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International Agricultural Law and Policy

A Rights-Based Approach to Food Security

Hope Johnson

Globalised agriculture and food systems are at the crux of significant issues facing humanity from the rise in diet-related diseases to water pollution and biodiversity loss. Yet, legal scholarship on the regulation of agriculture and food is only now emerging. This timely book provides the first systematic analysis of the public international rules influencing agriculture. Each chapter considers the regulatory instruments that intersect with different components of agricultural systems from land tenure and soils through to agricultural in-puts and trade.
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Index

Hope Johnson

4 per 1000 initiative 1357, 138, 326
see also soil degradation
access and benefit sharing, seeds 205, 206, 21627, 322
see also seeds
accountability
as human rights principle 48, 57
mechanisms
evaluation under RBA 578
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
of international organisations 18
see also international organisations for TNCs 31011, 330
see also TNCs (transnational companies)
acquisitions of land, large-scale see large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
affordability of food see food prices
Africa
Middle East and North Africa, desertification initiatives 118
sub-Saharan 7, 25
desertification in see desertification
Kenya, access and benefit sharing case study 227
see also seeds, access and benefit sharing
land tenure systems 69, 70, 77
Tanzania see Tanzania
Zambia, women’s land rights in 77
see also developing countries
Agreement on Agriculture 1994 (WTO) 20
background to 2848, 311
domestic support pillar 295300
Green Box subsidies 2969, 306, 308
evaluated under RBA 28890, 2979, 3012, 308, 324
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
RBA-based reform proposals 30211
export competition pillar 300302
implementation and compliance 2945, 299300, 3012
market access pillar 2925
objectives of 28890
special and differential treatment provisions 29091, 3024, 324
see also agricultural trade, WTO law
agricultural chemicals
antibiotics 9, 26
environmental impact 267, 240, 266
eutrophication 1489
greenhouse gas emissions 122, 240
see also climate change
risk assessment 248
soil degradation 109, 110
see also soil degradation
fertilisers see fertilisers
food safety impact 9
Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals 2545
health impact 27, 24041
agricultural workers 241, 25056, 262
see also agricultural workers, health and safety
risk assessment 248
hormones 26
international regulation of see pesticides, international regulation of
persistent organic pollutants 2667
pesticides see pesticides
Sustainable Development Goals on 243, 268
waste management see waste management, agricultural chemicals
see also intensive farming
agricultural trade 11, 276
agroecology promotion 284, 3067
see also agroecology
Green Box subsidies 2969, 306, 308
bilateral and regional trade agreements 288, 330
biodiversity, impact on 2823, 3056
see also biodiversity management
Cairns Group (of agricultural exporting countries) 286, 301, 309
developing countries 28, 27880, 2812, 284, 2945, 300, 312
see also Agreement on Agriculture 1994 (WTO); developing countries
Decision on Measures Concerning the Possible Negative Effects of the Reform Programme on Least-Developed and Net Food-Importing Developing Countries (WTO) 29091
export subsidies control, impact of 300302
trade law reforms for 3035
WTO Agreement on Agriculture 1994, negotiating positions 2867
WTO Agreement on Agriculture 1994, special and differential treatment 29091, 3024, 324
WTO Agreement on Agriculture 1994, tariff reduction commitments 2923
food imports by water scarce countries 1545, 2823
see also water, water scarcity
food price stabilisation 6, 2813, 284
see also food prices
food security impact 154, 2768, 2945
food access 280
food availability 27880
food utilisation and nutrition 28081
stability 2813
food stockholding programmes 3079
international investment law 849, 324
neoliberal agricultural policy 3031, 69
RBA to agricultural trade 2834, 28890, 2979, 3012, 323, 324
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
RBA-based reforms to the WTO Agreement on Agriculture 1994 30211
see also Agreement on Agriculture 1994 (WTO)
RBA-based trade mechanisms 31213
state sovereignty over policies 307
subsidies 295300
export subsidies 300302
Green Box subsidies 2969, 306, 308
Sustainable Development Goals on 6, 283, 301, 305
WTO law
Agreement on Agriculture 1994 see Agreement on Agriculture 1994 (WTO)
Doha Development Round negotiations 2878, 301, 303, 311, 323, 330
SPS Agreement (Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures 1994) 208, 21011, 2445, 250
TRIMs (Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures 1994) 85, 88
TRIPS (Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property 1994) 208, 21316, 2223
agricultural workers
agroecological education 2412, 323
children 243, 253, 2556
see also children
health and safety
ILO standards 2516
pesticide exposure 241, 25056, 262
see also pesticides
poverty susceptibility see poverty and social exclusion
women see women
see also farmers’ rights
agriculture
agroecology see agroecology
biodiversity management see biodiversity management
biotechnology see biotechnology
chemicals see agricultural chemicals
definition 18
environmental effects see environmental protection
farming types see farming types
international regulation see international regulation of agriculture
international trade see agricultural trade
land issues see land rights; large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs); soil degradation
policy frames see food systems, policy frames
RBA see rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
seeds see seeds
water use see water
workers see agricultural workers
agrobiodiversity see biodiversity management
agroecology 314, 191
agricultural trade, promotion by 284, 3067
see also agricultural trade
Green Box subsidies 2969, 306, 308
agrobiodiversity see biodiversity management
agroecological education 2412, 323
biotechnology research and development for 207, 327
future policy-making on 327
integrated pest management 2412, 257, 2634, 268, 306
see also pesticides
mixed crop and livestock farming 32, 33, 110, 124
see also livestock farming
principles and practices 32
sustainable soil management see soil degradation, sustainable soil management
sustainable water management 15051, 177
see also water
see also food sovereignty movement; small-scale farming
air pollution 7
animals see livestock farming
antibiotics, use in livestock farming 9, 26
aquifers see water, aquifers
Australia, food insecurity issues 26
Ban Ki-moon 160, 183
Biodiversity Convention 1992 (UN) see biodiversity management, Convention on Biological Diversity 1992 (UN)
biodiversity management 2
biodiversity loss
agricultural trade, impact of 2823, 3056
see also agricultural trade
data on 8, 193
food insecurity, relationship with 1923
genetically modified organisms, impact of 201
