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Conflict of Laws and the Internet

Pedro de Miguel Asensio

The ubiquity of the Internet contrasts with the territorial nature of national legal orders. This book offers a comprehensive analysis of jurisdiction, choice of law and enforcement of judgments issues concerning online activities in the areas in which private legal relationships are most affected by the Internet. It provides an in-depth study of EU Law in this particularly dynamic field, with references to major developments in other jurisdictions. Topics comprise information society services, data protection, defamation, copyright, trademarks, unfair competition and contracts, including consumer protection and alternative dispute resolution.
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TABLE OF CASES

Pedro de Miguel Asensio

EUROPEAN UNION

Court of Justice

AB ‘flyLAL-Lithuanian Airlines’, C-27/17, Judgment of 5 July 2018, EU:C:2018:533 1.85, 5.152, 5.157, 5.191

ACI Adam BV and Others, C-435/12, Judgment of 10 April 2014, EU:C:2014:254 4.26

AIRBNB Ireland, C-390/18, Opinion of AG Szpunar of 30 April 2019, EU:C:2019:336 2.04, 2.08, 2.22, 2.35

Alassini and Others, C-317/08 to C-320/08, Judgment of 18 March 2010, EU:C:2010:146 6.207

Alpine Investments, C-384/93, Judgment of 10 May 1995, EU:C:1995:126 5.188

Amazon.com International Sales and Others, C-521/11, Judgment of 11 July 2013, EU:C:2013:515 4.26

Amazon EU, C-649/17, Judgment of 10 July 2019, EU:C:2019:586 2.11, 6.17

AMS Neve and others, C-172/18, Judgment of 5 September 2019, EU:C:2019:674 5.104, 5.105

AMS Neve and others, C-172/18, Opinion of AG Szpunar delivered on 28 March 2019, EU:C:2019:276 5.104

Apostolides, C-420/07, Judgment of 28 April 2009, EU:C:2009:271 3.163

Apple Sales International, C-595/17, Judgment of 24 October 2018, EU:C:2018:854 5.146, 5.152, 6.80

Aqua Med, C-266/18, Judgment of 3 April 2019, EU:C:2019:282 6.85

Arblade, C-369/96 and C-376/96, Judgment of 23 November 1999, EU:C:1999:575 6.188, 6.190

ARD, C-6/98, Judgment of 28 October 1999 5.188

Art & Allposters International, C-419/13, Judgment of 22 January 2015, EU:C:2015:27 4.36

Asbeek Brusse and de man Garabito, C-488/11, Judgment of 30 May 2013, EU:C:2013:341 6.26

ASML, C-283/05, Judgment of 14 December 2006, EU:C:2006:787 1.129

Asociación Profesional Élite Taxi v. Uber Systems Spain SL, C-434/15, Judgment of 20 December 2017, EU:C:2017:981 2.07, 2.23, 2.35, 5.144

Asturcom Telecomunicaciones, C-40/08, Judgment of October 2009, EU:C:2009:615 6.190, 6.221

Austro-Mechana, C-572/14, Judgment of 21 April 2016, EU:C:2016:286 4.43, 6.93

Baltic Media Alliance, C-622/17, Judgment of 4 July 2019, EU:C:2019:566 2.23, 2.24

Bastei Lübbe, C-149/17, Judgment of 18 October 2018, EU:C:2018:841 4.32

Bayerische Motoren Werke, C-433/16, Judgment of 13 July 2017, EU:C:2017:550 5.92, 5.93, 5.106, 5.133, 5.145, 5.150

Belgian Electronic Sorting Technology, C-657/11, Judgment of 11 July 2013, EU:C:2013:516 5.133, 5.143, 5.144

Belgian Electronic Sorting Technology, C-657/11, Opinion AG Mengozzi of 21 March 2013, EU:C:2013:195 5.23

Benincasa / Dentalkit, C-269/95, Judgment of 3 July 1997, EU:C:1997:337 6.44

BergSpechte, C-278/08, Judgment of 25 March 2010, EU:C:2010:163 5.11

Besix, C-256/00, Judgment of 19 February 2002, EU:C:2002:99 1.48, 4.74, 6.92

BestWater International, C-348/13, Order of 21 October 2014, EU:C:2014:2315 4.22, 4.125

Betriebsrat der Ruhrlandklinik, C-216/15, Judgment of 17 November 2016, EU:C:2016:883 6.89

BGL BNP Paribas, C-548/18 6.69

Bier, 21/76, Judgment of 30 November 1976, EU:C:1976:166 2.73

Blomqvist, C-98/13, Judgment of 6 February 2014, EU:C:2014:55 5.65, 5.66, 5.122

Bolagsupplysningen and Ilsjan, C-194/16, Judgment of 17 October 2017, EU:C:2017:766 1.50, 2.79, 2.80, 2.84, 3.92, 3.112, 3.119, 3.120, 3.121, 3.122, 3.123, 3.126, 3.127, 4.64, 4.87, 4.88, 5.86, 5.87, 5.154, 5.156, 5.197

Bolagsupplysningen, C-194/16, Opinion of AG Bobek of 13 July 2017, EU:C:2017:554 3.125, 4.86

Bond van Adverteerders, 352/85, Judgment of 26 April 1988, EU:C:1988:196 5.188

Bonnier Audio and others, C-461/10, Judgment of 19 April 2012, EU:C:2012:219 2.57, 3.03, 4.31, 4.45, 4.174

Breyer, C-582/14, Judgment of 19 October 2016, EU:C:2016:779 3.06

Brogsitter, C-548/12, Judgment of 13 March 2014, EU:C:2014:148 1.50, 3.80, 6.94

Buivids, C-345/17, Judgment of 14 February 2019, EU:C:2019:122 3.04, 3.38

BVG, C-144/10, Judgment of 12 May 2011, EU:C:2011:300 1.43

C More Entertainment AB, C-279/13, Judgment of 26 March 2015, EU:C:2015:199 4.24

Car Trim, C-381/08, Judgment of 25 February 2010,EU:C:2010:90 6.101, 6.102, 6.104, 6.113, 6.114, 6.124

Castelletti, C-159/97, Judgment of 16 March 1999, EU:C:1999:142 6.74

CDC Hydrogen Peroxide, C-352/13, 21 May 2015, EU:C:2015:335 1.54, 4.57, 5.152, 5.192, 6.80

Česká spořitelna, C-419/11, 14 March 2013, EU:C:2013:165 6.43, 6.44, 6.93, 6.97, 6.120

ClientEarth and PAN Europe, C-615/13 P, Judgment of the CJEU of 16 July 2015, EU:C:2015:489 3.06

