 149

ThyssenKrupp Nirosta v Commission 120

Toltschin 104

Toma 58, 67

Transocean Marine Paint Association v Commission 29

Uberseering 10

Unibet 10

Unión de Pequeños Agricultores v Council 10

Unitrading Ltd 68, 121

Van Gend & Loos 18, 192, 199

Vervloet and Others 116

Viking 159

Volker und Markus Schecke GbR 67, 97, 120

W v Commission 171

Wachauf 180

Watson 16, 70, 76, 116, 123

WebMindLicenses 67

Willems and Others 97

Z. 130–33, 197

European Court of Justice, post-Lisbon case law and role of general principles 110–46

Charter of Fundamental Rights 112–26

constitutionality issues 136–46

counter-limits doctrine 136, 137, 139–40, 141, 145

and ECHR as minimum floor of protection 58, 72, 95–6, 118, 126, 132

general principles, exclusive use of 127–8

interpretive approach before and after Lisbon Treaty, substantial continuity of 110–12

possible extensive and/or evolutive interpretation of written and unwritten source 134–46

self-referential approach 117–19

self-restraint approach 128–34

Evans, B 26

Explanations, Charter of Fundamental Rights 14–15, 16, 33, 58–62, 73–5, 77, 99–100, 105, 108, 183–4, 185–6, 190, 194

Fabbrini, F 65

fair trial principle 68–9, 89–91, 117, 122

Favilli, C 80

Finck, M 130

Frantziou, E 13

fraud cases 71, 137–46, 197–8

freedom of movement and welfare benefits 170

Fries, S 2–3

Gaja, G 17, 20, 33, 37, 53, 167

Galetta, DU 153

Gallo, D 136

García, RA 25

Gatta, GL 125

Gaudissart, M-A 56

general principles 26–30, 94–103

and Article 6(3) TEU see Article 6(3) TEU, general principles concerning fundamental rights

post-Lisbon case law and role of see European Court of Justice, post-Lisbon case law and role of general principles

see also Charter of Fundamental Rights; Lisbon Treaty

general principles of law beside and beyond the Charter 147–92

Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, opt-out regime 162–3

Article 6(3) TEU 147–8, 166, 173, 182–3, 186

autonomous role 147–9

Charter not applicable ratione temporis, complementary role of general principles 5, 94–5, 106–7, 115, 126, 127, 148–51

Charter not applicable ratione personae, complementary role of general principles, 151–6

conservative role 95, 148–9, 166, 180–92

constitutional traditions common to Member States 166–7, 176–7, 198–9

counter-limits doctrine 167, 181, 188–9

EU institutions and international sources, interpretation of 167

homogeneity clause and ECHR 166, 173, 182, 184, 190

inconsistencies between the ECJ and the ECtHR jurisprudences 183–6

integrative role and development of acquis of EU 163–72, 173–4, 180–81, 190

legislation of Member States, reference to 172–80

ne bis in idem principle 184–6, 189

Protocol No. 30 on the application of the Charter to Poland and U.K. 156–63

ultra vires doctrine 177

Gerkrath, J 20, 25, 163, 165

Germany, cases

Solange I 22–3

Solange II 23, 181, 188

Gianelli, A 62

Glenn, PH 100

Goedemé, T 169

Grabenwarter, C 26, 96, 162

Groussot, X 9, 13, 16, 20, 98, 117, 128, 160

Gualco, E 13

guaranteed minimum income right 169–70, 175–6

Guastaferro, B 143

Guđmundsdóttir, D 104

Guliyeva, G 157, 159, 160, 161

Gutiérrez-Fons, JA 20, 25, 97

Gutman, K 29, 79

Halberstam, D 41

Halleskov Storgaard, L 41

Hancox, E 12

Herzog, R 9

Hilf, M 36

Hofmann, HCH 152, 165

homogeneity clause 5, 6, 43, 59–63, 66–7, 72–3, 77, 83, 94, 95–6, 99, 124, 193–4, 197