monoculture cropping 26, 34, 193, 282, 3056
Western diets, impact of 6
Convention on Biological Diversity 1992 (UN) 112, 198, 21723, 228, 323, 328
Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization 2010 216, 21723, 228
integrated pest management 2412, 257, 2634, 268, 306
see also pesticides
livestock farming 1912
practices 32, 193
seeds
see also seeds
informal seed systems 196, 20910
seed banks 193
seed quality control systems, impact of 209
Sustainable Development Goals on 8
see also agroecology
biofuel production 6, 1534
biotechnology
companies 15, 29, 202
DuPont Industrial Biosciences 199
industry consolidation 203
Monsanto Co 197, 199
pesticide manufacture, relationship with 2023
definition 198
evaluation under RBA 198205
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
food insecurity, combatting 198201
genetic engineering 1945
DNA sequencing 195, 196, 198
genetically modified organisms see genetically modified organisms
intellectual property rights, seeds see seeds, as intellectual property
International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge Science and Technology for Development 37, 200
open source 207
research and development investments 4, 37, 1967, 204, 207, 327
Sustainable Development Goal on agricultural research investment 4
technology transfers 115, 133
technology treadmill theory 2045
traditional farming knowledge 31, 1323, 195
Black, Julia 16, 18
Cairns Group (of agricultural exporting countries) 286, 301, 309
see also agricultural trade
Cambodia, LSLAs in 9091
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
carbon sequestration, soil 111, 1213, 1258, 1334
see also agroecology; climate change, mitigation and adaptation; soil degradation
chemicals, agricultural see agricultural chemicals
children
child labour in agriculture 243, 253, 2556
see also agricultural workers
food insecurity risk to 41, 52
pesticide exposure 244, 248
see also young persons
China
agricultural research and development, investment in 4
failure to ratify Watercourses Convention 1823
see also Watercourses Convention (Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses 1997) (UN)
Paris Agreement 2016 commitments 131, 240
see also climate change
water scarcity in 148
civil unrest linked to food insecurity 6
Clean Development Mechanism 1256
see also climate change
climate change 1
causes 111
deforestation 7, 306
greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture 122, 240
food insecurity effects 5
Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992 (UNFCCC) 112
Kyoto Protocol 1259
Paris Agreement 2016 12937, 240, 326
regime evaluated under RBA 1245, 128, 12931, 132, 134, 138, 323
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture (FAO) 326
mitigation and adaptation
Clean Development Mechanism 1256
climate finance 1334
climate-smart agriculture concept (FAO) 129
developing countries 1256, 13032, 1334
emissions reduction 122
RBA 1223, 1245, 128, 12931, 132, 134, 138
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
rice paddy farming 111, 122, 128, 161
see also water, wetlands
soil carbon sequestration 111, 1213, 1258, 1334
see also soil degradation, sustainable soil management
Sustainable Development Goals on 5
water scarcity, contributions to 149
see also water, water scarcity
Codex Alimentarius Committee on Pesticide Residues see pesticides, maximum residue limits (MRLs)
colonialism, legacy of see developing countries, colonialism legacy
Committee on World Food Security (CFS) 1415, 93, 94, 3256
Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition 15
Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems 979, 326
commodities trading, agricultural see
agricultural trade
contract farming 813
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs); small-scale farming
Conventions, international
see under agricultural trade, WTO law; ILO (International Labour Organization); international environmental law; international human rights law
Cowan, Robin 242
crimes against humanity, LSLAs 9091
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
crop genetic resources see seeds
customary land tenure 69
see also land rights, tenure
DDT 267
see also pesticides
De Schutter, Olivier 93
Declaration of Nyéléni on Food Sovereignty 2007 35
Declaration on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources 1962 (UN) 86
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 2007 (UN) 756, 217, 218
deforestation 7, 306
Denmark, pesticide reduction strategy 263
desertification 11415
Convention to Combat Desertification 1994 (UN) 112, 11419, 138
evaluation under RBA 115, 11920, 138, 323
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
Global Mechanism advisory body 119
human rights focus, lack of 11819
implementation 12021
national action programmes under 11920
Middle East and North Africa, initiatives 118
see also soil degradation
developed countries
agricultural trade see agricultural trade
climate finance 1334
see also climate change
colonialism see developing countries, colonialism legacy
food waste in 4
history of intensive farming in 2730
land ownership concentration, effects of 68
nutrition transition 6, 9, 29, 280
developing countries
Africa see Africa
agricultural research and development in 4, 279
agricultural trade by see agricultural trade, developing countries
agroecological farming in 33
see also agroecology
agroecological education 2412, 323
climate change mitigation and adaptation 1256, 13032, 1334
see also climate change
colonialism legacy
cash crop dependency 28
statutory land tenure systems 69
see also land rights, tenure
desertification see desertification
food aid to 28
food insecurity susceptibility 3, 49
food sovereignty movement 346, 54
food waste in 4
indigenous land rights recognition 76
see also indigenous peoples
land tenure systems 69, 70, 77
see also land rights, tenure
LSLAs in 8081
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
pesticide use 250, 262, 2656, 267
see also pesticides
population growth in 7
rural infrastructure investment 3045
seeds
see also biotechnology; seeds
access and benefit sharing 205, 206, 21627, 322
genetically modified organisms, availability 2012
plant breeders’ rights regimes see seeds, as intellectual property
Sustainable Development Goals see Sustainable Development Goals (UN)
technology transfers to 115, 133
terminology 16
women’s land rights in 77
see also women
see also poverty and social exclusion
diets see nutrition
Diouf, Jacques 284
disabled persons, food insecurity risk to 41, 52
distributional injustice see poverty and social exclusion
DNA sequencing 195, 196, 198
Doha Development Round negotiations (WTO) 2878, 301, 303, 311, 323, 330
see also agricultural trade, WTO law
drought see desertification; water
ecological farming methods see agroecology
economic perspectives
on famines 389
on food insecurity 389, 53, 199
on land redistribution 6970
neoliberal agricultural policy 3031, 69
Ecophyto pesticide reduction strategy, France 263, 268
ecosystem approach to the regulation of agriculture 111, 18081, 329
education
