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Conflict of Laws and the Internet

Pedro de Miguel Asensio

The ubiquity of the Internet contrasts with the territorial nature of national legal orders. This book offers a comprehensive analysis of jurisdiction, choice of law and enforcement of judgments issues concerning online activities in the areas in which private legal relationships are most affected by the Internet. It provides an in-depth study of EU Law in this particularly dynamic field, with references to major developments in other jurisdictions. Topics comprise information society services, data protection, defamation, copyright, trademarks, unfair competition and contracts, including consumer protection and alternative dispute resolution.
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INDEX

Pedro de Miguel Asensio

absence of choice, and contracts see choice of law, contracts, applicable law in absence of choice; jurisdiction, contracts, absence of choice

advertising

EU E-Commerce Directive 2.04

and trademarks, designs and patents see unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents, advertising

agency contract 6.117, 6.123

Albrecht, J. 3.53, 3.66, 3.97

ALI (American Law Institute) Principles 4.16, 4.105, 4.117, 4.122, 5.115, 5.199

alternative dispute resolution 1.05, 1.12, 1.17, 1.23

alternative dispute resolution, contracts 6.200–222

consumer access 6.203

EU E-Commerce Directive 6.201

European Small Claims Procedure Regulation 6.202

online intermediation services and complaint handling 6.204, 6.208

see also contracts

alternative dispute resolution, contracts, arbitration 6.212–222

agreements concluded by electronic means 6.214

B2B 6.212–215

B2C 6.216–222

B2C, annulment of awards 6.221

New York Convention 6.212–214

state court litigation comparison 6.215

UNCITRAL Model Law 6.214, 6.215

alternative dispute resolution, contracts, mediation 6.205–211

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 6.210

consumers’ right to access to justice 6.206–207

cross-border enforceability 6.209–210

UNCITRAL 6.205, 6.210

alternative dispute resolution, domain names 5.48–51

ICANN Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) 1.77, 5.16–19, 5.25, 5.26–47, 5.50–51

Amirmahani, A. 2.47

Ancel, M. 2.30, 4.67

Angelopoulos, C. 4.22, 4.125

antitrust law, 1.95, 1.135, 2.67, 3.113, 5.145, 5.146, 5.150, 5.171, 5.1895.193, 6.189, 6.194

applicable law 1.78–100

contracts and party autonomy 1.79, 1.82

global comparisons 1.95–100

harmonization issues 1.96

lex loci protectionis principle 1.95

market effects rule 1.95

non-contractual obligations 1.97, 1.98

party autonomy 1.95

public interest law (PIL) systems 1.99

Rome I and Rome II Regulations see Rome I and Rome II Regulations

self-regulation 1.95

substantive rules 1.78

see also choice of law

arbitration, alternative dispute resolution see alternative dispute resolution, contracts, arbitration

Australia

Dow Jones & Co. v. Gutnick 1.114, 3.112

Macquarie Bank v. Berg 3.152

X v. Twitter 3.152, 5.201

Bariatti, S. 4.16, 4.112

Barlow, J. 1.02

barter contracts 6.168

Basedow, J. 1.08, 1.99, 4.12, 4.16, 4.47, 4.67, 4.103, 4.104, 5.189, 5.193, 6.183

Berman, P. 1.16, 1.17, 5.43

Berne Convention, copyright law 4.01–02, 4.03, 4.05, 4.07, 4.10, 4.12–13, 4.14, 4.48, 4.66, 4.99, 4.121

Bettinger, T. 5.18, 5.19, 5.28, 5.56, 5.57, 5.60

Biegel, S. 1.15

Bigos, O. 2.75, 2.83

Bizer, A. 3.138

blockchain technologies see classification, contracts, DLT and blockchain technologies

blocking access to damaging content, service provider intermediaries 2.46

blocking injunctions 2.84, 3.127, 4.88, 4.160, 5.86

Bodó, B. 4.101, 6.63

Born, G. 1.65, 1.103, 1.113, 6.87

Brachotte, S. 1.50, 2.72

branch operations 1.52, 2.15, 2.90, 3.82–83, 6.36, 6.125, 6.128, 6.151

Brand, R. 1.32, 1.76, 1.99, 1.118

Bridy, A. 2.48

Brkan, N. 3.78, 3.79, 3.88, 3.94, 3.134

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.33–61, 1.63

alternative jurisdiction rules 1.46

branch agency disputes 1.52

choice of law, contracts 6.157

choice of law, copyright law 4.40, 4.91–95, 4.134, 4.148, 4.150

choice of law, trademarks, designs and patents 5.116, 5.117

civil claim for damages or restitution based on criminal proceedings 1.51

classification, contracts 6.20, 6.30, 6.32–37, 6.42–68

coordination of proceedings 1.57–61

defendant domiciled in Member State 1.37, 1.46, 1.47

defendant not domiciled in Member State 1.36–40

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), civil claims against a controller or processor 3.78, 3.79, 3.80, 3.82, 3.84, 3.85, 3.89–95

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), personality rights 3.115–118, 3.119, 3.125

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), personality rights and defamation 3.137, 3.154, 3.159–160, 3.163–164

EU Geo-blocking Regulation 2.42, 2.43

exclusive jurisdiction 1.42–45

foreign judgments, recognition and enforcement, copyright law 4.155, 4.163, 4.164, 4.170

forum non conveniens doctrine 1.72

jurisdiction, contracts 6.70–83, 6.86, 6.88, 6.90, 6.91–95

jurisdiction, contracts, absence of choice 6.91–100, 6.105–118, 6.122, 6.125–134

jurisdiction, copyright law, place where damage occurred 4.71–74, 4.77, 4.81–84

jurisdiction, copyright law, potentially unlimited jurisdiction, grounds for 4.52, 4.54–61, 4.63

legal certainty principle 1.48

lis pendens rules 1.57–58, 1.60–61

and Lugano Convention 1.35, 1.38, 1.43, 1.45, 1.52, 1.54, 1.117, 1.125, 1.131–132

mosaic approach 1.50

multiple defendant forum 1.53–54

and national laws 1.36, 1.38–41

national rights, trademarks, designs and patents 5.67–69, 5.71, 5.82, 5.84, 5.85, 5.89

parallel proceedings provisions 1.57–59

provisional measures, rules for adoption of 1.55–56, 1.128

recognition and enforcement, private international law 1.103, 1.109, 1.117, 1.125–130, 1.131

special jurisdiction 1.40, 1.48–54

torts and illegal content 2.66, 2.68–71, 2.80

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.147–151, 5.153, 5.155–157, 5.166, 5.192

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.198, 5.215, 5.217, 5.218

unitary rights, trademarks, designs and patents 5.92–93, 5.95, 5.96–97, 5.101, 5.105, 5.106, 5.108, 5.109, 5.110, 5.116

weaker party 1.44, 1.73

Budiardjo, L. 4.22

bundle patents 5.68, 5.80

see also trademarks, designs and patents

Cachard, O. 2.24

Calliess, G. 2.97, 6.40, 6.135

Canada

Douez v. Facebook 6.87

Google v. Equustek 1.114, 4.45, 5.202

Haaretz v. Goldhar 3.112, 3.131–133, 3.149

Pro Swing v. Elta Golf 1.107, 4.69, 4.157

Society of Composers, Authors and Music Publishers of Canada v. Canadian Assn.of Internet Providers 4.50

