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The Development of International Business

A Narrative of Theory and Practice

Robert Pearce

In this wide-ranging and groundbreaking new book, Robert Pearce provides an analytically-informed basis for understanding the modern multinational enterprise. It does this by tracing the development over the past half-century of two parallel strands of analysis in International Business; designated as the ‘theoretical’ and the ‘practical’. The book shows how the practical restructuring of the MNE as an organisational form has responded to changes in the wider global economy and how this evolution has interfaced with the enriching of the relevant theorising. By tracing the persisting dynamics of the MNEs’ structure and strategic positioning it demonstrates how what it is now can be used as a template for understanding and organising its further evolution as additional changes condition its environment.
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Index

A Narrative of Theory and Practice

Robert Pearce

agglomeration 69
appropriability 62
appropriate/inappropriate technology transfer 3845, 545, 1212
asymmetrical information 10, 58, 62, 125
Bain, J.S. 20
bargaining 9, 58, 623, 80, 1256
barriers to entry 2021
Bartlett, C.A. 67, 749, 83, 867, 92, 94, 137, 141
Behrman, J.N. 85, 889, 102
Birkinshaw, J.M. 67, 94, 100
bounded rationality 29, 40, 124, 126
Buckley, P.J. 6, 7, 24, 578, 60, 65, 108, 11415, 117
bureaucracy 18, 107
Burenstam-Linder, S. 30
buyer uncertainty 6064
Canada 70, 71
Cantwell J.A. 25, 67, 141
capital 8, 10, 137, 24, 35, 10910, 115, 12930
Casson, M.C. 6, 7, 24, 57, 60, 65
Caves, R.E. 80, 83, 101
China 8, 24, 99, 1023, 1058, 11017, 129
clusters 68
Coase, R.H. 57
coherence 78, 95, 97, 112
communications 28, 78, 8083, 91, 141
comparative advantage 2, 6, 3941, 4655, 69, 93, 123, 126, 140
competitive advantage 4, 16, 21, 66, 93, 105
component parts 7, 59, 88
contracts 11, 23, 578, 60, 63
coordination 60, 77, 80, 91, 935
cost-effective supply 5, 32, 33, 48, 98, 111, 130
country-specific advantage 10914, 11718
Cross, A. 117
Curhan, J.P. 11
D’Cruz, J. 73, 101
dependency 68, 130, 132, 138
distribution (fairness of) 9, 10, 119, 1237, 130, 133, 140
Dunning, J.H. 1, 3, 4, 67, 1112, 225, 101, 108, 119, 141
economic development 8, 9, 39, 40, 44, 5054, 69, 75, 10410, 11314, 117, 119, 12837, 140
economies of scale 23, 39, 43, 55, 75, 77, 8083, 1212
economies of scope 23, 75, 77
education 689
Eden, L. 4, 22
efficiency 9, 23, 3655, 65, 989, 11923, 1312, 140
emerging economies 8, 99, 10317
energy 7, 44, 49, 68, 111, 126, 129, 13031, 141
engineering 289, 3840, 69, 778, 97, 100, 122, 132, 1348, 141
entrepreneurship 69, 72, 137, 141
exports 3032, 43, 4852, 69, 95, 98, 106, 140
export-oriented industrialisation strategy 6, 41, 42, 44, 49, 73, 834, 94, 99, 102, 111, 126
Europe 1416, 24, 334, 41, 47
firm-specific advantage 11, 1617, 23, 49, 57, 1059, 110, 11217
Fischer, W.A. 85, 889, 102
Flowers, E.M. 11
footloose behaviour 44, 53, 68, 126, 1312, 138
foreign exchange 8, 98, 110, 130
franchising 7, 57
Ghoshal, S. 67, 749, 83, 867, 92, 94, 137, 141
globalization 16, 36, 40, 119, 125, 127, 13940