in agroecology 2412, 323
see also agroecology
literacy programmes for women and girls 117
Eide, Asbjørn 49
elderly persons, food insecurity risk to 52
environmental protection
agricultural chemicals, impact of see agricultural chemicals, environmental impact
agroecology see agroecology
biodiversity management see biodiversity management
climate change see climate change
deforestation 7, 306
Green Revolution 267, 289, 204, 239
human rights, relationship with 512, 57, 3223
see also human rights
international environmental law see international environmental law
pollution control see pollution
precautionary principle 243
sustainable water management 15051, 177
see also water
waste management see waste management
eutrophication 1489
evictions, forced 734
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
exports of food see agricultural trade
family-based farming see small-scale farming
famines, economic dynamics of 389
see also food insecurity
FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization) 2, 13, 113, 200
agroecology endorsement 334
see also agroecology
climate-smart agriculture concept 129
on food insecurity definition 39, 40, 412
food sovereignty endorsement 356
Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture 326
International Plant Protection Convention 1951 208, 210
Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues 2468, 249
Safe Use of Wastewater in Agriculture initiative (WHO, UNEP and FAO) 17071
Seed Treaty (International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources used for Food and Agriculture 2001) 216, 2237
soft law instruments see soft law
World Food Summit Plan of Action 39
farm workers see agricultural workers
farmers’ rights
indigenous farmers see indigenous peoples
land rights see land rights
plant breeders’ rights 1968, 2067, 21113, 214
see also seeds, as intellectual property
under the Seed Treaty 2235
see also seeds
women farmers see women
young farmers see young persons
see also agricultural workers; human rights
farming types
intensive farming see intensive farming
livestock farming see livestock farming
mixed crop and livestock farming 32, 33, 110, 124
rice paddy farming 111, 122, 128, 161
see also climate change, mitigation and adaptation; water, wetlands
small-scale farming see small-scale farming
see also agriculture
Farmland Principles 99100
fertilisers
organic 32, 110, 121, 122
see also soil degradation, sustainable soil management
synthetic 109, 110
see also agricultural chemicals
eutrophication 1489
finance and investments
biotechnology research and development 4, 37, 1967, 204, 207, 327
see also biotechnology
climate finance 1334
international financial institutions
International Fund for Agricultural Development see International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN)
International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN) 1314
International Monetary Fund 15
World Bank see World Bank
international investment law 849, 324
see also agricultural trade
LSLAs see large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
rural infrastructure investment, developing countries 3045
soft law see soft law, finance and investments
food governance organisations see international organisations, food and agriculture governance
food insecurity
biotechnology to combat 198201
see also biotechnology
civil unrest concerns 6
Committee on World Food Security see Committee on World Food Security (CFS) 49
agricultural trade see agricultural trade, food security impact
biodiversity loss 1923
see also biodiversity management
climate change 5
see also climate change
food aid to developing countries 28
food prices 43
see also food prices
food production levels 3940, 199201
insecure land tenure 67
see also land rights, tenure
LSLAs 813
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
pesticide use 23841
see also pesticides
poverty and social exclusion 3, 5, 36, 412, 52, 199, 280
see also poverty and social exclusion
soil degradation see soil degradation
unequal land ownership 68
water scarcity see water, water scarcity
definition 39, 4041
evolution of concept 389
four dimensions of 412
economic perspectives on 389, 53, 199
food stockholding programmes 3079
see also agricultural trade
Global Hunger Index 58
as a human rights issue 12, 445, 52, 556
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
nutrition security 4041
see also nutrition
policy frames see food systems, policy frames
Sustainable Development Goals on 58
sustainable development, relationship with 424, 55
food manufacturers, distributors and retailers
agricultural biotech companies see biotechnology, companies
corporate concentration 8, 310, 324
supermarkets 7, 1516, 29, 282, 327
see also TNCs (transnational companies)
food prices
export subsidies control, impact of 300302
food insecurity, relationship with 43
see also food insecurity
genetically modified organisms, impact of 201, 202, 203
increases, causes of 6
price shocks of 2007–08 and 2010–11 1, 14, 282, 3089
price stabilisation 6, 2813, 284
Sustainable Development Goals on 6, 283
see also agricultural trade
food safety 9
polluted water use in agriculture 146, 149, 157
see also water
scares and scandals 281
Sustainable Development Goals on 9
food security see food insecurity
food sovereignty movement 346, 54
see also agroecology
food systems
agricultural systems 1011
see also agriculture
concept 10
distributional injustice see developing countries; poverty and social exclusion
evolution of 2730
food industry actors see food manufacturers, distributors and retailers
Global Environmental Change and Food Systems research programme 10
policy frames
alternative frame 317
see also agroecology; food sovereignty movement
conventional frame 2431
food insecurity see food insecurity
RBA see rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
systems theory applied to 3, 1011, 321
food trade see agricultural trade
food waste 4
forced evictions 734
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
foreign direct investment in land
see large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
forestry
deforestation 7, 306
forest dwellers see indigenous peoples
Framework Convention on Climate
Change 1992 regime see climate change, Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992 (UNFCCC)
France, Ecophyto pesticide reduction strategy 263, 268
fungicides see pesticides
gender-based rights see women
gene patents 1978, 21415
see also seeds, as intellectual property
genetic engineering see biotechnology, genetic engineering
genetic material, plants see seeds
genetically modified organisms
benefits 1989, 201
biodiversity impact 201
developing countries, availability in 2012
food prices impact 201, 202, 203
food production impact 199201
see also biotechnology; seeds
germplasm see seeds
Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture (FAO) 326
Global Diligence (NGO) 91
Global Environmental Change and Food Systems research programme 10
global governance of agriculture
see international regulation of agriculture
Global Hunger Index 58
Global Soil Partnership (FAO) 113