and European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (ECHR) 166, 173, 182, 184, 190

homosexuality 133, 170–71, 174–6

Iannuccelli, P 56

Iglesias Sanchez, S 11, 100, 163

illegal immigration 123–6

Imamović,   41

inconsistencies between the ECJ and the ECtHR jurisprudences 183–6

inhuman or degrading treatments 50, 71, 81–3, 92–3, 195

integrative role of general principles 6, 18, 24–5, 95, 115, 148–9, 163–80, 181, 184, 190, 193

international sources 18–19, 20–25, 28–35, 167

Internet access right 168–9

interpretive approach, European Court of Justice 110–12, 134–46

Ireland, Area of Freedom, Security and Justice, opt-out regime 162–3

Italy, cases

C.D. e a. 138

Comune di Avellino e a. 53

De Giovanni e a. 138

D.P.E. 165

Fragd 22, 139–40

Frontini e a. 22

Granital 52, 53

Lorenzon 187

M.G. e a. 174

M.K.P. 52

Morettini 187

N.P. 187

Prima Idep e a. 138

R.A., A.C., M.T.G 53

Jääskinen, N 15

Jacobs, F 20, 36, 65

Jacqué, J-P 15, 36, 41, 46, 47, 63, 165

Jaeger, M 188

Jaremba, U 158

Kaila, H 10, 13, 14

Kas, B 130

Kędzia, Z 52

Kokott, J 60, 95, 181

Korenica, F 188–9

Kornack, D 101

Krommendijk, J 104

Kronenberger, V 90

Krygier, M 100

Labayle, H 41, 80

Ladenburger, C 32, 119, 160, 167

Lagoutte, S 40

Lamarque, E 55

Lamont, R 131

Larik, J 65

Lazzerini, N 100, 104

legal aid 73–5, 135–6

legal certainty principle 13–14, 104, 110, 111, 126, 140–42, 143, 145, 157

legal order relationship see EU legal order, relationship between sources of fundamental rights protection

legislation of Member States, reference to 172–80

Lejeune, Y 37

Lenaerts, K 12, 20, 25, 29, 59, 79, 97, 178

Lisbon Treaty 1, 7–8, 38, 66–8

post-Lisbon case law see European Court of Justice, post-Lisbon case law and role of general principles

see also Charter of Fundamental Rights; general principles

Livolsi, T 16, 171

Lock, T 41

Lockhart, NJS 23

Loenen, T 178–9

Lourenço, L 13, 109

Lugato, M 10

Luigjes, C 169

Madsen, M 106

Mancini, GF 21

Marchal, S 169

Marguery, T 85

marriage or registered union right 170–71, 174–6

Mbongo, P 19

Megliani, M 79

Mengozzi, P 13, 60, 187

Michel, V 187

Mihaescu, BC 152, 165

Mik, C 27

Millet, F-X 60

minimum floor of protection, European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights (ECHR) 58, 72, 95–6, 118, 126, 132

minimum income, guaranteed 169–70, 175–6

Montaldo, S 189

Morano-Foadi, S 11, 46, 54–5, 111, 188

Muir, E 19

Murphy, C 160

Murray, JL 27

Nascimbene, B 13

ne bis in idem principle 60, 69–70, 72, 84–6, 141, 184–6, 189, 196

non-retroactivity in malam partem 30, 71, 101, 136, 138, 140, 142, 143, 146, 198

nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege principle 138, 141, 145–6

O’Brien, C 108

O’Caoimh, A 183

O’Leary, S 37

Oliver, P 73

O’Neill, A 23

Opinion 2/13 of Court of Justice 4, 11–12, 23, 36, 40–5, 46–7, 49–52, 62, 93, 180, 183, 189, 191, 192, 193, 194

Opinions of Advocate General 12, 55–6, 60, 75, 86–7, 89, 98, 109, 133, 135, 146, 154, 160–61, 180