Collectieve Antennevoorziening Gouda, C-288/89, EU:C:1991:331 5.188

Color Drack, C-386/05, Judgment of 3 May 2007, EU:C:2007:262 6.92, 6.115

combit Software, C-223/15, Judgment of 22 September 2016, EU:C:2016:719 5.208, 5.213

Concurrence, C-618/15, Judgment of 21 December 2016, EU:C:2016:976 2.79, 2.82, 5.147, 5.150, 5.157, 5.158, 5.159, 5.160, 5.191

Content Services, C-49/11, Judgment of 5 July 2012, EU:C:2012:419 6.17

Copydan Båndkopi, C-463/12, March 2015, EU:C:2015:144 4.26

Coreck Maritime, C-387/98, Judgment of 9 November 2000, EU:C:2000:606 6.72, 6.80

Corman-Collins, C-9/12, Judgment of 19 December 2013, EU:C:2013:860 6.100, 6.101, 6.102, 6.103

Coty Germany, C-360/12, Judgment of 5 June 2014, EU:C:2014:1318 1.50, 2.73, 2.82, 5.92, 5.101, 5.102, 5.103, 5.104, 5.150, 5.151, 5.152, 5.153, 5.159

Courage and Crehan, C-453/99, Judgment of 20 September 2001, EU:C:2001:465 5.146

Custom Made Commercial/Stawa Metallbau, C-288/92, Judgment of 29 June 1994, EU:C:1994:268 6.98

Da Silva Martins, C-149/18, Judgment of 31 January 2019, EU:C:2019:84 1.85

Daimler, C-179/15, Judgment of 3 March 2016, EU:C:2016:134 5.11

Danosa, C-232/09, Judgment of 11 November 2010, EU:C:2010:674 6.89

Data Protection Commissioner v. Facebook Ireland Limited, Maximillian Schrems, C-311/1, 9 May 2018 3.34

De Agostini y TV-Shop, C-34/95, Judgment of 9 July 1997, EU:C:1997:344 5.188

De Bloos v. Bouyer, 14/76, Judgment of 6 October 1976, EU:C:1976:134 6.98

Denilauler, 125/79, Judgment of 21 May 1980, [1980] ECR 1553 4.163

Deutsche Grammophon, 78/70, Judgment of 8 June 1971, EU:C:1971:59 4.36

deutsche internet versicherung, C-298/07, Judgment of 16 October 2008, EU:C:2008:572 2.11, 2.12

DHL Express France, C-235/09, Judgment of 12 April 2011, EU:C:2011:238 1.107, 4.68, 4.70, 4.168, 5.196, 5.208, 5.209, 5.212, 5.215, 5.216

Diageo Brands, C-681/13, Judgment of 16 July 2015, EU:C:2015:471 1.130, 3.163, 5.218

Digital Rights Ireland and Seitlinger, C-293/12 and C-594/12, Judgment of 8 April 2014, EU:C:2014:238 3.03, 3.06

Donner, C-5/11, Judgment of 21 June 2012, EU:C:2012:370 4.82, 4.109, 4.110

Douwe Egberts, C-239/02, Judgment of 15 July 2004, EU:2004:445 5.188

Duijnstee, 288/82, Judgment of 15 November 1983, EU:C:1983:326 5.70, 5.71

Dumez, C-220/88, Judgment of 11 January 1990, EU:C:1990:8 2.78

eDate Advertising and others, C-509/09 and C-161/10, Judgment of 25 October 2011, EU:C:2011:685 1.50, 2.05, 2.14, 2.22, 2.32, 2.34, 2.36, 2.73, 2.79, 2.81, 3.87, 3.92, 3.112, 3.117, 3.118, 3.121, 3.123, 3.124, 3.125, 3.141, 3.142, 3.151, 4.64, 4.65, 4.66, 4.86, 4.145, 5.87, 5.88, 5.154, 5.156, 5.184, 5.185, 6.12

eDate Advertising and Others, C-509/09 and C-161/10, Opinion of AG Cruz Villalón of 29 March 2011, EU:C:2011:192 3.123

Eco Swiss, C-126/97, Judgment of 1 June 1999, EU:C:1999:269 6.194, 6.215

Effer v Kantner, 38/81, Judgment of 4 March 1982, EU:C:1982:79 6.93

El Majdoub, C-322/14, Judgment of 21 May 2015, EU:C:2015:334 1.45, 6.71, 6.78

Electrosteel Europe, C-87/10, Judgment of 9 June 2011, EU:C:2011:375 6.113

Emrek, C-218/12, Judgment of 17 October 2013, EU:C:2013:666 6.58

Engler, C-27/02, Judgment of 20 January 2005, EU:C:2005:33 6.42, 6.43, 6.44, 6.93

Entidad de Gestión de Derechos de los Productores Audiovisuales (EGEDA), C-470/14, Judgment of 9 June 2016, EU:C:2016:418 4.26

ERGO Insurance and Gjensidige Baltic, C-359/14 and C-475/14, Judgment of 21 January 2016, EU:C:2016:40 1.85

Estasis Saloti di Colzani, 24/76, Judgment of 14 December 1976, EU:C:1976:177 6.76

Falco Privatstiftung and Rabitsch, C-533/07, Judgment of 23 April 2009, EU:C:2009:257 1.42, 6.103, 6.110, 6.158

Farrell, C-295/95, Judgment of 20 March 1997, EU:C:1997:168 4.74

Fashion ID, C-40/17, Judgment of 29 July 2019, EU:C:2019:629 3.01, 3.03, 3.38, 3.76, 3.90

flightright, C-274/16, C-447/16 and C-448/16, Judgment of 7 March 2018, EU:C:2018:160 6.93, 6.116

flyLAL, C-302/13, Judgment of 23 October 2014, EU:C:2014:2319 1.131, 3.163

Folien Fischer and Fofitec, C-133/11, Judgment of 25 October 2012, EU:C:2012:664 2.72, 2.73, 3.92, 3.94, 4.50, 4.63, 5.106

Football Dataco, C-173/11, Judgment of 18 October 2012, EU:C:2012:642 2.83, 4.61, 4.82, 4.112, 4.136

Freeport, C-98/06, Judgment of 11 October 2007, EU:C:2007:595 1.54, 4.57

Funke Medien NRW, C-469/17, Judgment of 29 July 2019, EU:C:2019:623 4.26, 4.29

G, C-292/10, Judgment of 15 March 2012, EU:C:2012:142 1.40, 1.41, 2.14, 2.17, 2.70

Galileo Lebensmittel, C-483/07 P, Order of 17 February 2009, EU:C:2009:95 5.17

Gambazzi, C-394/07, Judgment of 2 April 2009, EU:C:2009:219 1.120

Gasser, C-116/02 Judgment of 9 December 2003, EU:C:2003:657 1.58

GAT, Judgment of 13 July 2006, C-4/03 5.69, 5.70, 5.73, 5.74, 5.75

GAT, Opinion of AG Geelhoed, 16 September 2004 5.75

GIE Groupe Concorde and others, C-440/97, Judgment of 28 September 1999, EU:C:1999:456 1.48, 4.74, 6.98