Uniform Electronic Commerce Act 6.08

Cavanillas Múgica, S. 2.65

centre of interest

‘habitual residence’ of data subject comparison 3.87

and personality rights 3.119–124, 4.64–67

and unfair competition 5.154

Chang, H. 3.38

characteristic performance doctrine, contracts 6.152, 6.157, 6.159–164

children and minors 2.09, 2.22, 2.24, 2.60, 2.62, 3.05, 3.13, 3.15, 3.17, 3.22, 6.178

choice of law, contracts 6.135–199

characterization 6.180–186

content disputes 6.175–177

contract invalidity and lack of capacity 6.178

contracts with a weaker party and consumer protection 6.143–146

copyright licensing challenges and moral rights 6.184–186

country in which performance takes place 6.134, 6.174

data protection legislation 6.181

Digital Single Market 6.186

formation and validity of contract 6.173–179

freedom of choice 6.135–138

habitual residence of the parties focus 6.177

Hague Principles 6.139

lex loci protectionis 6.183, 6.186

licensing 6.103, 6.109–111, 6.156–158, 6.161–163, 6.166–168, 6.182–186

minors, contracts involving 6.178

non-state rules, significance of 6.139–142

overriding mandatory rules, third country law 6.195–199

overriding mandatory rules, third country law, location of the relevant place of business 6.198

party autonomy 6.135–146, 6.138, 6.144, 6.146

public interests protection 6.138

Rome I Regulation 6.135, 6.137–138, 6.139, 6.140, 6.141, 6.142, 6.143, 6.146, 6.173, 6.178, 6.180

Rome II Regulation 6.181, 6.182

social networks and platforms 6.139–142

translated version of the agreement 6.176

unfair competition 6.181

choice of law, contracts, applicable law in absence of choice 6.147–172

barter contracts 6.168

Brussels I Regulation 6.157

characteristic performance doctrine 6.152, 6.157, 6.159–164

contracts with a weaker party 6.170–172

developer-publisher licence agreements 6.164

development contracts 6.163

distribution contract 5.145, 6.103, 6.153, 6.157

escape clause and default rule 6.165–169, 6.172

franchise contract 6.153

habitual residence of the parties focus 6.147, 6.149, 6.151–154, 6.156, 6.157, 6.159, 6.162, 6.169, 6.170–171

individual contracts of employment 6.172

joint development agreements 6.164

production and supply contracts 6.163

provision of services contract 6.152, 6.157–158, 6.163

proximity principle 6.148, 6.165

publishing agreements 6.163

Rome I Regulation 6.147–150, 6.153, 6.154, 6.157, 6.159, 6.165–166, 6.167–170, 6.172

sale of goods by auction contract 6.155

sale of goods contract 6.152, 6.157, 6.163, 6.171

tenancy of immovable property 6.38, 6.154, 6.167

transfer or license of IP rights 6.156–158, 6.161–163, 6.166, 6.167, 6.168

choice of law, contracts, overriding mandatory rules and public policy 6.187–199

data protection 6.194

Digital Single Market 6.191

fairness and transparency for business users 6.192–193

forum law 6.187–194

public security restrictions 6.193

Rome I Regulation 6.188, 6.189, 6.190, 6.191, 6.193, 6.195–196

self-employed commercial agents 6.190

choice of law, copyright law 4.96–151

‘act of communication to the public’ concept 4.125

ALI Principles 4.16, 4.105, 4.117, 4.122

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 4.40, 4.134, 4.148, 4.150

CLIP (Conflict of Laws in Intellectual Property) Principles 4.16, 4.107, 4.110, 4.117, 4.124

employment relationship or service contract 4.107

EU Digital Single Market Directive 4.19, 4.38, 4.125, 4.132–136, 4.150

foreign law and national treatment 4.120

geo-blocking effects 4.113, 4.127

information dissemination issues 4.111–115

initial ownership or authorship 4.102, 4.103–108

intermediaries and information dissemination 4.114

intermediary service providers’ liability 4.121–129

lex originis 4.102, 4.104, 4.105

mosaic approach 4.115, 4.123

non-contractual obligation 4.97

parallel download of works protected by copyright 4.113

party autonomy 4.108

Rome II Regulation and lex loci protectionis 4.96–105, 4.109–113, 4.116–123, 4.126, 4.128, 4.131, 4.133, 4.137–138, 4.142, 4.144, 4.151

Rome II Regulation and lex loci protectionis, alternatives 4.116–120

single copyright title suggestion 4.116–120, 4.124, 4.142–143

ubiquitous infringements 4.109–129, 4.151

uniform rules 4.96–108, 4.142–143

see also copyright

choice of law, copyright law, Digital Single Market 4.130–151

country of origin principle 4.35, 4.130–132, 4.135, 4.142–151

cross-border portability of online content services 4.139–141

cross-border teaching activities 4.137

cultural heritage institutions 4.137

enforcement against foreign providers 4.149

EU E-commerce Directive 4.130, 4.145–146, 4.148

harmonization target 4.142–144, 4.147

internal market rule 2.30, 2.32, 2.34, 2.35, 4.118, 4.144, 4.145–146, 4.148–149, 4.151

third States, copyrights granted by 4.151

choice of law, trademarks, designs and patents 5.01–08, 5.58–60, 5.111–128

ALI Principles 5.115

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 5.116, 5.117

copyright comparison 5.113, 5.115, 5.116

‘country in which the act of infringement was committed’ concept 4.119, 5.103, 5.125–128

geolocation technology use 5.119, 5.121

mere accessibility and significant effect 5.121, 5.122

multilateral treaties 5.112

multiple country infringements 2.80, 5.115

non-contractual obligation 5.113–116, 5.124

Rome II Regulation 5.113, 5.116, 5.120, 5.123, 5.124, 5.126, 5.127

substantive law interaction 5.117–122

territoriality and lex loci protectionis 5.111–116, 5.118, 5.123

third states and unitary rights 5.128

ubiquitous infringement 5.115

unitary rights 5.123–128

WIPO Joint Recommendation 5.121

civil claims against a controller or processor see EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), civil claims against a controller or processor

CJEU

AB ‘flyLAL-Lithuanian Airlines’ 1.85, 5.152, 5.157, 5.191

ACI Adam BV 4.26, 4.27

AIRBNB Ireland 2.04, 2.08, 2.22, 2.35

Alassini 6.207

Alpine Investments 5.188

Amazon EU 2.11, 6.17

Amazon.com International Sales 4.26

AMS Neve 5.104–105

Apostolides, 3.163

Apple Sales International 5.146, 5.152, 6.80

Aqua Med 6.85

Arblade 6.189, 6.190

ARD, 5.188

Art & Allposters International 4.36

Asbeek Brusse and de man Garabito 6.26

ASML 1.129

Asociación Profesional Élite Taxi 2.07–08, 2.23, 2.35, 5.144

Asturcom Telecomunicaciones 6.190, 6.221

Austro-Mechana 4.43, 6.93

Baltic Media Alliance 2.23, 2.24

Bastei Lübbe 4.32

Bavarian Lager 3.01

Bayerische Motoren Werke 5.91, 5.93, 5.106, 5.133, 5.145, 5.150

Belgian Electronic Sorting Technology 5.22, 5.23, 5.133, 5.143, 5.144

Benincasa/Dentalkit 6.44

BergSpechte 5.11

Besix 1.48, 4.74, 6.92

BestWater International 4.22, 4.125

Betriebsrat der Ruhrlandklinik 6.89

BGL BNP Paribas 6.69

Bier 2.73

Blomqvist 5.65–66, 5.122

Bolagsupplysningen 1.50, 2.79, 2.80, 2.84, 3.92, 3.112, 3.119–123, 3.125–127, 4.64, 4.86–88, 5.86–87, 5.154, 5.156, 5.197