Global Strategic Framework for Food Security and Nutrition (CFS) 15
see also Committee on World Food Security (CFS)
Gonzalez, Carmen G. 282, 3056
Green Box subsidies 2969, 306, 308
see also Agreement on Agriculture 1994 (WTO); agricultural trade, subsidies
Green Revolution 267, 289, 204, 239
groundwater see water, groundwater
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater (WHO) 171
see also water, wastewater
Guidelines on Good Agricultural Practices (FAO) 246, 249
Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UN) 49, 5051, 74, 256, 258
health
agricultural chemicals see agricultural chemicals, health impact
food safety see food safety
health and safety, agricultural workers see agricultural workers, health and safety
nutritional health see nutrition
tobacco carve-outs, international investment agreements 89, 281
see also international investment law
water-borne diseases 149, 170
WHO see WHO (World Health Organization)
herbicides see pesticides
hormones, use in livestock farming 26
human dignity 12, 38, 44, 72, 206, 321
human rights
accountability principle 48, 57
bioprospecting as human rights issue 205, 212
duty bearers 4951
international organisations 50
see also international organisations
TNCs 49, 5051, 310
see also TNCs (transnational companies)
environmental protection, relationship with 512, 57, 3223
food sovereignty movement 346, 54
gender-based rights see women
Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UN) 49, 5051, 74, 256, 258
human dignity 12, 38, 44, 72, 206, 321
indigenous peoples see indigenous peoples
land rights see land rights
pesticide regulation 243
see also pesticides
RBA see rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
right to adequate food 12, 445
food security as goal of 12, 445, 52, 556
see also food insecurity
under international human rights law 45
land rights, relationship with 67, 72
see also land rights
other rights, relationship with 53, 152
right to water 1512, 153, 1567, 173, 180
see also water, RBA to agricultural water use
treaties see international human rights law
see also farmers’ rights
Human Rights Committee (UN) 578
Human Rights Council (UN) 50, 151, 324
Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights 49, 5051, 74, 256, 258
ICCPR see international human rights law, ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966)
ICESCR see international human rights law, ICESCR (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966)
ILC (International Law Commission) 174
Draft Articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers see water, aquifers, Draft Articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers (ILC)
ILO (International Labour Organization) 251
child labour initiatives 256
Convention 138
on the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment 1973 253, 255
Convention 169
on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples 756
Convention 170
on Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work 1990 2512, 2545
Convention 182
on the Worst Forms of Child Labour 1999 253, 2556
Convention 184
on Safety and Health in Agriculture 2001 2512, 254
see also agricultural workers
imports of food see agricultural trade
India
agroecological education in 2412
food insecurity, causes in 202
Green Box subsidies in 297
water scarcity in 148
WTO Agreement on Agriculture 1994, concerns about 28990
see also Agreement on Agriculture 1994 (WTO)
indigenous peoples
bioprospecting 205, 212
Convention 169
on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples (ILO) 756
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 2007 (UN) 756, 217, 218
land rights 757
see also land rights
RBA towards 76, 21723, 327
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
seeds, access and benefit sharing 205, 206, 21627, 322
small-scale farming by see small-scale farming
traditional farming knowledge 31, 1323, 195
see also poverty and social exclusion
Indonesia
deforestation in 306
LSLAs in 812
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
industrial agriculture see intensive farming
insecticides see pesticides
insecurity of food supplies see food insecurity
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy (NGO) 6
integrated pest management 2412, 257, 2634, 268, 306
see also agroecology; pesticides
intellectual property rights, seeds
see seeds, as intellectual property
intensive farming 2530, 191
agricultural chemicals see agricultural chemicals; pesticides
biotechnology, value to 203
environmental impact 267
biodiversity loss see biodiversity management, biodiversity loss
health impact 27
history of 2730
monoculture cropping 26, 34, 193, 282, 3056
sustainable intensification 27
see also agricultural chemicals; large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs); small-scale farming
intergenerational equity 51, 68, 90, 95, 11617, 170, 223
see also young persons
International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge Science and Technology for Development 37, 200
International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development 2989
International Criminal Court, jurisdiction over LSLAs 9091
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
international environmental law
climate change regime see climate change, Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992 (UN)
Convention on Biological Diversity 1992 (UN) see biodiversity management, Convention on Biological Diversity 1992 (UN)
Convention to Combat Desertification 1994 (UN) see desertification, Convention to Combat Desertification 1994 (UN)
human rights, relationship with 512, 3223
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade 1998 2646, 268
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants 2001 264, 2667, 268
water regime see water, international regulation of
see also environmental protection
International Food Policy Research Institute (NGO) 58
International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN) 1314
Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment that Respects Rights, Livelihoods and Resources 913, 322
international human rights law
Convention 169
on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples (ILO) 756
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 1979 (UN) 779, 95
Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples 2007 (UN) 756, 217, 218
Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UN) 49, 5051, 74, 256, 258
ICCPR (International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 1966) 44
accountability under 57
Article 1 on right to self-determination 71
principles relevant to food system regulation 48
right to adequate food, related rights 53
ICESCR (International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 1966)
accountability under 57
Article 1 on right to self-determination 71
Article 11 on right to adequate standard of living 45, 71, 152
Article 15 on right to participate in cultural life 71
Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights 45, 51, 578
principles relevant to food system regulation 48
UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 44