Glawischnig-Piesczek, C-18/18, Judgment of 3 October 2019, EU:C:2019:821 1.17, 2.46, 2.57, 3.59, 3.60, 3.127, 3.152

Glawischnig-Piesczek, C-18/18, Opinion of AG Szpunar of 4 June 2019, EU:C:2019:458 3.59, 3.60, 3.127

Google (Portée territoriale du déréférencement), C-507/17, Judgment of 24 September 2019, EU:C:2019:772 1.17, 1.26, 3.03, 3.04, 3.15, 3.46, 3.57, 3.59, 3.60

Google France and Google, C-236/08 to C-238/08, Judgment of 23 March 2010, EU:C:2010:159 2.05, 2.53, 2.55, 4.45, 5.11, 5.204, 5.218

Google Spain and Google, C-131/12, Judgment of 13 May 2014, EU:C:2014:317 3.01, 3.03, 3.04, 3.15, 3.38, 3.40, 3.46, 3.48, 3.55, 3.56, 3.57, 3.60

Google Spain and Google, Opinion of AG Szpunar of 10 January 2019 3.57

Gothaer, C-456/11, Judgment of 15 November 2012, EU:C:2012:719 1.127

Gourmet International Products, C-405/98, Judgment 8 March 2001, EU:C:2001:138.. 5.188

Granarolo, C-196/15, Judgment of 14 July 2016, EU:C:2016:559 1.36, 3.80, 6.93, 6.100, 6.103

Gruber, C-464/01, Judgment of 20 January 2005, EU:C:2005:32 6.43, 6.44, 6.45, 6.54

GS Media, C-160/15, Judgment of 8 September 2016, EU:C:2016:644 4.22, 4.125

H. Gautzsch Großhandel, C-479/12, Judgment of 13 February 2014, EU:C:2014:75 5.123

Haeger & Schmidt, C-305/13, Judgment of 23 October 2014, EU:C:2014:2320 6.165

Hanssen Beleggingen, C-341/16, Judgment of 5 October 2017, EU:C:2017:738 1.43, 5.71

Hansson, C-481/14, Judgment of 9 June 2016, EU:C:2016:419 4.21

Hedqvist, C-264/14, Judgment of 22 October 2015, ECLI:EU:C:2015:718 6.68

Hejduk, C-441/13, Judgment of 22 January 2015, EU:C:2015:28 2.73, 2.74, 2.75, 2.79, 2.80, 3.118, 3.126, 4.35, 4.50, 4.62, 4.71, 4.73, 4.74, 4.75, 4.77, 4.81, 4.82, 4.85, 4.146, 5.89, 5.90, 5.156, 5.158

Hejduk, C-441/13, Opinion of AG Cruz Villalón of 11 September 2014, EU:C:2014:2212 4.35, 4.84

Henkel, C-167/00, Judgment of 1 October 2002, EU:C:2002:555 2.73, 5.150, 6.72, 6.94

Hewlett-Packard Belgium, C-572/13, Judgment of 12 November 2015, EU:C:2015:750 4.26

Hi Hotel HCF, C-387/12, Judgment of 3 April 2014, EU:C:2014:215 4.56

Hobohm, C-297/14, Judgment of 23 December 2015, EU:C:2015:844 6.60

Holterman Ferho Exploitatie and Others, C-47/14, Judgment of 10 September 2015, EU:C:2015:574 6.88

Hőszig, C-222/15, Judgment of 7 July 2016, EU:C:2016:525 6.71, 6.75, 6.80

Huawei Technologies, C-170/13, Judgment of 16 July 2015, EU:C:2015:477 5.145

Hummel Holding, C-617/15, Judgment of 18 May 2017, EU:C:2017:390 5.92, 5.94, 5.95

Hummel Holding, C-617/15, Opinion of AG Tanchev of 12 January 2017, EU:C:2017:390 5.94

Hypotecˇní banka, C-327/10, Judgment of 17 November 2011, EU:C:2011:745 1.40, 1.129, 2.69, 2.70

ICF, C-133/08, Judgment of 6 October 2009, EU:C:2009:617 6.165

IHT Internationale Heiztechnik and Danzinger, C 9/93, Judgment of 22 June 1994, EU:C:1994:261 5.63

Ilsinger, C-180/06, Judgment of 14 May 2009, EU:C:2009:303 6.37, 6.42

Infopaq, C-5/08, Judgment of 16 July 2009 4.27

Ingmar, C-381/98, Judgment of 9 November 2000, 6.190

Interflora and Interflora British Unit, C-323/09, Judgment of 22 September 2011, EU:C:2011:604 5.11

Internetportal, C-569/08, Judgment of 3 June 2010, EU:C:2010:311 5.51

Internetportal, C-569/08, Opinion of AG Trstenjak, 10 February 2010, EU:C:2010:65 5.51

IPI, C-473/12, Judgment of 7 November 2013, EU:C:2013:715 3.17

Jehovan todistajat, C-25/17, Judgment of 10 July 2018, EU:C:2018:551 3.38

Kainz, C-45/13, Judgment of 16 January 2014, EU:C:2014:7 2.76

Kalfelis, 189/87, Judgment of 27 September 1988, EU:C:1988:459 1.50, 1.54, 4.50, 6.94

Kamenova, C-105/17, Judgment of 4 October 2018, EU:C:2018:808 5.138, 6.55

Kareda, C-249/16, Judgment of 15 June 2017, EU:C:2017:472 1.85, 6.103, 6.118, 6.123

Ker-Optika, C-108/09, Judgment of 2 December 2010, EU:C:2010:725 2.04, 2.05, 2.10, 2.26

Kerr, C-25/18, Judgment of 8 May 2019, EU:C:2019:376 6.158

Koelzsch, C-29/10, Judgment of 15 March 2011, EU:C:2011:15 6.172

Kolassa, C-375/13, Judgment of 28 January 2015, EU:C:2015:37 1.50, 6.93

Kone and Others, C-557/12, Judgment of 5 June 2014, EU:C:2014:1317 5.189

Konstantinides, C-475/11, Judgment of 12 September 2013, EU:C:2013:542 5.188

L'Oréal and others, C-324/09, Judgment of 12 July 2011, EU:C:2011:474 2.05, 2.53, 2.55, 2.64, 4.45, 4.82, 4.110, 5.58, 5.60, 5.62, 5.122, 5.204