Bond van Adverteerders 5.188

Bonnier 2.57, 3.03, 4.31, 4.45, 4.174

Breyer 3.06

Brogsitter 1.50, 3.80, 6.94

Buivids 3.04, 3.38

BVG 1.43

C More Entertainment 4.24

Car Trim 6.101, 6.102, 6.104, 6.113, 6.114, 6.124

Castelletti 6.74

CDC Hydrogen Peroxide 1.54, 4.57, 5.152, 5.192, 6.80

Česká spořitelna 6.43, 6.44, 6.93, 6.97, 6.120

ClientEarth and PAN Europe 3.06

Collectieve Antennevoorziening Gouda 5.188

Color Drack 6.92, 6.115

combit Software 5.208, 5.213

Concurrence 2.79, 2.82, 5.146, 5.150, 5.157–158, 5.160, 5.191

Content Services 6.17

Copydan Båndkopi 4.26

Coreck Maritime 6.72, 6.80

Corman-Collins 6.100, 6.102, 6.103

Coty Germany 1.50, 2.73, 2.82, 5.91, 5.101–103, 5.104, 5.150, 5.151, 5.152, 5.153, 5.159

Courage 5.146

Custom Made Commercial/Stawa Metallbau 6.98

Da Silva Martins 1.85

Daimler 5.11

Danosa 6.89

Data Protection Commissioner 3.34

De Agostini y TV-Shop 5.188

De Bloos v. Bouyer 6.98

Denilauler 4.163

Deutsche Grammophon 4.36

deutsche internet versicherung 2.11, 2.12

DHL Express France 1.107, 4.68, 4.70, 4.168, 5.196, 5.208, 5.210, 5.212, 5.215, 5.216

Diageo Brands 1.130, 3.163, 5.218

Digital Rights Ireland and Seitlinger 3.03, 3.06

Donner 4.82, 4.109, 4.110

Douwe Egberts 5.188

Duijnstee 5.70, 5.71

Dumez 2.78

Eco Swiss 6.194, 6.215

eDate Advertising 1.50, 2.05, 2.14, 2.22, 2.32, 2.34, 2.36, 2.73, 2.79, 2.81, 3.87, 3.92, 3.112, 3.117–118, 3.121, 3.123–125, 3.141, 3.151, 4.64–66, 4.86, 4.145, 5.87–88, 5.154, 5.156, 5.184–185, 6.12

Effer v. Kantner 6.93

EGEDA 4.26

El Majdoub 1.45, 6.71, 6.78

Electrosteel Europe 6.113

Emrek 6.58

Engler 6.42, 6.43, 6.44, 6.93

ERGO Insurance and Gjensidige Baltic 1.85

Estasis Saloti di Colzani 6.76

Falco Privatstiftung and Rabitsch 1.42, 6.103, 6.111, 6.158

Farrell 4.74

Fashion ID 3.01, 3.03, 3.38, 3.76, 3.90

flightright 6.93, 6.116

flyLAL-Lithuanian Airlines 1.85, 1.130, 3.163, 5.152, 5.157, 5.191

Folien Fischer and Fofitec 2.72, 2.73, 3.92, 3.95, 4.50, 4.63, 5.106

Football Dataco 2.83, 4.61, 4.82, 4.112, 4.136

Freeport 1.54, 4.57

Funke Medien NRW 4.26, 4.29

G 1.40, 1.41, 2.14, 2.17, 2.70

Galileo Lebensmittel 5.17

Gambazzi 1.120

Gasser 1.58

GAT 5.69, 5.70, 5.73–75

GIE Groupe Concorde 1.48, 4.74, 6.98

Glawischnig-Piesczek 1.17, 2.57, 3.59, 3.127, 3.152

Google France 2.05, 2.53, 2.55, 4.45, 5.11, 5.204, 5.218

Google (Portée territoriale du déréférencement) 1.17, 1.26, 3.03, 3.04, 3.15, 3.46, 3.48, 3.57, 3.60

Google Spain and Google 3.01, 3.03, 3.04, 3.15, 3.38, 3.40, 3.46, 3.55–56, 3.57, 3.60

Gothaer 1.127

Gourmet International Products 5.188

Granarolo 1.37, 3.80, 6.93, 6.100, 6.103

Gruber 6.43, 6.44, 6.45, 6.54

GS Media 4.22, 4.125

H. Gautzsch Groβhandel 5.123

Haeger & Schmidt 6.165

Hanssen Beleggingen 1.43, 5.71

Hansson 4.21

Hedqvist 6.68

Hejduk 2.73, 2.75, 2.79, 2.81, 3.118, 3.126, 4.35, 4.50, 4.62, 4.71, 4.73–75, 4.77, 4.82, 4.84–85, 4.146, 5.90, 5.105, 5.156

Henkel 2.73, 5.150, 6.41, 6.72, 6.94

Hewlett-Packard Belgium 4.26

Hi Hotel HCF 4.56

Hobohm 6.60

Holterman Ferho Exploitatie 6.88

Höszig 6.71, 6.75, 6.80

Huawei Technologies 5.145

Hummel Holding 5.91, 5.92, 5.94

Hydrogen Peroxide 1.54, 4.57, 5.152, 5.192, 6.80

Hypoteční banka 1.40, 1.129, 2.69, 2.70, 2.72

ICF 6.165

IHT Internationale Heiztechnik and Danzinger 5.63

Ilsinger 6.37, 6.42

Infopaq 4.27

Ingmar 6.190

Interflora and Interflora British Unit 5.11

Internetportal 5.51

IPI 3.17

Jehovan todistajat 3.38

Kainz 2.76

Kalfelis 1.50, 1.54, 4.50, 6.94

Kamenova 5.138, 6.55

Kareda 1.85, 6.103, 6.118, 6.123

Ker-Optika 2.04, 2.05, 2.10, 2.26

Kerr 6.158

Koelzsch 6.172

Kolassa 1.50, 6.93

Kone 5.189

Konstantinides 5.188

Laezza 5.188

Lagardère 4.15, 4.34, 4.131

Lazar 2.88, 2.89

Lease Plan Luxembourg/BelgischeStaat 2.15

Leathertex 6.98, 6.99

Lebek 1.129

Leventis and Vafeias 1.45, 6.75

Liberato 1.129

Liffers 4.21

Lindqvist 3.03, 3.08, 3.17, 3.38

L’Oréal 2.05, 2.53, 2.55, 2.64, 4.45, 4.110, 5.58, 5.62, 5.122, 5.204

McFadden 2.04, 2.53, 2.54, 2.56, 4.32, 4.45, 4.88, 4.158, 4.174, 5.184, 5.205

Mahamdia 6.72, 6.81, 6.90

Manfredi 5.146

Manni 3.06

Marinari 2.78

Meeth 6.71

Melzer 4.56, 5.152

Menini and Rampanelli 6.207, 6.217

Merck 5.57

Mercredi 3.86

Milivojević 6.44

Mostaza Claro 6.190, 6.221

MSG/Les Gravières Rhénanes 1.45, 6.75, 6.97, 6.120

Mühlleitner 2.43, 6.58, 6.62

Mulox IBC/Geels 6.88

New Media Online 2.09

Nikiforidis 6.199

Nintendo 1.54, 4.57, 5.80, 5.83, 5.91, 5.96, 5.99, 5.103, 5.122–126, 5.208, 5.210, 5.215

