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Understanding Jus Cogens in International Law and International Legal Discourse

Ulf Linderfalk

Whilst the concept of jus cogens has grown increasingly more important in public international law, lawyers remain hugely divided both over what precisely confers a jus cogens status on a norm, and what this conferral implies in terms of legal consequences. In this ground-breaking book, Ulf Linderfalk clearly and succinctly explores the reasons for this divide in order to facilitate more rational and productive future discourse.
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Index

Ulf Linderfalk

African Union 2

aggression, prohibition of 15, 74–5, 191, 205

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 27, 193, 194

Åland Island Convention 159–60

amnesties 1

torture, prohibition of 26, 177, 193

apartheid 16

Aquinas, Thomas de 53, 56

arbitration tribunals 3

armed conflict 16

arms embargo 120–121, 157, 162

asylum 2

Basic Norm 42–3

best interests of the child 146–7, 151–2, 172

Cançado Trindade, AA 91

children: best interests of the child 146–7, 151–2, 172

Christian naturalism 57

Cicero 53

commitment and legal idealism 107–9

common heritage of mankind 18

consent

modification of jus cogens norms 94–5

legal idealism 94–5, 98–101, 206

legal positivism 95–7, 206

state 94, 101–2

legal idealism 81–3, 102, 106–9, 206

legal positivism 102–6, 137, 206

Convention on the Continental Shelf 22

Convention on the Law of the Sea 10, 200–201, 202

Art 109: unauthorized broadcasting 176, 179

Art 111: enforcement jurisdiction of coastal state 148, 150–151

Convention on the Rights of the Child

Art 3(1): best interests of the child 146–7

Council of Europe 2

crimes against humanity 4, 16, 30–34, 35, 145–6, 173–4

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 27, 193, 194

criminal proceedings 172

cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment or treatment 16

cultural life, right to participate in 128

customary international law 12, 13, 30, 119, 145, 167

conflict between jus cogens and 20–21, 24, 31

environment 156–7

legal idealism 82, 83

legal positivism 65–7, 75, 137, 141

second order norms 76–80, 95, 96, 97, 103, 106, 112–13, 142, 205

state consent 103–6

persistent objection theory 104–6, 137

self-defence 184, 187

necessary and proportionate 186–7

Statute of the ICJ: Art 3875, 82, 96

creating and establishing law 67–73

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 8, 20–21, 22, 24, 66–7, 68

death penalty

juveniles 17

declarations of states, unilateral 3, 9, 23, 164

no-obligations 25, 74

deontic logic 36, 48, 61, 164, 178

detention

prolonged arbitrary 18

development, right to 18, 147

diplomatic protection 3–4

domestic courts 2

Dworkin, R 48, 58–9, 90, 124, 139

enforcement and compliance 127–8

entailment 86–7, 99, 106, 114

environment 100, 114, 127, 151, 156–7

equality 17, 89, 91, 161

of arms 128, 131

before the law 17

Radbruch 57–8, 60

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 27

states: sovereign 15, 18, 90

equidistance principle 15, 18, 22, 141, 147

erga omnes obligations 12, 121–2, 139–41, 166–8

legal idealism 143

legal positivism 141–3

erga omnes partes obligations 139, 141, 162–3

ethnic minorities

right of remedial secession 50

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)