Laezza, C-375/14, Judgment of 28 January 2016, EU:C:2016:60 5.188

Lagardère, C-192/04, Judgment of 14 July 2005, EU:C:2005:475 4.15, 4.34, 4.131

Lazar, C-350/14, Judgment of 10 December 2015, EU:C:2015:802 2.89

Lazar, C-350/14, Opinion of AG Wahl of 10 September 2015, EU:C:2015:586 2.88, 2.89

Lease Plan Luxembourg/Belgische Staat, C-390/96, Judgment of 7 May 1998, EU:C:1998:206 2.15

Leathertex, C-420/97, Judgment of 5 October 1999, EU:C:1999:483 6.98, 6.99

Lebek, C-70/15, Judgment of 7 July 2016, EU:C:2016:524 1.129

Leventis and Vafeias, C-436/16, Judgment of 28 June 2017, EU:C:2017:497 1.45, 6.75

Liberato, C-386/17, Judgment of 16 January 2019, EU:C:2019:24 1.128

Liffers, C-99/15, Judgment of 17 March 2016, EU:C:2016:173 4.21

Lindqvist, C-101/01, Judgment of 6 November 2003, EU:C:2003:596 3.03, 3.17, 3.38

McFadden, C-484/14, Judgment of 15 September 2016, EU:C:2016:689 2.04, 2.53, 2.54, 2.56, 4.32, 4.45, 4.88, 4.158, 4.174, 5.184, 5.205

Mærsk Olie & Gas, C-39/02, 14 October 2004, EU:C:2004:615 1.127

Mahamdia, C-154/11, Judgment of 19 July 2012, EU:C:2012:491 6.72, 6.81, 6.90

Manfredi and Others, C-295/04 to C-298/04, Judgment of 13 July 2006, EU:C:2006:461 5.146

Manni, C-398/15, Judgment of 9 March 2017, EU:C:2017:197 3.06, 3.08

Marinari, C-364/93 Judgment of 19 September 1995,, EU:C:1995:289 2.78

Meeth, 23/78, Judgment of 9 November 1978, EU:C:1978:198 6.71

Melzer, C-228/11, Judgment of 16 May 2013, EU:C:2013:305 4.56, 5.152

Menini and Rampanelli, C-75/16, Judgment of 14 June 2017, EU:C:2017:457 6.207, 6.217

Merck, C-231/16, Judgment of 19 October 2017, EU:C:2017:771 5.57

Mercredi, C-497/10, Judgment of 22 December 2010, EU:C:2010:829 3.86

Milivojevic’, C-630/17, Judgment of 14 February 2019, EU:C:2019:123 6.44, 6.46

Mostaza Claro, C-168/05, Judgment of 26 October 2006, EU:C:2006:675 6.190, 6.221

MSG/Les Gravières Rhénanes, C-106/95, Judgment of 20 February 1997, EU:C:1997:70 1.45, 6.75, 6.97, 6.120

Mühlleitner, C-190/11, Judgment of 6 September 2012, EU:C:2012:542 2.43, 6.58, 6.62

Mulox IBC/Geels, C-125/92, Judgment of 13 July 1993, EU:C:1993:306 6.88

New Media Online, C-347/14, Judgment of 21 October 2015, EU:C:2015:709 2.09

Nikiforidis, C-135/15, Judgment of 18 October 2016, EU:C:2016:774 6.199

Nintendo, C-24/16 and C-25/16, Judgment of 27 September 2017, EU:C:2017:724 1.54, 4.57, 5.80, 5.83, 5.92, 5.96, 5.97, 5.99, 5.103, 5.122, 5.123, 5.124, 5.125, 5.208, 5.210

Nintendo, C-24/16 and C-25/16, Opinion of AG Bot of 1 March 2017 EU:C:2017:146. 5.215

Nipponkoa, C-452/12, Judgment of 19 December 2013, EU:C:2013:858 3.95

Nogueira and others, C-168/16 and C-169/16, Judgment of 14 September 2017, EU:C:2017:688 6.90, 6.129

O2, C-533/06, Judgment of 12 June 2008, EU:C: 2008:339 5.130

Océano Grupo Editorial and Salvat Editores, C-240/98 to C-244/98, Judgment of 27 June 2000, EU:C:2000:346 6.26, 6.85, 6.86, 6.221

ÖFAB, C-147/12, Judgment of 18 July 2013, EU:C:2013:490 1.48

Owusu, C-281/02, Judgment of 1 March 2005, EU:C:2005:120 1.36, 1.48, 1.72, 2.69, 4.74, 5.183

Padawan, C-467/08, Judgment of 21 October 2010, EU:C:2010:620 4.26

Painer, C-145/10, Judgment of 1 December 2011, EU:C:2011:798 1.54, 4.58, 4.59, 5.81

Pammer and Hotel Alpenhof, C-585/08 and C-144/09, Judgment of 7 December 2010, EU:C:2010:740 2.43, 3.51, 4.114, 5.60, 5.177, 6.58, 6.59

Papasavvas, C-291/13, Judgment of 11 September 2014, EU:C:2014:2209 2.04, 2.05, 2.36, 2.53, 2.55, 3.144

Pelham and others, C-476/17, Judgment of 29 July 2019, EU:C:2019:624 4.29

Peters, 34/82, Judgment of 22 March 1983, EU:C:1983:87 6.93

Petruchová, C-208/18, Judgment of 3 October 2019, EU:C:2019:825 6.37, 6.44

Peugeot Deutschland, C-132/17, Judgment of 21 February 2018, EU:C:2018:85 2.09

Philips, C-446/09 and C-495/09, Judgment of 1 December 2011, EU:C:2011:796 5.65

Pie Optiek, C-376/11, Judgment of 19 July 2012, EU:C:2012:502 5.48, 6.110, 6.158

Pie Optiek, C-376/11, Opinion of AG Trstenjak of 3 May 2012, EU:C:2012:272 5.18, 5.48, 6.110, 6.158

Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique, C-439/09, Judgment of 13 October 2011, EU:C:2011:649 5.145

Pillar Securitisation, C-694/17, Judgment of 2 May 2019, EU:C:2019:345 6.37

Pinckney, C-170/02, Judgment of 3 October 2013, EU:C:2013:635 2.79, 2.80, 4.35, 4.65, 4.71, 4.73, 4.74, 4.75, 4.76, 4.81, 4.82, 4.84, 5.87, 5.90, 5.105, 5.117, 5.154, 5.156, 5.158

Pinckney, C-170/12, Opinion of AG Jääskinen of 13 June 2013, EU:C:2013:400 4.72

Pippig, C-44/01, Judgment of 8 April 2003, EU:C:2003:205 5.130

Planet 49, C-673/17, Judgment of 1 October 2019, EU:C:2019:801 3.13

Plus Warenhandelsgesellschaft, C-304/08, Judgment of 14 January 2010, EU:C:2010:12 5.141