Article 17 on right to own property 71
principles relevant to food system regulation 48
on right to adequate food 45
see also human rights
international humanitarian law 9091
international investment law 849, 324
see also agricultural trade
International Monetary Fund 15
international organisations
accountability mechanisms 18
Codex Alimentarius Committee on Pesticide Residues see pesticides, maximum residue limits (MRLs)
financial institutions see finance and investments, international financial institutions
food and agriculture governance
Committee on World Food Security see Committee on World Food Security (CFS)
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research 14
FAO see FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization)
International Fund for Agricultural Development see International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN)
World Food Programme (UN) 14, 323
as human rights duty bearers 50
ILC see ILC (International Law Commission)
ILO see ILO (International Labour Organization)
International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development 2989
International Organization of Employers 256
International Union for the Conservation of Nature 18
NGOs see NGOs (non-governmental organisations)
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) 254, 294, 298, 299
UN see UN (United Nations)
UPOV see UPOV (International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants)
WHO see WHO (World Health Organization)
WTO (World Trade Organization) 15, 2845
see also agricultural trade, WTO law
see also international regulation of agriculture
International Organization of Employers 256
International Planning Committee on Food Sovereignty (NGO) 35
International Plant Protection Convention 1951 (FAO) 208, 210
international regulation of agriculture
authoritative nature and legitimacy of 1718
ecosystem approach 18081, 329
fragmentation of 184, 251, 289, 3289
gaps in regime 3267
global treaty, scope for 32731
international environmental law see international environmental law
international human rights law see international human rights law
international humanitarian law 9091
international investment law 849, 324
see also agricultural trade
international labour law see ILO (International Labour Organization)
international organisations see international organisations
international trade law see agricultural trade, WTO law
soft law see soft law
state sovereignty issues see state sovereignty
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs); pesticides; seeds; soil degradation; water
international trade and agriculture see agricultural trade
International Treaty on Plant Genetic
Resources used for Food and Agriculture 2001 (Seed Treaty) (FAO) 216, 2237
International Union for the Conservation of Nature (NGO) 18, 113
International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) see UPOV (International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants)
International Union of Soil Sciences (NGO) 113
investments see finance and investments
Kenya, access and benefit sharing case study 227
see also seeds, access and benefit sharing
Knox, John 51
Kyoto Protocol 1259
see also climate change, Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992 (UNFCCC)
La Via Campesina (NGO) 35, 54, 97, 277
land degradation see soil degradation
land grabs see large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
Land Matrix (database) 81
land rights 66
forced evictions 734
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
of indigenous peoples 757
see also indigenous peoples
under international human rights law 712, 756, 779
land redistribution
definition 678
as indirect expropriation 878
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
market-led 6970
unequal ownership, effects of 68
RBA to land governance 724, 75
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
LSLAs 834, 89, 946
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
women’s land rights 7880
see also women
right to adequate food, relationship with 67, 72
Sustainable Development Goals on 73
tenure
colonialism, legacy of 69
customary tenure systems 69
definition 667
insecure tenure, effects of 67
statutory tenure systems 6871
Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (FAO) 947, 326
of women 7780
see also women
land use see soil degradation
large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
contract farming 813
see also small-scale farming
countries affected 8081
data on 80, 82
definition and characteristics 80
expropriation protections 867
host state defences 88
food insecurity, impact on 813
international regulation of 100101
international humanitarian law 9091
international investment law 849, 324
Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment that Respects Rights, Livelihoods and Resources 913, 322
Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems (CFS) 979, 326
Principles for the Responsible Investment in Farmland 99100
Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (FAO) 947, 326
performance obligations, restrictions on 889
RBA towards 834, 89, 946
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
see also forced evictions; land rights
least developed countries see developing countries
livestock farming
antibiotics use 9, 26
biodiversity management 1912
environmental impact of 9, 111, 122, 125, 148
food safety see food safety
hormones use 26
mixed crop and livestock farming as agroecological strategy 32, 33, 110, 124
see also agroecology
Sustainable Development Goals on 9
local communities see indigenous peoples
McCaffrey, Stephen C. 168
McMichael, Philip 27
malnutrition 2, 5, 38, 199
see also nutrition
Malthus, Thomas 25
marginalisation see poverty and social exclusion
marine pollution 7
see also pollution
Mendoza, Miguel Rodriguez 277
micro-enterprises 8
micronutrient deficiencies see nutrition, micronutrient deficiencies
Middle East, desertification initiatives 118
mineral deficiencies see nutrition, micronutrient deficiencies
mixed crop and livestock farming 32, 33, 110, 124
Model Provisions on Transboundary Groundwaters (UNECE) 178
monoculture cropping 26, 34, 193, 282, 3056
see also biodiversity management
Monsanto Co (agricultural biotech company) 197, 199
multinational companies see TNCs (transnational companies)
neoliberal agricultural policy 3031, 69
NGOs (non-governmental organisations)
Chicago Council on Global Affairs 25
Global Diligence 91
Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy 6
International Food Policy Research Institute 58
International Planning Committee on Food Sovereignty 35
International Union for the Conservation of Nature 18, 113
International Union of Soil Sciences 113
La Via Campesina 35, 54, 97, 277
LSLAs, perspectives on 82
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
participatory rights 115, 117
non-binding law see soft law
North Africa, desertification initiatives 118
nutrition
agricultural trade impact 28081
see also agricultural trade
data on global trends 2
dietary trends, convergence of 1, 29, 193