Art 3: torture 160–161

Art 6: fair trial 131

European Court of Human Rights 2, 131

European Union

Court of Justice of the 2–3

exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 158

expression, freedom of 61–2

extradition 2, 4, 161

torture, prohibition of 26, 27

fair trial, right to 128, 131, 147, 151–2

Finnis, J 55, 56, 68–73, 76, 79, 91, 172

fishing 114, 127, 128–9, 148, 158

food 128, 172

right to adequate 18, 147

force, prohibition of use of 15, 18, 89, 141, 182–8, 189–91, 192–3

forced disappearances 17, 27–8

forced labour 17

formalist moderated duty-holder 156–7, 162–3, 166–8, 171

formalist observer 157–8, 168–9, 171, 173, 174, 184

formalist plain duty-holder 157, 166–8, 171

fragmentation of international law 3, 9, 140

France

Gaddafi case 20

free trade, right to 18, 147

Fuller, L 56–7

future, outlook for 209–13

GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) 162

general principles of law 65–6, 75, 76, 82, 83, 96, 141

genocide 16, 21, 89, 90, 120

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 26, 193, 194

global constitutional order 87

global warming 100

good faith 17, 18, 56, 57, 90, 147

goods, basic (Finnis) 56

Hart, HLA 43–4, 47

high seas 43, 200, 201, 202

freedom of the 17, 18, 99–100, 127, 147, 148, 150–151, 179

unauthorized broadcasting 176, 179

Hobbes, T 54

human dignity 86, 91, 115, 131, 142, 161

human rights 1, 17, 18–19, 50, 87, 114, 147, 172

best interests of the child 146, 151–2, 172

cultural life, right to participate in 128

European Court of 2, 131

expression, freedom of 61–2

fair trial, right to 128, 131, 147, 151–2

Inter-American Commission of 138–9

Inter-American Court of 2, 91

liberty and security, right to 128

life, right to 17, 90, 141

self-determination, right to see separate entry

torture, prohibition of see separate entry

identification of jus cogens norms 110–133, 207–8, 211

how to provide justification

legal idealism 122–33, 207–8

legal positivism 115–22, 207

necessary justification

legal idealism 113–14, 207

legal positivism 112–13, 207

ideologist 160–161, 165–6, 171–3, 174

immunity 1, 2, 4, 20–21, 23, 24, 30–34, 35–6, 71–3, 113, 145–6, 173–4

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 27

individuation of norms 175–203, 209, 211

enforcement of primary jus cogens obligations 191–2

legal idealism 192, 195–6

legal positivism 192–5

exceptions to jus cogens norms 182–3

legal idealism 182–3, 189–91

legal positivism 182–9

jus cogens and international responsibility law 196–200

legal idealism 199, 200, 202–3

legal positivism 199, 200–202

proper criteria for

legal idealism 180–182

legal positivism 178–9

inhuman, cruel or degrading punishment or treatment 16

integrity, law as 58–9, 90

Inter-American Commission of Human Rights 138–9

Inter-American Court of Human Rights 2, 91

intergovernmental organisations 90

International Court of Justice (ICJ) 3

Arrest Warrant 20–21, 145

Bosnia Genocide 21

East Timor 167

jurisdiction of 26

Jurisdictional Immunities of the State 20, 23, 24, 29–34, 35–6, 163, 173–4, 191–2, 195, 196

North Sea Continental Shelf cases 22

sources of international law: Statute of the 41, 67–73, 75, 82, 96, 136–7, 141

Use of Nuclear Weapons Advisory Opinion 186–7

international crimes 18–19

International Criminal Court (ICC)

Statute 165

equal application (Art 27(1)) 161

international criminal law 1

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) 2, 20, 125

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) 2

international humanitarian law 16, 17, 30, 31–2, 114, 186–7, 188

rape, prohibition of 16

International Labour Organization (ILO) 2

International Law Commission (ILC) 3–4, 8–9, 10, 20, 116, 140

Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations (ARIO) 4, 23, 196–7, 199

Art 26177–8, 197

Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA) 3, 8–9, 23, 196, 197–203

Art 2 179

Arts 4–11 187–8

Art 13 179

Art 25 200, 201

Art 26 177–8, 197, 198–9, 200–202

Guide to Practice on Reservations to Treaties 23

unilateral declarations of states 3, 9, 23

international ordre public 87, 90

international organisations

Articles on Responsibility of International Organizations (ARIO) 4, 23, 177–8, 196–7, 197, 199