Portakabin, C-588/08, Judgment of 8 July 2010, EU:C:2010:416 5.11

Procureur-Generaal bij de Hoge Raad der Nederlanden, C-678/18, Judgment of 21 November 2019, EU:C:2019:998 5.199

Profit Investment SIM, C-366/13, Judgment of 20 April 2016, EU:C:2016:282 6.74

Promusicae, C-275/06, Judgment of 29 January 2008, EU:C:2008:54 4.30

Public Relations Consultants Association Ltd, C-360/13, Judgment of 5 June 2014, EU:C:2014:1195 4.25

Puls 4 TV, C-500/19 2.55, 4.22

Ranks and VasiĮevičs, C-166/15, Judgment of 12 October 16, EU:C:2016:762 4.23, 4.36

Realchemie Nederland, C-406/09, Judgment of 18 October 2011, EU:C:2011:668 1.108, 1.127

Refcomp, C-543/10, Judgment of 7 February 2013, EU:C:2013:62 1.44, 6.75

Rehder, C-204/08, Judgment of 9 July 2009, EU:C:2009:439 6.116

Reichert and Kockler, C-115/88, Judgment of 10 January 1990EU:C:1990:3 1.43, 1.55, 4.94

Renault, C-38/98, Judgment of 11 May 2000, EU:C:2000:225 4.170

Renckhoff, C-161/17, Judgment of 7 August 2018, C:2018:634 4.22, 4.27

Roche Nederland and others, C-539/03, Judgment of 13 July 2006, EU:C:2006:458 1.54, 4.57, 4.58, 5.80, 5.81, 5.99

RTL Televisión, C-245/01, Judgment of 23 October 2003, EU:C:2003:580 5.188

Ryanair, C-464/18, Judgment of 11 April 2019, EU:C:2019:311 1.52, 2.68, 6.37

Ryneš, C-212/13, Judgment of 11 December 2014, EU:C:2014:2428 3.38

SABAM, C-360/10, Judgment of 16 February 2012, EU:C:2012:85 2.05, 2.57, 4.31, 4.45, 4.174

Saey Home & Garden, C-64/17, Judgment of 8 March 2018, EU:C:2018:173 1.45, 6.76

Säger, C-76/90, Judgment of 25 July 1991, EU:C:1991:331; 25 July 1991 5.188

St. Paul Dairy, C-104/03, Judgment of 28 April 2005, EU:C:2005:255 1.55, 4.94

Sapir and others, C-645/11, Judgment of 11 April 2013, EU:C:2013:228 1.53, 1.54, 3.79

Satakunnan Markkinapörssi and Satamedia, C-73/07, Judgment of 16 December 2008, EU:C:2008:727 3.38

Scarlet Extended, C-70/10, Judgment of 24 November 2011, EU:C:2011:771 2.05, 2.53, 2.57, 3.03, 4.31, 4.45, 4.174

Schlecker, C-64/12, Judgment of 12 September 2013, EU:C:2013:551 6.129, 6.172

Schrems, C-362/14, Judgment of 6 October 2015, EU:C:2015:650 3.01, 3.03, 3.33, 3.78, 3.85, 3.94, 6.41

Schrems, C-498/16, Judgment of 25 January 2018, EU:C:2018:37 6.48, 6.50, 6.51

Schweppes, C-291/16, Judgment of 20 December 2017, EU:C:2017:990 4.36, 5.63

Sebago and Maison, C-173/98, Judgment of 1 July 1999, EU:C:1999:347 4.36, 5.61

SGAE v. Rafael Hoteles C-306/05, Judgment of 7 December 2006, 4.27

Shearson Lehman Hutton/TVB, C-89/91, Judgment of 19 January 1993 EU:C:1993:15 6.41, 6.43, 6.44

Shenavai v. Kreischer, C-266/85, Judgment of 15 January 1987, EU:C:1987:11 6.88, 6.99

Shevill and others, C-68/93, Judgment of 7 March 1995, EU:C:1995:61 1.50, 2.73, 3.116, 3.117, 3.118, 3.126, 4.86, 5.193

Silhouette, C-355/96, Judgment of 16 July 1998, EU:C:1998:374 4.36, 5.61

Skanska Industrial Solutions and Others, C-724/17, Judgment of 14 March 2019, EU:C:2019:204 5.189

slewo, C-681/17, Judgment of 27 March 2019, EU:C:2019:255 6.17

SNB-REACT, C-521/17, Judgment of 7 August 2018, EU:C:2018:639 5.204, 5.205

Solvay, C-616/10, Judgment of 12 July 2012, EU:C:2012:445 4.58, 5.76

Spiegel Online, C-516/17, Judgment of 29 July 2019, EU:C:2019:625 4.26, 4.29

Stichting Brein C-442/19 2.55, 4.22

Stichting Brein [Filmspeler], C-527/15, Judgment of 26 April 2017, EU:C:2017:300 4.22

Stichting Brein [Ziggo], C-610/15, Judgment of 14 June 2017, EU:C:2017:456 4.22, 4.27, 4.45, 4.125

Stichting de Thuiskopie, C-462/09, Judgment of 16 June 2011, EU:C:2011:397 4.26

Stowarzyszenie ‘Oławska Telewizja Kablowa’, C-357/15, Judgment of 25 January 2017, EU:C:2017:36 4.21, 4.173

Sunico, C-49/12, Judgment of 12 September 2013, EU:C:2013:545 3.79

Svensson and Others, C-466/12, Judgment of 13 February 2014, EU:C:2014:76 4.22, 4.125

Tacconi, C-334/00, Judgment of 17 September 2002, EU:C:2002:499 6.93

Taser International, C-175/15, Judgment of 17 March 2016, EU:C:2016:176 1.44

Tatry/Maciej Rataj, C-406/92, Judgment of 6 December 1994, EU:C:1994:400 1.54, 2.77, 4.63

Technische Universität Darmstadt, C-117/13, Judgment of 11 September 2014, EU:C:2014:2196 4.26

Tele2 Sverige AB, C-203/15 and C-698/15, Judgment of 21 December 2016, EU:C:2016:970 3.03, 3.06

Telekomunikacja Polska, C-522/08, Judgment of 11 March 2010, EU:C:2010:135 5.142

Tessili v. Dunlop, 12/76, Judgment of 6 October 1976, EU:C:1976:133 6.98

Tod’s, C-28/04, Judgment of 30 June 2005, EU:C:2005:418 4.12

Tommy Hilfiger Licensing, C-499/15, Judgment of 7 July 2016, EU:C:2016:528 4.45, 5.205