Nipponkoa 3.95

Nogueira 6.90, 6.129

O2 5.130

Océano Grupo Editorial 6.26, 6.85, 6.86, 6.221

ÖFAB 1.48

Owusu 1.36, 1.48, 1.72, 2.69, 5.183

Padawan 4.26

Painer 1.54, 4.58–59, 5.81

Pammer and Hotel Alpenhof 2.43, 3.51, 5.60, 5.177, 6.58, 6.59

Papasavvas 2.04, 2.05, 2.36, 2.53, 2.55, 3.144

Pelham 4.29

Peters 6.93

Petruchová 6.37, 6.44

Peugeot Deutschland 2.09

Philips 5.65

Pie Optiek 5.18, 5.48, 6.110

Pierre Fabre Dermo-Cosmétique 5.145

Pillar Securitisation 6.37

Pinckney 2.79, 2.81, 4.35, 4.65, 4.71–76, 4.82, 4.84, 5.87, 5.90, 5.105, 5.154, 5.156

Pippig 5.130

Planet 49 3.13

Plus Warenhandelsgesellschaft 5.141

Portakabin 5.11

Procureur-Generaal bij de Hoge Raad der Nederlanden 5.198

Profit Investment SIM 6.74

Promusicae 4.30

Public Relations Consultants Association 4.25

Ranks and VasiĮevičs 4.23, 4.36

Realchemie Nederland 1.108, 1.127

Refcomp 1.44, 6.75

Rehder 6.116

Reichert 1.43, 1.55, 4.94

Renault 4.170

Renckhoff 4.22, 4.27

Roche Nederland 1.54, 4.57, 4.58, 5.74, 5.80–81, 5.99

RTL Televisión 5.188

Ryanair 1.52, 2.68, 6.37

Ryneš 3.38

SABAM 2.05, 2.57, 4.31, 4.45, 4.174

Saey Home & Garden 1.45, 6.76

Säger 5.188

St. Paul Dairy 1.55, 4.94

Sapir 1.53, 1.54, 3.79

Satakunnan Markkinapörssi and Satamedia 3.38

Scarlet Extended 2.05, 2.53, 3.03, 4.31, 4.45, 4.174

Schlecker 6.129, 6.172

Schrems 3.01, 3.03, 3.33, 3.78, 3.85, 3.94, 6.41, 6.48–51

Schweppes 4.36, 5.63

Sebago and Maison 4.36, 5.61

SGAE v. Rafael Hoteles 4.27

Shearson Lehman Hutton/TVB 6.41, 6.43, 6.44

Shenavai v. Kreischer 6.88, 6.99

Shevill 1.50, 2.73, 3.116, 3.117, 3.126, 4.86, 5.193

Silhouette 4.36, 5.61

Skanska Industrial Solutions 5.189

slewo 6.17

SNB-REACT 5.204

Solvay 5.76

Spiegel Online 4.26, 4.29

Stichting Brein 2.55

Stichting Brein [Filmspeler] 4.22

Stichting Brein [Ziggo] 4.22, 4.27, 4.45, 4.125

Stichting de Thuiskopie 4.26

Stowarzyszenie ‘Oławska Telewizja Kablowa’ 4.21, 4.172

Sunico 3.79

Svensson 4.22, 4.125

Tacconi 6.93

Taser International 1.44

Tatry/Maciej Rataj 1.54, 2.77, 4.63

Technische Universität Darmstadt 4.26

Tele2 Sverige AB 3.03, 3.06

Telekomunikacja Polska 5.142

Tessili v. Dunlop 6.98

Tod’s 4.12

Tommy Hilfiger Licensing 4.45, 5.205

Uber France 2.08, 2.35

Unamar 6.190

Universal Music International Holding 2.78

UPC Telekabel Wien 4.32, 4.45, 4.88, 4.159, 4.174

UsedSoft 4.23, 4.36, 6.109, 6.110

Van Uden 1.55, 1.56, 4.91, 4.93, 4.94

Vanderborght 2.04, 2.36, 5.141, 5.184, 5.185, 5.187, 5.188

Vapenik 6.43

VCAST 4.22, 4.35, 4.130

Verband Sozialer Wettbewerb 5.142, 5.171, 5.172

Verein für Konsumenteninformation 1.85, 1.88, 1.91, 2.44, 3.21, 3.45–46, 3.83, 3.105, 5.144, 5.170, 5.174–175, 6.25, 6.38–39, 6.145, 6.158, 6.181, 6.194

Vereniging Openbare Bibliotheken 4.23

Voogsgeerd 6.172

Walbusch Walter Busch 6.17

Weltimmo 3.26, 3.40, 3.45, 3.46, 3.62, 3.83

Wind Tre and Vodafone Italia 5.142

Wintersteiger 2.73–75, 2.79, 2.83, 3.118, 4.46, 4.61–62, 4.65, 4.74, 4.134, 5.83–84, 5.87, 5.88, 5.117, 5.152, 5.154, 6.121

Wirtschaftsakademie Schleswig-Holstein 3.38, 3.40, 3.62, 3.84

Wood Floor Solutions Andreas Domberger 6.116, 6.117, 6.123

YouTube 2.55, 4.22

Zelger v. Salinitri 6.97, 6.120

Zino Davidoff and Levi Strauss 4.36, 5.61

Zuid-Chemie 2.78

see also EU headings

classification, contracts 6.30–69

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 6.20, 6.30, 6.32–37, 6.42–68

collaborative economy and P2P transactions 6.52–56

consumer contract exclusions 6.37–39, 6.64

consumer protection 6.33, 6.35–41

consumer protection organizations, claims brought by 6.41

consumer/trader contract 6.42–51

consumer/trader distinction 6.46–56

country of the consumer’s domicile concept 6.57–62

country where the services are supplied, understanding of 6.39–40

dual purpose contracts 6.45, 6.47

and geo-blocking 6.62

‘place of performance of the obligation’ 6.31

Rome I Regulation 6.30, 6.32–33, 6.37–40, 6.42, 6.51–53, 6.55–58, 6.62, 6.67, 6.68

Rome II Regulation 6.35

social networks and platform economy 6.46–56, 6.61

special protection rules 6.58

targeting criterion 6.57–62

classification, contracts, DLT and blockchain technologies 1.04, 1.06, 6.63–69

central administrator location 6.65

cryptocurrencies and virtual assets 6.68–69

encoding issues 6.67

and party autonomy 6.64

smart contracts 6.63–67

Clemmer, C. 2.48

‘click-wrapping’ method, contracts jurisdiction 6.78

CLIP (Conflict of Laws in Intellectual Property) Principles 4.16, 4.107, 4.110, 4.117, 4.124, 5.115, 5.199

cloud services 1.06, 1.14, 2.59, 2.83, 3.32, 3.36

collaborative economy and P2P transactions 6.52–56

collective redress, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.76–78, 3.84, 3.94

Collins of Mapesbury, Lord 1.101, 2.95, 2.98, 3.143, 6.135

competition see unfair competition

computer programs, copyright law 4.05, 4.23

consumer contracts 6.37–39, 6.64, 6.81–87, 6.203

consumer protection

contracts 6.33, 6.35–41, 6.143–146

data protection and personality rights, US 3.05

EU Consumer Rights Directive 6.14–18

EU E-Commerce Directive 2.11, 2.27, 2.30, 2.57

EU Geo-blocking Regulation 2.43

consumer protection organizations 6.41, 6.72

contracts 1.10, 6.01–222

alternative dispute resolution see alternative dispute resolution, contracts

Brussels I Regulation Recast 6.20

choice of law see choice of law, contracts

classification see classification, contracts

EU Contracts for the Sale of Goods Directive 6.19–21, 6.23

EU Contracts for the Supply of Digital Content and Digital Services Directive 6.19–23