Pabel, K 26, 96, 162

paid annual leave 16, 109, 133–4, 159, 180

Palmer Olsen H, 106

Paraschas, K 12

Passos, R 188

Pech, L 9, 13, 16, 98, 107, 128, 160

Peers, S 44, 48, 49, 59, 97–8

Pernice, I 1, 8, 41

Pescatore, P 15–16, 97

Picod, F 49

Piva, P 152, 156

Pliakos, A 23

Polakiewicz, J 35, 46, 188

Poland, Charter opt-out regime 156–63

Pollack, MA 175

Pollicino, O 29, 102, 118, 119, 146, 166

Preamble to the Charter 14–15, 32, 58, 99, 100, 192

Prechal, S 44, 59, 97–8, 175

primacy of EU law 3, 22, 146, 181, 198–9

principles and rights distinction 14, 103–9

private life and protection of personal data 70, 76

see also data protection

Protocol No. 30 on the application of the Charter to Poland and U.K. 156–63

Rask Madsen, M 106

ratione personae, provisions cannot be applied 148, 151–6

ratione temporis 5, 94–5, 106–7, 113, 115–16, 117, 121, 126, 127, 134, 148–51

Rauchegger, C 13, 98, 101, 102

religious discrimination 178–80, 197

revirement cases 82, 86, 134–6, 154

right to be heard 90–91

right to water 168

rights and principles distinction 14, 103–9

Ritleng, D 23, 98, 191

Rosas, A 10, 13, 14, 31, 32, 68, 98

Rossi, LS 8, 13, 37, 48, 123, 160

Ruggeri, A 55, 68, 196

Sadl, U 106

Sanchez, S 11, 165

Sarmiento, D 12, 98, 112, 199

Schill, S 22, 143

self-referential approach 117–19

self-restraint approach 128–34, 176–7

sexual orientation 133, 170–71, 174–6

Simon, D 41–2

Skouris, V 23

Sobotta, C 60, 95

Spaventa, E 42

Sperduti, G 55

Spiecker, I 118

Spiellman, D 177

Spinelli Draft 1, 36

Storgaard, L 41

Strozzi, G 32

Sudre, F 8, 31, 41, 59, 96

supremacy principle 42, 52–3, 144

surrogacy 130–33, 197

Tacik, P 47

tax proceedings 71–2, 75, 86–7, 135–6, 137

Tesauro, G 24, 48

Thiery, S 160, 161, 162

third States not members of the Union 63–4

Thor Petursson, G 13, 98, 117, 128

Timmerman, M 136

Timmermans, C 162

Timmermans, F 192

Tinière, R 191–2

Tizzano, A 12, 24, 49, 55, 59, 187, 191

Tomasi di Lampedusa, G 194

Tóth, AG 37

Tridimas, T 20, 107, 117, 163, 164, 193

Trucco, L 10

Tryfonidou, A 176

UK

Charter opt-out regime 156–63

Hayle Abdi Babre v Court of Florence 91

Italy v Domenico Rancadore 91

ultra vires doctrine 66, 76, 177, 196

van Bockel, B 12

Vandenbroucke, F 169

Van der Bruggen, B 175

Van der Schyff, G 143

Van Lancker, A 169

Van Mechelen, N 169

Van Rompuy, H 192

Vauchez, A 19

Vergès, J 49

Vervaele, J 23

Vickers, L 178–9

Villani, U 10

von Bogdandy, A 22, 143

von Danwitz, T 12

Wachsmann, P 37

Walkila, S 104

Wattel, P 12

Weatherill, S 175

Weiβ, W 62, 80, 182

Weiler, JHH 2–3, 23

Weitzel, L 11, 26, 62

Wimmer, M 117

Wintemute, R 76, 175

workplace equality principle 31, 165, 179, 197

Wyrzykowski, M 157, 159, 160, 161

Zagrebelsky, V 42, 64, 188

Ziller, J 155