Uber France, C-320/16, Judgment of 10 April 2018, EU:C:2018:221 2.08, 2.35

Unamar, C-184/12, Judgment of 17 October 2013, EU:C:2013:663 6.190

Universal Music International Holding, C-12/15, Judgment of 16 June 2016, EU:C:2016:449 2.78

UPC Telekabel Wien, C-314/12, Judgment of 27 March 2014, EU:C:2014:192 4.32, 4.45, 4.88, 4.159, 4.174

UsedSoft, C-128/11, Judgment of 3 July 2012, EU:C:2012:407 4.23, 4.36, 6.109

UsedSoft, C-128/11, Opinion of AG Bot of 24 April 2012 in EU:C:2012:234 6.109

Van Uden Maritime/Kommanditgesellschaft in Firma Deco-Line and others, C-391/95, Judgment of 17 November 1998, EU:C:1998:54317 1.55, 1.56, 4.91, 4.93, 4.94

Vanderborght, C-339/15, Judgment of 4 May 2017, EU:C:2016:660 2.04, 2.36, 5.141, 5.184, 5.185, 5.187, 5.188

Vapenik, C-508/12, Judgment of 5 December 2013, EU:C:2013:790 6.43

VCAST, C-265/16, Judgment of 29 November 2017, EU:C:2017:913 4.22, 4.35, 4.130

Verband Sozialer Wettbewerb, C-146/18, Judgment of 30 May 2017, EU:C:2017:243 5.142

Verein für Konsumenteninformation, C-191/15, Judgment of 28 July 2016, EU:C:2016:612 1.85, 1.91, 2.44, 3.21, 3.45, 3.46, 3.83, 3.105, 5.144, 5.170, 5.171, 5.172, 5.175, 6.24, 6.145, 6.181, 6.194

Verein für Konsumenteninformation, C-191/15, Opinion of AG Saugmandsgaard Øe of 2 June 2016, EU:C:2016:388 3.45

Verein für Konsumenteninformation, C-272/18, Judgment of 3 October 2019, EU:C:2019:827 6.38, 6.39, 6.145, 6.158

Vereniging Openbare Bibliotheken, C-174/15, Judgment of 10 November 2016, EU:C:2016:856 4.23

VG Media, C-299/17, Judgment of 12 September 2019, EU:C:2019:716 2.03

Voogsgeerd, C-384/10, Judgment of 15 December 2011, EU:C:2011:842 6.172

Walbusch Walter Busch, C-430/17, Judgment of 23 January 2019, EU:C:2019:47 6.17

Weltimmo, C-230/14, Judgment of 1 October 2015, EU:C:2015:639 3.26, 3.40, 3.45, 3.46, 3.62, 3.83

Weltimmo, C-230/14, Opinion of AG Cruz Villalón of 25 June 2015, EU:C:2015:426 3.26

Wind Tre and Vodafone Italia, C-54/17 and C-55/17, Judgment of 13 September 2018, EU:C:2018:710 5.142

Wintersteiger, C-523/10, Judgment of 19 April 2012, EU:C:2012:220 2.73, 2.74, 2.75, 2.79, 2.83, 3.118, 4.47, 4.61, 4.62, 4.65, 4.74, 4.134, 5.83, 5.84, 5.87, 5.88, 5.117, 5.152, 5.154, 6.121

Wirtschaftsakademie Schleswig-Holstein, C-210/16, Judgment of 5 June 2018, EU:C:2018:388 3.38, 3.40, 3.62, 3.84

Wood Floor Solutions Andreas Domberger, C 19/09, Judgment of 11 March 2010, EU:C:2010:137 6.116, 6.117, 6.123

YouTube, C-682/18 2.55, 4.22

Zelger v. Salinitri, C-56/79, Judgment of 17 January 1980, EU:C:1980:15 6.97, 6.120

Zino Davidoff and Levi Strauss, C-414/99 to C-416/99, Judgment of 20 November 2001, EU:C:2001:617 4.36, 5.61

Zuid-Chemie, C-189/08, Judgment of 16 July 2009, EU:C:2009:475 2.78

Opinion 1/03 (New Lugano Convention) of 7 February 2006, EU:C:2006:81 1.36, 1.132, 5.183

Opinion 1/13 of 14 October 2014, EU:C:2014:2303 1.132

Opinion 2/15 of 16 May 2017, EU:C:2017:376 4.20

Opinion 3/15 of 14 February 2017, EU:C:2017:114 4.20

General Court of the European Union

France.com, T-71/17, Judgment of 26 June 2018, EU:T:2018:381 5.23

European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)

Amann v. Switzerland, Application no. 27798/95, Judgment of 16 February 2000 3.01

Anheuser-Busch Inc. v. Portugal, Application no. 73049/01, Judgment of 11 January 2007 4.29

Arlewin v. Sweden, Application no. 22302/10, Judgment of 1 March 2016 1.30, 2.29, 3.128

Ashby Donald and others v. France, Application no. 36769/08, Judgment of 10 January 2013 4.29, 4.174

Balan v. Moldova, Application no. 19247/03, Judgment of 29 January 2008 4.29

Delfi AS v. Estonia, Application no. 64569/09, Judgment (Grand Chamber) of 16 June 2015 2.56, 3.111, 3.162, 3.166

Magyar Jeti Zrt v. Hungary, Application no. 11257/16, Judgment of 4 December 2018 2.54

Magyar Tartalomszolgáltatók Egyesülete and Index.hu Zrt v. Hungary, Application no. 22947/13, Judgment of 2 February 2016 3.162

Neij and Sunde Kolmisoppi v. Sweden, Application no. 40397/12, Decision of 19 February 2013 4.174

Pellegrini v. Italy, Application no 30882/96, Judgment of 20 July 2001 1.120

Pihl v. Sweden, Application no 74742/14, Decision of 7 February 2017 3.162

Rotaru v. Romania, Application no. 28341/95, Judgment of 4 May 2000 3.01

Saccoccia v. Austria, Application no 69917/01, Judgment of 18 December 2008 1.120

Satakunnan Markkinapörssi Oy and Satamedia Oy v. Finland, Application no. 913/13, Judgment of 27 June 2017 3.04

Von Hannover v. Germany (no. 2), Applications nos. 40660/08 and 60641/08, Judgment of 7 February 2012 3.164

NATIONAL CASES

Australia

Dow Jones & Co. Inc. v. Gutnick (2002) 210 C.L.R. 575 1.114, 3.112

Macquarie Bank v. Berg [1999] NSWSC 526 3.152

X v. Twitter Inc [2017] NSWSC 1300 3.152, 5.201

Canada

Douez v. Facebook, Inc., 2017 SCC 33, [2017] 1 S.C.R. 751 6.87

Google Inc. v. Equustek Solutions Inc., 2017 SCC 34, [2017] 1 S.C.R. 824 1.114, 4.45, 4.167, 5.22