EU E-Commerce Directive see EU E-Commerce Directive, contracts

EU Unfair Contract Terms Directive 6.24–26

harmonization measures 6.19–20, 6.24

jurisdiction see jurisdiction, contracts

legal certainty principle 6.02, 6.70, 6.92, 6.138, 6.148, 6.165

and party autonomy 1.79, 1.82

platform economy and intermediation services 6.27–29

Rome I Regulation 6.20

sale of goods and supply of digital content and services 6.19–23

‘writing’ requirement 1.45, 6.05, 6.06, 6.13, 6.30, 6.76–78, 6.179, 6.211, 6.214

controller or processor requirements, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.16, 3.21, 3.24–26, 3.68–109

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 3.78, 3.79, 3.80, 3.82, 3.84, 3.85, 3.89–95

collective redress and large number of data subjects 3.76–78, 3.84, 3.94

establishment as a ground of jurisdiction 3.81–85

establishment as a ground of jurisdiction, branch operations 3.82–83

establishments in more than one Member State 3.68–70, 4.63–64

EU ‘New Deal’ legislative package 3.77

‘habitual residence’ of data subject 3.86–88

judicial remedies for supervisory authority complaints 3.71–74

lis pendens rules and related actions 3.95, 3.96–102

margin of appreciation 3.99

multiple defendant forum 3.92

national rules interplay 3.89–95

non-contractual claims 3.92, 3.108–109

parallel proceedings prevention 3.102

personality rights infringement 3.80, 3.92, 3.160

private enforcement 3.75–80

recognition and enforcement of judgments 3.100

right to privacy 3.90

supervisory powers 3.61–63

territorial scope and choice of law 103.9

Cooper, D. 3.26

coordination of proceedings, Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.57–61

copyright law 1.07, 1.108, 4.01–176

Berne Convention 4.01–02, 4.03, 4.05, 4.07, 4.10, 4.12–13, 4.14, 4.48, 4.66, 4.99, 4.121

Brussels I Regulation (recast) 4.91–95

choice of law see choice of law, copyright law

‘communication to the public’ concept 4.22, 4.45

computer programs 4.05, 4.23

country of origin principle 4.35

exhaustion of copyright 4.04, 4.23, 4.36

foreign judgments see foreign judgments, recognition and enforcement, copyright law

free trade agreements 4.08, 4.36

fundamental rights 4.29–33

harmonization 4.18–24, 4.38

injunctions 4.21, 4.32

intermediary freedom issues 4.31

international protection 4.01–17

jurisdiction see jurisdiction, copyright law

legal certainty principle 4.19, 4.27, 4.59, 4.121, 4.130, 4.143

licensing challenges and moral rights 6.184–186

Lugano Convention 4.46, 4.47, 4.79

minimum standards of protection of the rights of authors 4.03, 4.07, 4.10, 4.12, 4.21

most-favoured-nation principle 4.04

multilateral agreements, shortcomings 4.11–12, 4.16–17

national fragmentation effects 4.34–40

national treatment principle 4.01–03, 4.04, 4.10, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15

online sharing platforms 4.19, 4.22, 4.27, 4.125

P2P file-sharing 4.32

performing artists 4.01, 4.07

registered and non-registered IP rights, distinction between 4.02

rental rights 4.05

rental rights for computer programs and cinematographic works 4.05, 4.07

reproduction 4.03, 4.07, 4.19, 4.25, 4.26

safe harbour immunities and EU E-Commerce Directive 2.58–59

trademarks, designs and patents comparison 5.79, 5.90, 5.113, 5.115, 5.116, 5.216

and unfair competition 5.129

unitary copyright title proposal 4.38–40, 4.142

visually impaired people provisions 4.07

website hyperlinks 4.22

WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) 4.07, 4.18

WTO TRIPS Agreement 4.04–06, 4.07, 4.10, 4.12, 4.13, 4.21, 4.27

see also intellectual property rights; trademarks, designs and patents

counterfeit goods 4.08, 5.64–66

country of origin principle

copyright law, Digital Single Market 4.35, 4.130–132, 4.135, 4.142–151

EU E-Commerce Directive see EU E-Commerce Directive, country of origin principle

torts and illegal content 2.63

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.181–188

country where the services are supplied, understanding of 6.39–40

country in which the act of infringement was committed concept 4.119, 5.103, 5.125–128

country in which performance takes place 6.134, 6.174

credit agreement and provision of services 6.118

cross-border activities

copyright law, Digital Single Market 4.137, 4.139–141

trademarks, designs and patents 5.57–66

cross-border processing, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.61–74

cooperation procedure 3.67, 3.72, 3.74

cross-border processing definition 3.64–65

establishments in more than one Member State 3.63–64, 3.68–70

forum shopping ban 3.70

one-stop-shop mechanism implementation 3.66–70, 3.81

supervisory powers 3.61–63

cross-border transfers of data, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.29–36

EU-US Privacy Shield 3.33

free flow of data in EU 3.29–31

right to privacy 3.29

transfers of personal data to third countries 3.32–36

Cruquenaire, A. 5.30

cryptocurrencies and virtual assets, DLT and blockchain technologies 6.68–69

cultural heritage institutions, and copyright law 4.137

cyberlaw 1.01–13

blockchains 1.04, 1.06

codes of conduct between professional bodies and associations 1.04, 1.08, 1.10

contract law 1.10

and copyright 1.07

dispute resolution mechanisms 1.05, 1.12

FRAND commitments 1.08

intellectual property rights 1.07, 1.11–12

licensing 1.08

multiple cross-border licences 1.04

national jurisdiction 1.03, 1.06, 1.07, 1.08, 1.11, 1.13

open source software 1.04, 1.08

party autonomy 1.09–10

platforms and social networks and service providers 1.051.06, 1.08, 1.10

self-regulation consideration 1.03, 1.10, 1.11, 1.13

technical infrastructure control issues 1.03, 1.12

and telecommunication services provision 1.06

territorial jurisdictions, alternatives and challenges 1.01–07

trademark protection 1.12

cybersquatting 5.24, 5.41–45

Czech Republic, Czech Trade Promotion Agency v. J.K. and CzechTrade Internet 5.144

Daskal, J. 1.114, 1.124

data processing contracts 6.106

data protection see EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

data protection, and contracts 6.106, 6.181, 6.194

De Beer, J. 2.48

De Filippi, D. 1.04, 1.06, 6.63, 6.66

De la Chapelle, B 1.16

De Lima Pinheiro, L. 3.21, 3.28

De Vasconcelos Casimiro, S. 3.02

defective products 2.76, 2.78

derivative works, and copyright 6.185

designs see under trademarks, designs and patents

Determann, L. 4.36

development contracts 6.163

Dickinson, A. 1.38, 1.99, 2.33, 2.86, 3.108, 6.65, 6.68, 6.69, 6.139, 6.198

‘digital content’ classification, and contracts 6.106–110

Digital Single Market

and choice of copyright law see choice of law, copyright law, Digital Single Market

choice of law, contracts 6.186, 6.191

Dinwoodie, G. 2.47, 4.39, 4.70, 4.123, 5.25, 5.133

distance contract 6.15–16, 6.17

distribution contract 5.145, 6.103, 6.153, 6.157

DLT and blockchain technologies see classification, contracts, DLT and blockchain technologies

domain names, trademarks, designs and patents 5.15–56

advertising and unfair competition 5.143, 5.144

cybersquatting 5.24, 5.41–45

Domain Name System (DNS) 5.15–19

eu. domain names 5.48–56, 5.63

eu. domain names, alternative dispute resolution 5.48–51

eu. domain names, national courts jurisdiction and choice of law 5.52–56

ICANN Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) 1.03, 1.12, 1.77, 5.16–19, 5.25, 5.26–47, 5.50–51