no-obligations 25

interpretation, treaty 129–33

involuntary servitude 17

jurisdiction, duty to exercise 26

jus gentium 53–4, 91

justice 52, 86, 128, 172

access to 17

Radbruch 57–8, 59–60, 90

juveniles

death penalty 17

Kelsen, H 41–3, 46, 47

law and value

legal idealism 52, 53–9, 90

legal positivism 44–5

legal certainty

legal idealism 57–8

legal positivism 49

legal idealism 37–8, 210–211

coexistence of conceptions from legal positivism and 211–13

consent, state 81–3, 102, 106–9, 206

first and second order norms 83, 84–5, 100, 196

identification of jus cogens norms

deductive method 122

how to provide justification 122–33, 207–8

immanent ideals 123–4

inductive-deductive method 122–3

necessary justification 113–14, 207

teleological arguments 129–33

transcendent ideals 123, 124

individuation of norms 176–8

enforcement of primary jus cogens obligations 195–6

exceptions to jus cogens norms 182–3, 189–91

jus cogens and international responsibility law 199, 200, 202–3

proper criteria for 180–182

law and legal structure 60–62

ideals as constitutive of law 61

ideals as standard 60

law and social order 50–53

immanent ideals 52, 53, 88, 98

transcendent ideals 51–2, 53, 88, 98

law and value 52, 53–9

basic aspirations 55

basic goods 56

Fuller: eight basic criteria 56–7

jus gentium 53–4

law as integrity 58–9, 90

objective law 54–5

Radbruch: justice 57–8, 90

social contract theory 54

modification of jus cogens norms 94–5, 98–101, 206

normative conflict

proper definition of context 163, 169–73

scope of jus cogens 134–5

obligations erga onmes 143

personal 138–9

principles 149–53

source of jus cogens obligations and no-competences 63–5, 205–6

appeals from the contrary 81–6

explanation in positive terms 86–92

validity of legal norms 59–60

legal positivism 37–8, 59, 210–211

coexistence of conceptions from legal idealism and 211–13

concept of law 41–4

Basic Norm 42–3

primary and secondary rules 43–4

Rule of Recognition 44

consent, state 102–6, 137, 206

exclusive and inclusive 40

first and second order norms 75–80, 84–5, 195, 205

erga omnes obligations 141–2

identification of jus cogens norms 115

modification of jus cogens norms 95–6, 97

normative conflict 163–9

principles 148

state consent 103, 104–6

identification of jus cogens norms

how to provide justification 115–22, 207

necessary justification 112–13, 207

individuation of norms 176–8

constitutive norms 178–9

enforcement of primary jus cogens obligations 192–5

exceptions to jus cogens norms 182–9

jus cogens and international responsibility law 199, 200–202

proper criteria for 178–9

regulative norms 179, 183–4

law and legal structure 47–9

law and social order 49–50

law and value 44–5

modification of jus cogens norms 95–7, 206

normative conflict

proper definition of context 163–9, 173

scope of jus cogens 134–5

obligations erga onmes 141–3

personal 135–8

principles 147–9

source of jus cogens obligations and no-competences 63–5, 73–80, 205

challenge 65–7

creating and establishing law 67–73

validity of legal norms 46–7

systemic 46–7

legal structure and law

legal idealism 60–62

legal positivism 47–9

legality 57

lex specialis derogat legi generali 48, 119

liberty and security, right to 128

life, right to 17, 90, 141

limitation, statutes of 28

Locke, J 54

marine environment 100, 127, 151

see also fishing; high seas

metaperspective, necessity of 34–9

minority groups

right of remedial secession 50

modification of jus cogens norms 94–5

legal idealism 94–5, 98–101, 206

legal positivism 95–7, 206

morality

legal idealism 50, 59–60

legal positivism 44–5, 46–7, 48, 49–50, 59

natural law 53–4, 91

naturalism 95

Christian 57

no-competence rule 24, 25–6, 74, 204, 205

see also source of jus cogens obligations and no-competences

no-obligations 24–6, 74, 204, 205

non-discrimination 17, 91, 142–3, 161

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 27

non-governmental organisations (NGOs) 90, 109

non-use of force 15, 18, 89, 141, 182–8, 189–91, 192–3

nonrefoulment, principle of 18

nonstate entities 90, 108–9

normative conflict 28–34, 48, 154–74, 208

concept of conflict of norms 156–61

definition

formalist moderated duty-holder 156–7, 162–3, 166–8, 171

formalist observer 157–8, 168–9, 171, 173, 174, 184

formalist plain duty-holder 157, 166–8, 171

ideologist 160–161, 165–6, 171–3, 174

teleologist 159–60, 166, 171–3, 174

proper definition of context 161–3

jurisdictional immunities of state 173–4

legal idealism 163, 169–73

legal positivism 163–9, 173

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 162

Nuremberg Military Tribunal 30

objective law (Scelle) 54–5

obligations erga omnes 12, 121–2, 139–41, 166–8

legal idealism 143

legal positivism 141–3

obligations erga omnes partes 139, 141, 162–3

open international market 87

opinio juris 67–8, 102–3, 136, 142, 143

identification of jus cogens norms 112, 115–16, 122, 123

modification of jus cogens norms 97

practical, empirical and juridical judgements 68–73

Organization of American States (OAS) 2

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)