Haaretz.com v. Goldhar, 2018 SCC 28, [2018] 2 S.C.R. 3 3.112, 3.131, 3.133, 3.148

Pro Swing Inc. v. Elta Golf Inc., [2006] 2 S.C.R. 612, 2006 SCC 52 1.107, 4.69, 4.157

Society of Composers, Authors and Music Publishers of Canada v. Canadian Assn. of Internet Providers, [2004] 2 S.C.R. 427 4.50

Czech Republic

Czech Trade Promotion Agency v. J.K. and CzechTrade Internet s.r.o., Supreme Court (23rd Chamber) 26 April 2016 – Case No. 23 Cdo 3415/2014, IIC, vol. 48, 2017, pp. 752–6 5.144

France

Cour de cassation – Première chambre civile, Arrêt n. 827 of 12 July 2012 (11-15.165; 11-15.188) – ECLI:FR:CCASS:2012:C100827 2.46, 4.14, 4.45, 4.99, 4.121, 4.127

Cour de cassation – Première chambre civile, Arrêt of 10 April 2013, n° 11-12.508, FR:CCASS:2013:C100347; n° 11-12.509; and n° 11-12.510 4.104, 4.119

Cour de Cassation – Première chambre civile – Arrêt n° 31 of 22 January 2014 (12-35.264) –ECLI ;FR:CCASS:2014:C100031 4.66

Cour de cassation – chambre commerciale, Arrêt of 7 October 2014, n° 12-16.844 4.99

Cour de cassation, Première chamber civile, Arrêt of 6 July 2017, 16-18.298, 16-18.348, 16-18.595, ECLI:FR:CCASS:2017:C100909 4.21, 4.127

TGI de Paris, judgment of 7 August 2018, UFC-Que choisir/Twitter 6.25

Germany

BGH Judgment of 13 October 2004, I ZR 163/02 – Hotel Maritime, 5.119

BGH Judgment of 29 April 2010, I ZR 69/08 – Vorschaubilder (Thumbnails) 2.46, 4.27, 4.45

BGH Judgment of 26 November 2015, Störerhaftung des Access-Providers, I ZR 174/14 2.46

BGH Judgment of 21 April 2016, I ZR 43/14 – An Evening With Marlene Dietrich 4.01, 4.80

BGH Decision of 7 April 2016 – I ZR 174/14, Störerhaftung des Access-Providers 4.45

BGH Judgment of 21 September 2017 – I ZR 11/16 Vorschaubilder III 4.27

BGH decision of 9 November 2017, I ZR 164/16 – Parfummarken 5.103, 5.104

BGH Judgment of 19 April 2018– I ZR 154/16, Werbeblocker II 5.144

BGH decision of 19 July 2018 – IX ZB 10/18 3.164

Landgericht Berlin, Judgment of 16 January 2018 – 16 O 341/15, Bundesverbands der Verbraucherzentrale v. Facebook Ireland 6.25

Landgericht Frankfurt a Main, Judgment of 18 March 2015, Az.: 3-08 O 136/14 5.144

Italy

Delta TV v. Google and YouTube, Turin Court, Judgment of 7 April 2017 No 1928, RG 38113/2013 4.127

Japan

KK Fuji Television v. KK Nagano Shoten (Maneki TV), 6 Minshu 121 (Supreme Court, 3rd Petty Bench, Judgment of 18 January 2011) 4.119

Portugal

Intellectual Property Court (Tribunal da Proprieda de Intelectual), Decision of 24 February 2015 – Case No. 153/14.0YHLSB 4.160

Spain

Audiencia Provincial de Barcelona 15 March 2010, 32/2010, AC\2010\1203, AEDIPr, vol. X, 2010, 1126 1.108

Supreme Court Judgment of 4 June 2010, ES:TS:2010:2774 5.34

Switzerland

Swiss Federal Court, Judgment of 4 April 2007, I. Zivilabteilung 4C.439/2006 5.75

United Kingdom

Ablynx NV & Anor v. Vhsquared Ltd & Ors [2019] EWHC 792 (Pat) 5.69

Apple Corps Ltd v. Apple Computer Inc, [2004] EWHC 768 (Ch); [2004] 2 CLC 720 6.169

Cartier International AG and others v. British Telecommunications Plc and another [2018] UKSC 28 2.46, 4.21, 4.45

Conversant Wireless Licensing SARL v. Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd & Ors [2018] EWHC 808 (Pat) 5.77

Conversant Wireless Licensing S.A.R.L v. Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd, ZTE Corporation and Ors [2019] EWCA Civ 38 5.77

EMI Records Ltd v. British Sky Broadcasting Ltd [2013] EWHC 379 (Ch) 2.46, 4.45

Football Association Premier League Ltd v. British Telecommunications Plc & Ors [2017] EWHC 480 (Ch) 2.46, 4.45

Hillside (New Media) Ltd v. Baasland & Ors [2010] EWHC 3336 (Comm) 2.91

Lucasfilm Ltd. v. Ainsworth [2011] UKSC 39 4.46

Pearce v. Ove Arup Partnership Ltd., [1997] 2 WLR 779 4.53

Twentieth Century Fox Film Corp & Ors v. British Telecommunications Plc [2011] EWHC 1981 (Ch), [2011] EWHC 2714 (Ch) 2.46, 4.45

Unwired Planet International Ltd v. Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd & Anor [2017] EWHC 711 (Pat), [2018] EWCA Civ 2344 5.77

United States of America

A&M Recording, Inc. v. Napster, Inc., 239 F.3d 1004 (9th Cir. 2001) 2.52

ALS Scan, Inc. v. Digital Serv. Consultants, Inc., 293 F.3d 707 (4th Cir. 2002) 1.70

Armstrong v. Virgin Records, 91 F.Supp.2d 628 (S.D.N.Y. 2000) 4.47

Asahi Metal Industries Co. v. Superior Court, 480 US 102 (1987) 1.68

Authors Guild v. Google Inc., 954 F. Supp. 2d 282 (S.D.N.Y. 2013) 4.28

Authors Guild v. Google Inc., 721 F.3d 132 (2d Cir. 2013) 4.28

Authors Guild v. Google Inc. 804 F.3d 202 (2d Cir 2015) 4.28

Baldwin v. Fischer-Smith, 315 S.W.3d (Mo. Ct. App. 2010) 3.130

Barcelona.com Incorporated v. Excelentisimo Ayuntamiento de Barcelona, 330 F.3d 617, Civ. No. 02-1396 (4th Cir., June 2, 2003) 5.34, 5.41, 5.45