ICANN Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), limited scope and effect 5.28–31, 5.33, 5.34, 5.46

ICANN Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP), national court role and jurisdiction considerations 5.37, 5.39, 5.40–47

and intellectual property rights 5.20–25

provisional measures 5.29

registration 5.21, 5.22, 5.24

second-level domain names 5.17, 5.18, 5.21, 5.22

seizure issues, US, private international law 1.71

top level domains (TLD) 5.17–19, 5.21, 5.26, 5.48

trademark owner disputes 5.21, 5.23–25

domicile issues

and copyright law 4.52–59

defendant domiciled in a Member State, Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.37, 1.46, 1.47

defendant not domiciled in a Member State, Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.36–40

torts and illegal content 2.69–70, 2.72–73

US, private international law 1.67

see also habitual residence

dominant position abuse, trademarks, designs and patents 5.145, 5.150

double instruments 1.117

Drexl, J. 4.08, 4.11, 4.97, 4.99, 4.100, 4.109, 5.03, 5.14, 5.112, 5.125, 5.167, 5.171, 5.181, 6.183

due process analysis, US, private international law 1.65, 1.68, 1.70, 3.130, 3.157, 6.133

Edwards, L. 2.48, 2.55, 3.37

‘effects test’ for establishing personal jurisdiction, US, private international law 1.70, 3.130

Efroni, Z. 5.30, 5.39

electronic mail 2.12, 2.19, 2.75

electronic signatures 6.03, 6.04–09, 6.11, 6.13

employment contracts 4.107, 6.88–90, 6.172

see also self-employment

escape clause 2.91, 6.165–169, 6.172

establishment

as ground of jurisdiction, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.81–85

or habitual residence of the recipient, and contracts 6.121

in more than one Member State 3.63–64, 3.68–70

place of establishment and territorial constraints, EU E-Commerce Directive 2.14–20

service provider and contracts 6.121, 6.122–123

see also ‘place’ headings

Esteve, A. 3.37

Estrella Faria, J. 6.05, 6.11

EU Audiovisual Media Services Directive 2.09, 2.23, 2.24, 2.29, 4.131–132, 4.135, 4.148

EU Brussels I Regulation (Recast) see Brussels I Regulation (Recast)

EU CLIP (Conflict of Laws in Intellectual Property) Principles 4.16, 4.107, 4.110, 4.117, 4.124, 5.115, 5.199

EU Community Designs Regulation (CDR) 4.39

EU Consumer Rights Directive 6.14–18

EU Contracts for the Sale of Goods Directive 6.19–21, 6.23

EU Contracts for the Supply of Digital Content and Digital Services Directive 6.19–23

EU Court of Justice see CJEU

EU Digital Single Market Directive 4.19, 4.38, 4.125, 4.132–136, 4.150

EU E-Commerce Directive 2.01–36

consumer protection 2.11, 2.27, 2.30, 2.57

contracts 6.10–13, 6.201

copyright law 4.35, 4.125, 4.130, 4.145–146, 4.148

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.07, 3.141–144

form of communication offered 2.11–13, 2.19

harmonizing reach 2.10–11, 2.18, 2.25, 2.34

information society concept 2.032.05

intermediary service providers 2.05, 2.07–08, 2.10, 2.20, 2.98–99

non-established service providers 2.17, 2.18

online advertising 2.04

place of establishment and territorial constraints 2.14–20

remuneration test 2.04

safe harbour immunities see service provider intermediaries, safe harbour immunities and EU E-Commerce Directive

sanctions against infringements of national provisions 2.13, 2.28

third country service providers 2.14–20

torts and illegal content 2.61, 2.64

unfair commercial practices, ascertaining 2.07–08

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.183–185, 5.186, 5.187, 5.190, 5.203, 5.205

EU E-Commerce Directive, country of origin principle 2.02, 2.06, 2.09, 2.13, 2.17, 2.21–36, 6.12

derogations 2.22–23, 2.27, 2.30

intellectual property protection 2.30

intra-community e-commerce activities 2.32–36

mutual recognition 2.13, 2.14, 2.17, 2.32, 2.35

reach and coordinated field 2.24–26, 2.36

Rome II Regulation 2.32–33

unfair competition law 2.30, 2.32

EU Enforcement Directive 4.21, 4.32, 4.155

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.01–166

child’s consent in relation to information society services 3.17

controller or processor requirements see controller or processor requirements, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

cross-border processing see cross-border processing, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

cross-border transfers of data see cross-border transfers of data, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

data protection as fundamental right 3.01–05

enforcement and conflict of laws 3.23–28

ePrivacy Directive 3.09–10

EU E-Commerce Directive 3.07, 3.141–144

intermediaries’ liabilities 3.07

judicial remedies 3.26–28, 3.71–75, 3.79, 3.88, 3.90, 3.94, 3.95, 3.97, 3.101, 3.103

national laws, margin of manoeuvre 3.19–22

personality rights and defamation see personality rights and defamation, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

personality rights and non-contractual obligations see personality rights and non-contractual obligations, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

private enforcement of data protection law 3.27–28

public enforcement of data protection law 3.25–26, 3.27

right to be forgotten 3.04, 3.15, 3.55–56, 3.58, 3.60

right to privacy 3.04

sensitive data 3.09, 3.14, 3.18

services provided at a distance 3.07

territorial scope see territorial scope, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

torts and illegal content 2.66

transparency and fair processing principles 3.11–13

unification and choice of law implications 3.17–22

unlimited jurisdiction 3.115, 3.116, 3.126, 3.127, 3.152

EU Geo-blocking Regulation 2.37–44

Brussels I (Recast) Regulations 2.42, 2.43

consumer protection 2.43

contractual obligations 2.41–44

exclusions 2.40

Rome I Regulation 2.42, 2.43

selective and exclusive distribution schemes 2.37

territorial scope 2.39, 2.44

third country traders 2.39

and unfair competition rules 2.44

EU InfoSoc Directive 4.18, 4.21, 4.22–23, 4.25–26, 4.32, 4.36, 4.147, 4.159

EU Lugano Convention see Lugano Convention

EU Marrakesh Treaty Directive 4.20

EU ‘New Deal’ legislative package 3.77

EU Online Transmissions of Broadcasting Organisations Directive 4.132–135

EU Orphan Works Directive 4.138

EU Patentability of Computer-implemented Inventions Directive 5.12

EU Satellite and Cable Directive 4.133

EU Services in the Internal market Directive 2.37, 2.40

EU Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children Directive 2.60

EU Small Claims Procedure Regulation 6.202

EU Software Directive 4.36

EU Trade Mark Directive 5.10

EU Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 5.129, 5.130, 5.137–142, 5.186–187