see also food sovereignty movement
malnutrition and undernutrition 2, 5, 38, 39, 199
micronutrient deficiencies 39, 41, 52, 193
micronutrient enriched plant varieties 199
see also biotechnology
nutrition security 4041
see also food insecurity
obesity 39, 280
Sustainable Development Goals on 5
Western diets 6, 9, 29, 280
see also health
Nyéléni Declaration on Food Sovereignty 2007 35
obesity 39, 280
see also nutrition
OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) 254, 294, 298, 299
Our common future (Brundtland Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development) 43
Paris Agreement on Climate Change 2016 12937, 240, 326
see also climate change
patents protecting seeds 1978, 21415
see also seeds, as intellectual property
peatlands 122
see also water, wetlands
persistent organic pollutants 2667
see also pesticides
Persson, Linn 255
pest management, integrated 2412, 257, 2634, 268, 306
see also agroecology; pesticides
pesticides 26, 33, 50, 237
biotechnology to reduce use 199, 2012
see also biotechnology
definition and categories of 2378
developing countries’ use 250, 262, 2656, 267
see also developing countries
Ecophyto pesticide reduction strategy, France 263, 268
environmental impact 240, 266
risk assessment 248
food security impact 23841
Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals 2545
health impact 24041
agricultural workers 241, 25056, 262
see also agricultural workers
risk assessment 248
integrated pest management 2412, 257, 2634, 268, 306
see also agroecology
international regulation of
Codex Alimentarius Committee on Pesticide Residues maximum residue limits see pesticides, maximum residue limits (MRLs)
Convention 138 on the Minimum Age for Admission to Employment 1973 253, 255
Convention 170 on Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work 1990 (ILO) 2512, 2545
Convention 182 on the Worst Forms of Child Labour 1999 (ILO) 253, 2556
Convention 184 on Safety and Health in Agriculture 2001 (ILO) 2512, 254
Guidelines on Good Agricultural Practices (FAO) 246, 249
Pesticide Code (International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides) (FAO) 25664, 268, 326
pesticides treaty, need for 263, 268
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade 1998 2646, 268
SPS Agreement (WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures 1994) 208, 21011, 2445, 250
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants 2001 264, 2667, 268
Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues 2468, 249
manufacture, relationship with biotechnology 2023
maximum residue limits (MRLs) 245
implementation and compliance 250
risk assessment underpinning 2468
setting process 2489
persistent organic pollutants 2667
RBA to pesticide regulation 2424, 3223
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
international regulatory regime 256, 257, 258, 26061, 263, 2646, 267
MRLs 247, 249, 268
see also pesticides, maximum residue limits (MRLs)
rice paddies use in 161
see also rice paddy farming
soil quality impact 109, 110, 113
Sustainable Development Goals on 243, 268
see also agricultural chemicals
plant breeders’ rights 1968, 2067, 21113, 214
see also seeds, as intellectual property
plant genetic resources for food and agriculture see seeds
plant variety protection 1968, 2067, 21113, 214
see also seeds, as intellectual property
pollution 2
air 7
food safety effects 9
marine 7
Sustainable Development Goals on 7, 9
water 7, 1489
population growth
data on global trends 7
influence on agricultural policy 25, 30
Sustainable Development Goals on 7
poverty and social exclusion
food affordability see food prices
food insecurity, relationship with 3, 5, 36, 412, 52, 199, 280
indigenous peoples see indigenous peoples
participatory rights 534, 115, 11617, 312, 3256
Sustainable Development Goals on 5
women see women
young persons see young persons
precautionary principle 243
Pretty, J.N. 33
price of food see food prices
Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment that Respects Rights, Livelihoods and Resources 913, 322
Principles for Responsible Investment (UN) 100
Principles for the Responsible Investment in Farmland 99100
Protocol on Water and Health 1999 (UNECE and WHO) 16970
see also water, international regulation of
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance 1971 158, 16062, 1678, 1712, 179, 180, 181
RBA see rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
redistribution of land see land rights, land redistribution
research and development, biotechnology 4, 37, 1967, 204, 207, 327
see also biotechnology
rice paddy farming 111, 122, 128, 161
see also climate change, mitigation and adaptation; water, wetlands
rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation 467, 54, 3212
accountability mechanisms 578
applications
agricultural trade see agricultural trade, RBA to agricultural trade
climate change regime 1223, 1245, 128, 12931, 132, 134, 138, 323
see also climate change
land governance 724, 75, 7880, 834, 89
see also land rights
LSLAs 834, 89, 946
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
pesticide regulation see pesticides, RBA to pesticide regulation
seeds and crop genetic resources see seeds, RBA to seeds and crop genetic resources
soil restoration and preservation 11012, 11314, 115, 11920, 1223, 138, 323
see also desertification; soil degradation
water use see water, RBA to agricultural water use
conceptual framework diagram 55
criteria
criterion 1: fair and equal access to food and agricultural resources 56, 3223
criterion 2: special protections for groups and countries vulnerable to food insecurity 567, 324
criterion 3: procedural fairness and participatory rights 57, 3256
criterion 4: sustainability mechanisms 57, 3267
duty bearers and their roles 4951
empowerment potential 534
environmental protection, relationship with 512, 57, 3223
see also environmental protection
food insecurity, emphasis on root causes 52
see also food insecurity
human dignity 12, 38, 44, 72, 206, 321
human freedoms, relationship with 523
principles 48
procedural standards 47
right to adequate food see human rights, right to adequate food
Sustainable Development Goals see Sustainable Development Goals (UN)
see also human rights; sustainable development
Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade 1998 2646, 268
Ruggie, John 49, 5051
rural populations
agroecological education 2412, 323
indigenous peoples see indigenous peoples
land rights see land rights
participatory rights 117, 312, 3256
poverty and social exclusion see poverty and social exclusion
rural infrastructure investment, developing countries 3045
small-scale farming see small-scale farming
traditional farming knowledge 31, 1323, 195
women see women
see also urban populations
SADC (Southern African Development Community) Revised Protocol on Shared Watercourses 2000 174
Safe Use of Wastewater in Agriculture initiative (WHO, UNEP and FAO) 17071
see also water, wastewater
safety of food see food safety
Santilli, Juliana 210
science and technology see biotechnology
Scott, Colin 16
seas, pollution of 7
see also pollution