Treaty on Open Skies 159–60

pacta sunt servanda 17, 18, 56, 90, 113

pacta tertiis nec nocent nec prosunt 76

piracy 16

primary jus cogens obligations 26

principles 172

general principles of law 65–6, 75, 76, 82, 83, 96, 141

scope of jus cogens 143–4

differences between principles and rules 144–7

legal idealism 149–53

legal positivism 147–9

prima facie duty to act 148, 151, 152–3

property, right to 18

Prosecutor v Furundžija 20

purposiveness or utility 57–8

racial discrimination 142–3

Radbruch, G 57–8, 59–60, 90, 124, 139

rape, prohibition of widespread 16, 195, 196

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 26, 193, 194

rational reconstruction 37

Raz, J 47

regional custom 136, 137–8

relative normativity of international law 119–20

religious minorities

right of remedial secession 50

reparation for damages

at request of injured party 18, 90

reservations to treaties 3, 22–3, 95–6, 164

no-obligations 25, 74

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 25, 26, 74

Roman law 53

Rousseau, JJ 54

Rule of Recognition 44, 58

Scelle, G 54–5, 98

scope of jus cogens 134–53, 208

obligations erga onmes 139–41

legal idealism 143

legal positivism 141–3

personal 135

legal idealism 138–9

legal positivism 135–8

principles 143–7

legal idealism 149–53

legal positivism 147–9

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 28–9, 34, 74–5, 80, 99, 125–6, 132, 154–5, 163, 170–171, 173, 175, 181, 184–5, 194–6, 205

analysis of Jurisdictional Immunities of the State case 29–34

examples 26–8, 193–4

legal obligations 23–4, 26, 74, 204–5

no-competence rule 24, 25–6, 74, 204, 205

no-obligations 24–6, 74, 204, 205

self-defence 15, 43, 183–4, 186–7, 189–91, 192–3

anticipatory 184

self-determination, right to 15, 74–5, 155, 166–7, 170, 180–182, 189

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 26–7, 193, 194

separation thesis 40, 44–5, 50

servitude, involuntary 17

slavery 15, 89

social contract theory 54

social order and law

legal idealism 50–53

legal positivism 49–50

source of jus cogens obligations and no-competences 63–92, 211

introduction

four distinctions 63–4

meaning of source 64

legal idealism 205–6

appeals from the contrary 81–6

common basic needs 84–5

consent 81–3

explanation in positive terms 86–92

first and second order norms 83, 84–5

ideals inextricable part of legal system 89–90

ideals and social community 88–90

lex superior 82–83

legal positivism 73–80, 205

challenge 65–7

circularity and infinite regress 80

creating and establishing law 67–73

first order norms 75, 76–80, 84–5, 205

second order norms 75–80, 84–5, 205

sovereign equality of states 15, 18, 90

sovereignty, respect of 15

sovereignty, state 55, 89, 147

space, obligation not to prevent access to 18

Special Court for Sierra Leone 2

Special Tribunal for Lebanon 2

state responsibility

Articles on the Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts (ARSIWA) 3, 8–9, 23, 196, 197–203

Art 2 179

Arts 4–11 187–8

Art 13 179

Art 25 200, 201

Art 26 177–8, 197, 198–9, 200–202

teleologist 159–60, 166, 171–3, 174

Timor Gap Treaty 167

Tladi, D 4, 65–6

tort 27, 29–34, 173–4, 205

torture, prohibition of 5, 16, 20, 26, 43, 74–5, 84–5, 100–101, 105, 124–5, 155, 160–161, 169, 177

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 26, 27, 193, 194

trade, right to free 18, 147

traditional approach 5–7

identifying criteria 5, 6, 9–14, 116, 204

suggested examples 15–19

Vienna Convention 7–9

legal consequences 5–6, 9, 10, 204

suggested examples 23–8

Vienna Convention 19–23

why discussants disagree 28–34

metaperspective, necessity of 34–9

unilateral declarations of states 3, 9, 23, 164

no-obligations 25, 74

United Nations 2

Charter 15, 42, 165

conflict of obligations 21–2, 48, 83, 118–19, 120, 162

prohibition of use of force 15, 18, 141, 182–6, 189–91

self-defence 184–5

General Assembly

aggression 191

self-determination 180–182, 189

Security Council 1, 21–2, 41–2, 83, 95, 119, 120–121, 157, 161, 162, 179, 183–4, 185, 188, 189–91

utility or purposiveness 57–8

value and law

legal idealism 52, 53–9, 90

legal positivism 44–5

Verdross, A 55

Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations 10

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969 (VCLT) 19–25

Art 31 130, 132–3

Art 33 133

Art 53 7–10, 11, 19–20, 23–5, 34–5, 66–7, 68, 73–4, 76–80, 81, 82, 94, 97, 102–3, 117, 122, 136–7, 143–4, 182, 185

Art 64 11, 20, 24–5, 185

no-obligations 24–5

void treaties 24

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations 1986 23

Art 31 130, 132–3

Art 32 133

Art 33 133

Art 53 7, 8, 136–7, 143–4, 182

no-obligations 25

waivers 23

war crimes 16, 30–34, 35, 63–4, 89, 93–4, 95, 96, 145–6, 173–4, 191–3, 195, 196

secondary jus cogens obligations and no-competences 27, 193, 194

weapons of mass destruction 141

Weil, P 119