governments 8, 24, 42, 1048, 1134, 1268, 130, 132
Graham, E.M. 11
growth 9, 523, 68, 99, 10811, 140
Håkanson, L. 80, 101
Haug, P. 102
headquarters (HQ) 25, 43, 7071, 75, 97, 100
Hedlund, G. 67, 945
hegemony 9, 20, 25, 32, 41, 86, 95, 139
heterarchy 34, 67, 70, 82, 936, 100, 102
Hewitt, G. 101
hierarchy 3645, 578, 61, 70, 72, 856, 9091, 946, 100
see also multi-domestic hierarchy; network hierarchy
Hirschey, R.C. 80, 83, 101
Hufbauer, G.G. 30
Hymer, S. 1, 3, 4, 1320, 256, 34, 36
imports 31, 37, 39
import-substitution industrialisation strategy 37, 39, 41, 54, 73, 131
indivisibilities 81
industry concentration 4, 15, 16, 1921, 25, 52
infant-industry strategy 55, 131
information 61, 97, 107, 110, 122, 135, 138
infrastructure 44, 68, 130
innovation 5, 7, 8, 17, 2630, 30, 324, 37, 44, 52, 63, 69, 7079, 823, 87, 89, 92, 94, 978, 102, 13241
innovation strategies; types of
centre-for-global 767
global innovation strategy 78, 135, 137, 141
globally-linked 78
local-for-local 767, 86
locally-leveraged 778, 83, 87, 92
inputs 7, 28, 30, 32, 39, 424, 49, 52, 54, 59, 65, 68, 95, 99, 123, 126, 12930, 138
interdependencies 79, 81, 90, 95, 97, 98, 100, 134, 140
interdependent individualism 90, 96, 100
intermediate goods 4, 6, 7, 11, 234, 5765, 127, 139
internalisation 4, 6, 7, 225, 5766, 115, 125, 139
intra-group trade 41, 43
institutions 2, 3, 18, 24, 37, 40, 578, 60, 99, 10710, 11315, 117, 120
Japan 15, 24, 34, 41, 46, 49, 55
joint ventures 53, 56
Kindleberger, C.P. 1, 3, 11, 34
Knickerbocker, F.J. 11
Kojima, K. 6, 41, 4656, 68, 106, 123
Kumar, N. 834, 101
Lall, S. 80, 82
licensing 7, 11, 57, 636, 85
learning-by-doing 81
Leontief paradox 26
liability of foreignness 1819, 57, 65, 116, 118
location advantage 4, 6, 17, 223, 27, 32, 37, 40, 42, 4455, 58, 649, 71, 85, 93, 12030, 133
Lu, J. 11718
Lundan, S.M. 4, 22, 245, 101, 108, 141
Luo, Y. 114117
management 2021, 28, 3840, 47, 50, 74, 94, 107, 11517, 122
management contracts 57
Manea, J. 70, 141
Mansfield, E.D. 80, 101
market heterogeneity 7, 112
market research 278, 69, 72, 78, 97, 100101, 132, 134, 1378, 141
marketing 2021, 29, 33, 38, 40, 43, 49, 74, 122, 141
Matthews, J.A. 118
Morrison, A.J. 100
Moyo, D. 111
Mudambi, R. 67, 141
multi-domestic hierarchy 5, 6, 323, 3641, 44, 59, 77, 80, 823, 88, 90, 121
multi-domestic strategy 5, 99, 139
Narula, R. 103
national system of innovation 7, 69, 101, 112, 1349, 141
network hierarchy 5, 6, 33, 36, 415, 53, 59, 87, 95, 102
new product concept 137
newly industrialised countries (NIC) 45, 49, 50
North, D.C. 114
oligopoly 4, 20, 22, 25, 52
opportunism 58, 62
orderly technology transfer 535, 68
organisational structure (of MNEs) 3645, 58, 70, 86, 93102
ownership advantage 4, 5, 79, 17, 19, 217, 3031, 367, 4041, 46, 4965, 69, 85, 934, 1058, 117, 12028, 130, 133
Ozawa, T. 55
Papanastassiou, M. 25, 71, 73, 75, 778, 834, 9094, 96, 100102, 135, 1378, 141
parent company 3645, 70, 80, 867, 97, 99, 102, 122, 1368
Pearce, R. 25, 6771, 73, 75, 778, 8081, 834, 9094, 96, 100102, 104, 1067, 11112, 117, 119, 1235, 1279, 135, 1378, 14041
Peng, M.W. 108
policy 9, 13, 40, 50, 105, 11011, 115, 126, 132
Posner, M.V. 30
Poynter, T.A. 7073
processes, adaptation of 40, 76, 80, 83, 88
product cycle model 2, 45, 2635, 42, 52, 76, 78, 82, 989, 102, 106