security of food supplies see food insecurity
Seed Treaty (International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources used for Food and Agriculture 2001) (FAO) 216, 2237
seeds
access and benefit sharing 205, 206, 21627, 322
bioprospecting 205, 212
as common heritage of mankind 194, 195, 224
genetically modified seeds see biotechnology; genetically modified organisms
as intellectual property 195
distributional injustice, contribution to 205, 213
exempted uses 21213
patents 1978, 21415
plant variety protection (plant breeders’ rights) 1968, 2067, 21113, 214
trade secret protection 198
international regulation of 208
Convention on Biological Diversity 1992 (UN) 112, 198, 21723, 228, 323, 328
International Plant Protection Convention 1951 (FAO) 208, 210
Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization 2010 216, 21723, 228
Seed Treaty (International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources used for Food and Agriculture 2001) (FAO) 216, 2237
SPS Agreement (WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures 1994) 208, 21011, 2445, 250
TRIPS (WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property 1994) 208, 21316, 2223
UPOV Convention (International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants 1961) 208, 21113, 215
Open Source Seed Initiative 227
RBA to seeds and crop genetic resources 191, 2278
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
access and benefit sharing regime 21727
informal seed systems 196
intellectual property rights and biotechnology 198205, 2067, 21213, 21416
seed banks 193
see also biodiversity management
seed systems
evolution of 1935
formal systems 1968
informal systems 1956, 204, 20910
quality control 20811
state sovereignty over 221
Sustainable Development Goals on 206
Sen, Amartya 389, 53, 199
sex discrimination see women
small and medium-sized enterprises 8
small-scale farming
agroecology see agroecology
biotechnology, value to 2012, 2034
contract farming 813
see also large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
contribution to global food supply 19
data on 68
definition and characteristics 1819
farmers’ land rights see land rights
food sovereignty movement 346, 54
traditional knowledge 31, 1323, 195
see also indigenous peoples; intensive farming
smallholder agriculture see small-scale farming
social exclusion see poverty and social exclusion
soft law 17
Declaration on Permanent Sovereignty over Natural Resources 1962 (UN) 86
finance and investments
Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment that Respects Rights, Livelihoods and Resources (UN) 913, 322
Principles for Responsible Investment (UN) 100
Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems (CFS) 979, 326
Principles for the Responsible Investment in Farmland (UN) 99100
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater (WHO) 171
Guidelines on Good Agricultural Practices (FAO) 246, 249
Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UN) 49, 5051, 74, 256, 258
Pesticide Code (International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides) (FAO) 25664, 268, 326
Sustainable Development Goals see Sustainable Development Goals (UN)
sustainable soil management 1345
Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (FAO) 947, 326
on water use in agriculture 1623, 171, 178
World Soil Charter (FAO) 1345
World Soils Policy (UNEP) 134, 135
soil carbon sequestration 111, 1213, 1258, 1334
see also agroecology; climate change, mitigation and adaptation; soil degradation
soil degradation 7
4 per 1000 initiative 1357, 138, 326
causes 109
data on 1089
desertification see desertification
Global Soil Partnership (FAO) 113
international regulation of 11214
Convention on Biological Diversity 1992 (UN) see biodiversity management, Convention on Biological Diversity 1992 (UN)
Convention to Combat Desertification 1994 (UN) see desertification, Convention to Combat Desertification 1994 (UN)
soft law 1345, 137, 138
soil treaty, need for 138
UNFCCC regime see climate change, Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992 (UNFCCC)
RBA 11012, 11314, 115, 11920, 1223, 138
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
climate change regime see under climate change, Framework Convention on Climate Change 1992 (UNFCCC)
Sustainable Development Goals on 113
sustainable soil management 10911, 1212
see also agroecology
for climate change mitigation 111, 1213, 1258, 1334
see also climate change, mitigation and adaptation
soil management see soil degradation
sovereignty see state sovereignty
SPS Agreement (WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures 1994) 208, 21011, 2445, 250
see also agricultural trade, WTO law
state sovereignty
food sovereignty movement 346, 54
over agricultural trade policies 307
over water regulation 1689
statutory tenure systems 6871
see also land rights, tenure
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants 2001 264, 2667, 268
stockpiling food supplies 3079
see also agricultural trade; food insecurity
sub-Saharan Africa see Africa, sub-Saharan
subsidies to agriculture see Agreement on Agriculture 1994 (WTO); agricultural trade, subsidies
supermarkets 7, 1516, 29, 282, 327
see also TNCs (transnational companies)
sustainable development
Brundtland Report (World Commission on Environment and Development) 43
food insecurity, relationship with 424, 55
see also food insecurity
sustainable farming methods see agroecology
UN Sustainable Development Goals see Sustainable Development Goals (UN)
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
Sustainable Development Goals (UN) 1, 3
on agricultural chemicals 243, 268
on agricultural research and development investment 4
on agricultural trade 6, 283, 301, 305
on biodiversity management 8
on climate change 5
on corporate concentration 8
on food prices 6, 283
on food safety 9
on food security 58
on land rights 73
on livestock farming 9
on nutrition 5
on population growth and urbanisation 7
on poverty alleviation 5
on resource scarcity and pollution 7, 9
on seeds 206
on soil degradation 113
on waste management 4, 7, 9, 170
on water 7, 153, 168, 170
on women’s land rights 79
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
sustainable farming methods see agroecology
systems theory applied to food systems 3, 1011, 321
Tanzania
land tenure arrangements 70
pesticide use 262
technology, agricultural see biotechnology
tenure of land see land rights, tenure
Thomas, Christopher A. 17
TNCs (transnational companies) 8, 1516
agricultural biotech companies see biotechnology, companies
corporate concentration in food systems 8, 310, 324
as human rights duty bearers 49, 5051, 310
accountability mechanisms, need for 31011, 330
Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights (UN) 49, 5051, 74, 256, 258
LSLAs see large-scale agricultural land acquisitions (LSLAs)
supermarkets 7, 1516, 29, 282, 327
tobacco carve-outs, international
investment agreements 89, 281
see also international investment law
trade in food see agricultural trade
traditional farming knowledge 31, 1323, 195
treaties