EU Unfair Contract Terms Directive 6.24–26, 6.84–86

EU-US Privacy Shield 3.33

European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) 1.30

Amann v. Switzerland 3.01

Anheuser-Busch v. Portugal 4.29

Arlewin v. Sweden 1.30, 2.29, 3.128

Ashby Donald v. France 4.29, 4.174

Balan v. Moldova 4.29

Delfi AS v. Estonia 2.56, 3.111, 3.162, 3.166

Magyar Jeti Zrt v. Hungary 2.54

Magyar Tartalomszolgáltatók Egyesülete and Index.hu Zrt v. Hungary 3.162

Neij and Sunde Kolmisoppi v. Sweden 4.174

Pellegrini v. Italy 1.120

Pihl v. Sweden 3.162

Rotaru v. Romania 3.01

Saccoccia v. Austria 1.120

Satakunnan Markkinapörssi Oy and Satamedia Oy v. Finland 3.04

Von Hannover v. Germany (no. 2) 3.164

European Patent Convention 5.07

exhaustion of rights

copyright 4.04, 4.23, 4.36

trademarks, designs and patents 5.61–63

Fallon, M. 2.31

Fawcett, J. 4.12, 4.49, 4.67, 4.97, 4.167

Fehlinger, P. 1.16

Feiler, L. 3.46, 3.94, 3.97

Feng, S. 2.47

Fezer, K. 2.31

Finck, M. 1.07

focalization see targeting criterion

foreign judgments

copyright law 4.120

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), personality rights and defamation 3.114, 3.157–158

Rome I and Rome II Regulations 1.87

unfair competition and trademarks see unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments

see also jurisdiction; third countries

foreign judgments, recognition and enforcement, copyright law 4.152–176

blocking injunctions 4.160

Brussels I Regulation (recast) 4.155, 4.163, 4.164, 4.170

fundamental rights 4.173–174

Hague Conference 4.154, 4.165

injunctive relief 4.06, 4.91, 4.92, 4.157–159, 4.169

intellectual property rights protection 4.169, 4.170, 4.171–176

interim relief 1.111, 4.51, 4.61, 4.92, 4.93, 4.161

intermediaries, injunctions against 4.174

jurisdiction verification and scope of injunctions 4.164–169

monetary judgments and injunctions 4.156–160, 4.165, 4.172

moral rights 4.171

non-monetary judgments 4.156–157

non-recognition grounds 4.164–176

provisional measures 4.161–163

public policy effect 4.169, 4.170–176

standard of equivalence approach 1.118, 3.158, 4.166

forum non conveniens doctrine 1.64, 1.72, 3.112, 3.131–132

forum shopping 3.70, 3.110–114, 3.116, 3.128, 3.129, 3.130, 3.131–132

France

copyright law 4.14, 4.45, 4.99

Lois HADOPI 4.24

SFR v. l’Union des producteurs de cinéma 4.21, 4.119, 4.127

UFC-Quechoisir/Twitter 6.25

franchise contract 6.153

FRAND commitments 1.08, 5.77

Franzina, P. 6.72, 6.98

freedom of choice 2.87, 6.135–138

Friedmann, D. 1.05, 5.207

Froomkin, A. 5.25, 5.30

fundamental rights 1.75, 1.124, 2.57, 3.01–05, 4.29–33, 4.173–174

Garcimartín, F. 3.153, 4.17, 6.71

Geiger, C. 4.25, 4.29, 4.174

Geist, M. 1.27

Geller, P. 4.03, 4.88, 4.92, 4.109

geo-blocking

and contracts 6.62

copyright law 4.77–78, 4.113, 4.127

EU Geo-blocking Regulation see EU Geo-blocking Regulation

trademarks, designs and patents 5.90, 5.162, 5.178

geolocation technology use 1.119, 5.60, 5.119, 5.121

Germany

Bundesverbands der Verbraucherzentrale v. Facebook Ireland 6.25

‘An Evening with Marlene Dietrich’ 4.01, 4.80

Hotel Maritime 5.119

Network Enforcement Act 2.60, 2.63

Parfummarken, 5.103, 5.104

Störerhaftung des Access-Providers 2.46, 4.45

Vorschaubilder (Thumbnails) 2.46, 4.28, 4.45

Werbeblocker II 5.144

Ginsburg, J. 4.01, 4.09, 4.22, 4.46, 4.65, 4.112, 4.115

Giovanella, F. 4.31

Giuliano, M. 6.38, 6.160, 6.178

global injunctions 1.114, 1.119, 1.124, 2.84, 3.60, 3.127, 4.69, 4.167, 5.195, 5.199, 5.201–202

Goldman, E. 5.20

Goldsmith, J. 1.03

Gössl, S. 1.24

Grosse Ruse-Khan, H. 4.09, 4.129

Grundmann, S. 2.30

Guggenberger, N. 6.63

Guillaume, F. 6.64

habitual residence concept

centre of interest of the victim, habitual residence, personality rights and non-contractual obligations, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.121

and contracts 6.57–62, 6.121, 6.147, 6.149–162, 6.169–171, 6.177

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.86–88

torts and illegal content 2.90

see also centre of interest and domicile issues

hacking 2.76, 2.78, 2.83

Hague Conference 1.74–76, 1.96, 1.117, 4.17, 4.154, 4.165

Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements 1.123, 1.134, 5,78, 6.73

Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments 1.123, 1.132, 1.134–135, 6.131–133, 6.139

harmonization issues 1.96, 1.129

contracts 6.19–20, 6.24

copyright law 4.18–24, 4.38, 4.142–144, 4.147

EU E-Commerce Directive 2.10–11, 2.18, 2.25, 2.34

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), personality rights and defamation 3.128–130, 3.134–144

service provider intermediaries 2.49

trademarks, designs and patents 5.09–12

Hartley, T. 3.110, 6.74

Harvey, D. 1.15

Hatzimihail, N. 1.63

Heinze, C. 4.92, 4.142, 4.163, 5.74, 5.94, 5.123, 6.111

Hess, B. 1.107, 3.23, 3.95, 3.115, 3.118

Hetcher, S. 4.44

Hoeren, T. 2.53

Honorati, C. 4.155, 5.14, 5.171

Hörnle, J. 1.25, 2.95, 6.119

Howells, G. 2.11

Hugenholtz, B. 4.18, 4.132, 4.147

Husovec, M. 1.110, 1.124, 4.21, 4.159, 4.160

hyperlinks 2.54, 4.22

ICANN Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) see under domain names

illegal content and torts see torts and illegal content

imitation with a risk of confusion, and trademarks, designs and patents 5.129, 5.150