Bord v. Banco De Chile, 205 F. Supp. 2d 521 (E.D. Va. 2002) 5.30

Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. v. Superior Court of California 582 US —, 137 S. Ct. 1773 (2017) 1.67, 1.68

Burnham v. Superior Court of California, 495 US 604 (1990) 1.67

Calder v. Jones 465 US 783 (1984) 1.70, 3.130

Capitol Federal Sav. Bank v. Eastern Bank Corp., 493 F. Supp. 2d 1150 (D. Kan. 2007) 5.89

Carnival Cruise Lines, Inc. v. Shute, 499 US 585 (1991) 1.73, 6.87

Creative Tech., Ltd. v. Aztech Sys. Pte., Ltd., 61 F.3d 696 (9th Cir. 1995) 4.51

Cybersell v. Cybersell, 130 F.3d 414 (9th Cir. 1997) 5.89

Daimler AG v. Bauman, 134 S.Ct. 746 (2014) 1.67

De Fontbrune v. Wofsy 838 F.3d 992, 1000 (9th Cir. 2016) 1.108

Dluhos v. Strasberg, 321 F.3d 365 (3rd Cir. 2003) 5.34

Doe v. Geller, 533 F.Supp.2d 996 (N.D.Cal. 2008) 4.55

GlobalSantaFe Corp. v. Globalsantafe.com 250 F. Supp. 2d 610 (E.D. Va. 2003) 5.43

Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations, S.A. v. Brown, 564 US 915 (2011) 1.67

Google LLC v. Equustek Solutions Inc., Case No. 5:17-cv-04207-EJD, 2017 WL 5000834 (N.D.Cal. Nov 2, 2017) (preliminary injunction) and (N.D. Cal. Dec. 14, 2017) 1.114, 1.124, 3.166, 4.174, 5.202

Hanson v. Denckla, 357 US 235, 253 (1958) 1.68

Helicopteros Nacionales de Colombia SA v. Hall, 466 US 408, 415 (1984) 1.66

Inset Systems, Inc. v. Instruction Set, Inc., (937 F.Supp. 161 (D.Conn.1996) 1.69

International Shoe Co. v. Washington, 326 US 310 (1945) 1.67

Itar-Tass Russian News Agency v. Russian Kurier, Inc., 153 F.3d 82 (2d Cir. 1998) 4.105

J. McIntyre Machinery Ltd. v. Nicasio, 564 US 873 (2011) 1.68

Jan K. Voda, M.D. v. Cordis Corporation, CA Federal Circuit, 05-1238, 1 February 2007, 476 F 3d 887, 898–904 (2007) 5.70

Koch v. America Online, Inc., 139 F.Supp.2d 690 (D.Md., 2000) 1.73

London Film Productions, Ltd. v. Intercontinental Communications, Inc., 5980 F.Supp. 47 (S.D.N.Y. 1984) 4.46, 4.51

MacDermid, Inc. v. Deiter, 702 F 3d 725 (2d Cir 2012) 2.83

MGM Studios, Inc. v. Grokster, Ltd., 545 U.S. 913 (2005) 2.52, 4.125

Millennium Enterprises, Inc. v. Millennium Music, LP, 33 F.Supp. 2d 907, 921 (D. Or. 1999) 1.71

Monroig v. RMM Records & Video Corp., 196 FRD. 214, 220 (D.P.R. 2000) 4.47, 4.67, 4.112

Murray v. British Broad. Corp., 81 F.3d 287 (2d Cir. 1996) 4.51

Parisi v. Netlearning, Inc., 139 F. Supp. 2d 745, 752 (E.D.Va.2001) 5.34

Penguin Group (USA) Inc. v. American Buddha, 946 N.E. 2d 159 (N.Y. Ct. App. 2011) 4.65

Penguin Group (USA) Inc. v. American Buddha, 106 U.S.P.Q.2d 1306 (S.D.N.Y. 2013) 4.65

Perfect 10, Inc. v. Google Inc, 508 F.3d 1146 (9th Cir. 2007) 4.27, 4.125

Plixer Int’l, Inc. v. Scrutinizer GmbH, 905 F.3d 1 (1st Cir. 2018) 5.89

Sallen v. Corinthians Licenciamentos LTDA, 273 F. 3d 14 (1st. Cir. 2001) 5.41

Sarl Louis Feraud Int'l v. Viewfinder, Inc., 406 F. Supp. 2d 274, 285 (S.D.N.Y. 2005), vacated, 489 F.3d 474 (2d Cir. 2007) 4.173

Shaffer v. Heitner, 433 U.S. 186 (1977) 1.68

Shropshire v. Canning, 809 F.Supp.2d 1139 (C.D.Cal. 2011) 4.111

Spanski Enters. v. Telewizja Polska S.A. 2016 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 166506 (D.D.C. Dec. 2, 2016, and Feb. 14, 2017) and Mar 2, 2018, 883 F.3d 904 (D.C. Cir. 2018) 4.88

Stoner v. Ebay Inc., et al. 2000 WL 1705637, Civ. No. 305666 (Sup. Ct. Ca., November 7, 2000) 2.51

Tiffany (NJ) Inc v. eBay, 576 F. Supp. 2d 463, 484 (S.D.N.Y. 2008) 4.45

Tire Engineering and Distribution v. Shandong Linglong Rubber, 682 F.3d 292 (4th Cir. 2012) 4.112

Toys R Us, Inc. v. Step Two, 318 F.3d 446 (3rd Cir 2003) 5.89

United States v. Microsoft Corp., No. 17-2, 584 U.S. (2018) 3.36

Viacom Int’l Inc. v. YouTube, Inc., 2013 WL 1689071 (S.D.N.Y. Apr. 18, 2013) 2.52, 4.45

Weber-Stephen Products Co. v. Armitage Hardware and Building Supply, Inc., 2000 WL 562470 (N.D.Ill. May 3, 2000) 5.34

Wells Fargo Company v. Wells Fargo Express Company, 556 F2d 406 (9th Cir. 1977) 5.147

World-Wide-Volkswagen Corporation v. Woodson, 444 US 286, 295 (1980) 1.68

Yahoo!, Inc. v. La Ligue Contre Le Racisme et L'Antisemitisme, et al 145 F. Supp. 2d 1168, Case No. C-00-21275JF (N.D. Ca., September 24, 2001) and 433 F.3d 1199 (9th Cir. 2006) 1.114, 1.124

Young v. New Haven Advocate 315 F.3d 256 (4th Cir. 2002). 3.130

Zeran v. AOL Inc [129 F.3d 327 (4th Cir. Nov. 12, 1997), cert. denied, 524 US 937 (1998) 2.51

Zippo Mfg. Co. v. Zippo Dot Coin, Inc. 952 F. Supp. 1119, 1124–25 (W.D. Pa. 1997) 1.69, 5.89