see under agricultural trade, WTO law; ILO (International Labour Organization); international environmental law; international human rights law
tribal peoples see indigenous peoples
TRIMs (WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Investment Measures 1994) 85, 88
see also agricultural trade, WTO law
TRIPS (WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property 1994) 208, 21316, 2223
see also agricultural trade, WTO law
UDHR see international human
rights law, UDHR (Universal
Declaration of Human Rights)
UN (United Nations)
FAO see FAO (UN Food and Agriculture Organization)
Human Rights Committee 578
Human Rights Council see Human Rights Council (UN)
International Fund for Agricultural Development see International Fund for Agricultural Development (UN)
soft law instruments see soft law
Sustainable Development Goals see Sustainable Development Goals (UN)
treaties
environmental law see international environmental law
human rights see international human rights law
UN institutions as human rights duty bearers 50
UNECE see UNECE (UN Economic Commission for Europe)
UNEP see UNEP (UN Environment Program)
World Food Programme 14, 323
undernutrition 2, 39
see also nutrition
UNECE (UN Economic Commission for Europe)
Model Provisions on Transboundary Groundwaters 178
Water Convention see Water Convention (Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes 1992) (UNECE)
UNEP (UN Environment Program) 34, 113
Safe Use of Wastewater in Agriculture initiative (WHO, UNEP and FAO) 17071
World Soils Policy 134, 135
United States
agricultural trade policies 286, 295, 2978, 299
climate change policy 128
gene patents, position on 194, 195, 213
integrated pest management, barriers to 242
intensive farming in 28
Universal Declaration of Human Rights see international human rights law, UDHR (Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
UPOV (International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants) 211, 215
UPOV Convention (International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants 1961) 208, 21113, 215
urban populations
food demands 7
urbanisation 7, 27
see also rural populations
Vietnam, pesticide use 2656
vitamin deficiencies see nutrition, micronutrient deficiencies
Voluntary Guidelines for Sustainable
Soil Management (FAO) 134, 135
Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries and Forests (FAO) 947, 326
waste management
agricultural chemicals 7
see also agricultural chemicals; pesticides Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade 1998 2646, 268
food waste 4
Sustainable Development Goals on 4, 7, 9, 170
wastewater see water, wastewater
water
aquifers 1467
Draft Articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers (ILC) 158, 1623, 1667, 168
ecosystem approach 180
equitable use principle 171, 1723
implementation 183
joint management mechanisms 179 ‘no significant harm’ rule 174, 176, 178
groundwater 7, 110, 122, 145, 1467
aquifers see water, aquifers
Model Provisions on Transboundary Groundwaters (UNECE) 178
regime evaluated under RBA 1647
human right to 1512, 153, 1567, 173, 180
international regulation of
Draft Articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers (ILC) see water, aquifers, Draft Articles on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers (ILC)
ecosystem approach 18081
equitable use principle 1714
implementation 1814
joint management mechanisms 17880 ‘no significant harm’ rule 1748
Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance 1971 158, 16062, 1678, 1712, 179, 180, 181
regime evaluated under RBA see water, RBA to agricultural water use
Revised Protocol on Shared Watercourses 2000 (SADC) 174
scope 16471
soft law 1623, 171, 178
state sovereignty concept 1689
Water Convention see Water Convention (Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes 1992) (UNECE)
Watercourses Convention see Watercourses Convention (Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses 1997) (UN)
pollution 7, 1489
private rights to 151, 1556
RBA to agricultural water use
see also rights-based approach (RBA) to food system regulation
ecosystem approach 18081
equitable use principle evaluated under 1724
groundwater regime 1647
international regulatory regime overall 159, 184
‘no significant harm’ rule evaluated under 1758
wastewater regime 17071
water allocation, mechanisms 1557
water allocation, priorities 1535
water quality and food safety 157
wetlands regime 1679
Sustainable Development Goals on 7, 153, 168, 170
sustainable water management 15051, 177
wastewater 146
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater (WHO) 171
international regulation of 16970
regime evaluated under RBA 17071
Safe Use of Wastewater in Agriculture initiative (WHO, UNEP and FAO) 17071
water scarcity 1, 7
causes 14950
consequences 1489
food imports by water scarce countries 1545, 2823
see also agricultural trade
wetlands 8, 120, 158, 16062
food security link 160
international regulation of 158, 16062, 1678, 1712, 179, 180, 181
peatlands 122
regime evaluated under RBA 1678
rice paddy farming 111, 122, 128, 161
Water Convention (Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes 1992) (UNECE) 158, 15960, 1656, 171, 326
ecosystem approach 18081, 329
implementation 1834
joint management mechanisms 179, 180
‘no significant harm’ rule 1758
Protocol on Water and Health 1999 (UNECE and WHO) 16970
see also water, international regulation of
Watercourses Convention (Convention on the Law of the Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses 1997) (UN) 1589, 1645, 166, 167
ecosystem approach 180
equitable use principle 171, 172, 173
implementation barriers 1813
joint management mechanisms 179
‘no significant harm’ rule 174, 175
see also water, international regulation of
Western diets 6, 9, 29, 280
see also nutrition
wetlands see water, wetlands
WHO (World Health Organization) 15
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater (WHO) 171
Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues 2468, 249
pesticide classifications 238
Protocol on Water and Health 1999 (UNECE and WHO) 16970
Safe Use of Wastewater in Agriculture initiative (WHO, UNEP and FAO) 17071
women
Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 1979 (UN) 779, 95
food insecurity risk to 5, 36, 52
land redistribution, discrimination effects 70
land rights 7780
literacy programmes for 117
participatory rights 115, 116, 312, 327
see also poverty and social exclusion
World Bank 15, 81, 127
Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investment that Respects Rights, Livelihoods and Resources 913, 322
World Food Programme (UN) 14, 323
World Food Summit Plan of Action (FAO) 39
World Soil Charter (FAO) 1345
World Soils Policy (UNEP) 134, 135
WTO (World Trade Organization) 15, 2845, 330
see also agricultural trade, WTO law
young persons
food insecurity risk 41, 52
intergenerational equity 51, 68, 90, 95, 11617, 170, 223
literacy programmes for girls 117
participatory rights 115, 11617
restrictions on entering farming 68
see also children; poverty and social exclusion
Zambia, women’s land rights in 77