product differentiation 19, 76
products, adaptation of 31, 40, 52, 80, 88, 99, 102
products, development of 5, 42, 44, 7072, 77, 827, 91, 967, 102, 1359
protectionism 5, 6, 37, 40, 42, 47, 512, 55, 131
raw materials 7, 16, 49, 55, 59, 88, 126, 129
relationship 1078, 114, 117
reputation 20
research; types of
applied 141
basic 77, 1348, 141
precompetitive 778, 1347
research and development (R&D) 65, 69, 72, 75, 7893, 101, 134, 136
R&D laboratories; types of
corporate technology unit 878
global technology unit 87
internationally interdependent laboratory 923
indigenous technology unit 867
locally integrated laboratory 83, 912
parent laboratory 80
stand-alone laboratory 87
support laboratory 82, 91, 102
technology transfer unit 858, 91, 102
Rolander, D. 945
Ronstadt, R.C. 858, 91, 102
Rugman, A.M. 25, 70, 1089
satisficing 124
science-base 28, 69, 93, 100
scientific institutions 69, 135
scientists 28, 1367, 141
seller uncertainty 6064, 125
sovereignty 910, 119, 1278, 130, 132, 140
strategic motivations; for MNEs and subsidiaries; types of
efficiency seeking 2, 57, 325, 415, 52, 59, 65, 678, 7075, 834, 8791, 945, 98101, 106, 1226, 13032, 140
knowledge seeking 79, 17, 27, 34, 412, 6979, 84, 8990, 93101, 1067, 11113, 11617, 13344, 1378
market seeking 2, 57, 3045, 47, 52, 55, 678, 7076, 834, 88, 9091, 94, 99, 100, 105, 117, 1212, 13031, 14041
resource seeking 8, 16, 17, 88, 1067, 111, 117, 129
structural adjustment mechanism 489, 5051
subsidiaries 3345, 67, 7079, 8098, 100, 102, 122, 1378
types of black hole 75
branch plant 101
competence creating subsidiary 74, 141
contributor 75
globally rationalised subsidiary 73
implementer 75
miniature replica 72
product mandate 7071, 78, 834, 92, 102, 137
product specialist 734
rationalised manufacturer 73
rationalised product subsidiary 73
strategic independent 734
strategic leader 76, 78, 141
truncated miniature replica 101
supply networks 11, 67, 87, 94, 122, 127, 132
switching costs 58
synergies 77, 82, 136
Tang, Y. 104, 1067, 11112, 117
tariff-jumping FDI 30, 37, 47, 99, 121
tariffs 18, 30, 34, 52, 1212
tastes 31, 38, 99
technological change 17, 68, 97
technological heterogeneity 7, 112
technology 7, 11, 17, 2021, 278, 32, 47, 53, 68, 745, 92, 95, 97102, 115, 125, 127, 130, 1325, 138
technology transfer 389, 42, 445, 5355, 6065, 82, 95
see also appropriate technology transfer; orderly technology transfer
trade creating FDI 2, 6, 41, 4650, 545, 68, 106, 123, 131
trade destroying FDI 2, 6, 46, 5055, 106
training 68
transaction costs 224, 58, 61, 634
transfer pricing 127
transnationals 34, 67, 70, 768, 82, 9096
transport costs 30
tutor role of FDI 534, 102
uncertainty 58
universities 9, 135
USA 1416, 24, 279, 33, 47, 52, 55, 70, 79, 82, 85
value-added 10, 11, 23, 36, 57, 59, 60, 68, 72, 74, 98, 111, 125, 130, 132, 136
value chain 10, 11
Vaupel, J.W. 11
Verbeke, A. 109
Vernon, R. 25, 2636, 42, 52, 76, 78, 82, 92, 98, 102, 106, 136
vertically integrated MNEs 59, 60, 88, 12930
Voss, H. 11415, 117
wage rates 44, 49, 50, 55, 98, 131
Wang, P.Y.L. 108
White, R.F. 713
Williamson, O.E. 57
X-inefficiency 40, 43, 121, 123
Yamin, M. 25
Young, S. 102
Zejan, M.C. 834, 1012
Zhang, S. 689, 1012, 129