‘inertia selling’ concept, trademarks, designs and patents 5.142

information society services 2.01–99

EU E-Commerce Directive see EU E-Commerce Directive

EU Geo-blocking Regulation see EU Geo-blocking Regulation

service provider intermediaries see service provider intermediaries

torts and illegal content see torts and illegal content

initial ownership or authorship, and copyright law 4.102, 4.103–108

injunctions

blocking injunctions 2.84, 3.127, 4.88, 4.160, 5.86

copyright law 4.21, 4.32

foreign judgments, jurisdiction verification and scope of injunctions 4.156–160, 4.164–169, 4.172, 5.1945.202, 5.204, 5.206, 5.216, 5.217

global 4.69, 4.167, 5.195, 5.201–202

intermediaries, injunctions against 2.57, 4.174

recognition and enforcement 1.107, 1.110–111, 1.119, 1.124

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.29, 5.43, 5.47, 5.54, 5.86, 5.107, 5.116, 5.144, 5.157, 5.170, 6.181

see also monetary judgments; sanctions

injunctive relief, foreign judgments and copyright law 4.06, 4.91, 4.92, 4.157–159, 4.169

injunctive relief, foreign judgments and trademark law 5.1945.202, 5.204, 5.206, 5.216, 5.217

intellectual property rights

cyberlaw 1.07, 1.11–12

and domain names, trademarks, designs and patents 5.20–25

EU E-Commerce Directive, country of origin principle 2.30

foreign judgments, recognition and enforcement, copyright law 4.169, 4.170, 4.171–176

and torts and illegal content 2.67, 2.72, 2.79, 2.81

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.129–135

see also copyright law; trademarks, designs and patents

Inter-American Contracts Convention 1.96

interest analysis approach, US, private international law 1.98

interim relief, and copyright law 1.111, 4.51, 4.61, 4.92, 4.93, 4.161

intermediation

as defendants, jurisdiction, copyright law 4.45

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.07

freedom issues, copyright law 4.31

injunctions 2.57, 4.174

jurisdiction, contracts 6.72, 6.105

platform economy and contracts 6.27–29

service provider see service provider intermediaries

torts and illegal content 2.61

torts and illegal content, Rome II Regulation 2.96–99, 2.98–99

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.173–174

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.203–207

internal market rule 2.30, 2.32, 2.34, 2.35, 4.118, 4.144, 4.145–146, 4.148–149, 4.151

Internet of Things 2.65, 2.76

Ireland, Data Protection Commissioner v. Facebook Ireland 3.34

Jacobs, G. 5.21

Jančiūte, L. 3.77

Janis, M. 5.133

Japan, KK Fuji Television v. KK Nagano Shoten (Maneki TV) 4.119

Jault-Seseke, F. 1.25

Johnson, D. 1.02

Jotzo, J. 3.53, 3.66, 3.97

judicial remedies, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.26–28, 3.71–75, 3.79, 3.88, 3.90, 3.94, 3.95, 3.97, 3.101, 3.103

jurisdiction

foreign judgments see foreign judgments

grounds, Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.42–56

torts and illegal content 2.68–84

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.147–166

jurisdiction, contracts 6.70–134

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 6.70–83, 6.86, 6.88, 6.90, 6.91–95

choice of court agreements 6.70–90

‘click-wrapping’ method 6.78

consumer contracts (B2C) 6.81–87

and consumer protection organizations 6.72

employment contracts 6.88–90

exclusive choice of forum agreements, effects of 6.79

Hague Convention on Choice of Court Agreements 6.73

intermediation services 6.72

jurisdiction clause content 6.80

non-contractual claims 6.80

party autonomy 6.71

prorogation agreements 6.77

self-employment 6.88, 6.89, 6.146, 6.190

severability principle 6.74

third States 6.72, 6.81, 6.86

validity and effects 6.74–80

‘writing’ requirement 6.76–78

jurisdiction, contracts, absence of choice 6.91–134

agency contract 6.117, 6.123

branch operations 6.36, 6.125, 6.128, 6.151

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 6.91–100, 6.105–118, 6.122, 6.125–134

classification of contracts 6.101–103

credit agreement and provision of services 6.118

data processing contracts 6.106

‘digital content’ classification 6.106–110

‘fair remuneration’ payments 6.93

Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments 6.131–133, 6.139

intermediation services 6.105

‘matters relating to a contract’ 6.91–95

‘matters relating to tort, delict or quasi-delict’ 6.94

multiple places of delivery of goods or provision of services 6.115

non-physical performance contracts 6.104–111

online delivery of goods and provision of services 6.119–124

party autonomy 6.120

place of delivery 6.115, 6.119–120, 6.124

place of establishment or habitual residence of the recipient 6.121

place of establishment of the service provider 6.121, 6.122–123

place of performance, and fragmentation and special rules 6.96–100, 6.111, 6.112–113

place where goods were physically transferred 6.114

‘provision of services’ classification 6.103

recognition and enforcement implications 6.130–134

recognition and enforcement implications, US 6.133–134

‘sales of goods’ classification 6.102, 6.107, 6.108–110, 6.111, 6.112–118

special jurisdiction rule 6.92

weaker party, contracts with, and consumer protection 6.125–129, 6.130

jurisdiction, copyright law 4.41–95

administrative and criminal sanctions 4.42

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 4.42–43, 4.46, 4.48, 4.49, 4.51

choice of forum agreements 4.49–50

contractual claims 4.44

exclusive jurisdiction and options, limitations of 4.46–51

fair compensation system 4.43

infringement claims 4.41–45

interim relief 4.51

intermediaries as defendants 4.45

localization of infringement 4.43, 4.49–50

national jurisdiction provisions 4.47–49

user generated content 4.44, 4.45

jurisdiction, copyright law, place where damage occurred 4.71–89

Brussels I Regulation (recast) 4.71–74, 4.77, 4.81–84

focalization (targeting) criterion 4.73–74, 4.82

geo-blocking tools 4.77–78

global accessibility issues 4.77–78

lack of impact of infringing activity 4.76

mere accessibility debate 4.71–80

mosaic approach and diffuse copyright infringements 4.81, 4.84–89

personality rights 4.86–88

jurisdiction, copyright law, potentially unlimited jurisdiction, grounds for 4.52–70

Brussels I Regulation (recast) 4.52, 4.54–61, 4.63

defendant’s domicile 4.52–59

global injunctions 4.69, 4.167

lex loci protectionis 4.67

moral rights 4.66–67

multiple defendant forum 4.54–59

mutual recognition of judgments 4.70

national rights restrictions and fragmentation 4.68, 4.70

personality rights and centre of interests of the rightholder 4.64–67

place of causal event giving rise to damage 4.60–63

Rome II Regulation 4.67

keyword metatags 5.83, 5.143

Kleinwächter, W. 1.03

Koekkoek, M. 3.37

Kohl, U. 1.20, 2.17

Koos, S. 2.31

Kuczerawy, A. 3.166

Kuner, C. 3.02, 3.26, 3.42, 3.43, 3.56

Kur, A. 4.17, 4.39, 4.72, 4.110, 4.117, 4.123, 4.124, 5.25, 5.57, 5.59, 5.74, 5.80, 5.115, 5.128

Lambert, P. 2.65, 2.89

legal certainty principle 184, 1.27, 1.42, 1.48, 1.63, 1.72, 1.74, 1.90, 1.131

contracts 6.02, 6.70, 6.92, 6.138, 6.148, 6.165

copyright law 4.19, 4.27, 4.59, 4.121, 4.130, 4.143

personality rights and non-contractual obligations 3.123

torts and illegal content 2.49, 2.73, 2.78, 2.80, 2.86, 2.97

trademarks, designs and patents 5.73, 5.169, 5.181

Leible, S. 1.24, 5.183, 6.119

Lein, E 1.38

Leiner, B. 1.01

Leistner, M. 2.47, 4.97, 4.121, 4.147, 5.129, 5.164

Lemley, M. 1.12, 2.50

Lessig, L. 1.07

lex loci protectionis 1.95

and contracts 6.183, 6.186

copyright law 4.12, 4.13, 4.15, 4.67

copyright law, intermediary service providers’ liability 4.121, 4.123, 4.126, 4.128, 4.129

copyright law and Rome II Regulation 4.96–105, 4.109–113, 4.116–123, 4.126, 4.128, 4.131, 4.133, 4.137–138, 4.142, 4.144, 4.151

trademarks, designs and patents 5.111–116, 5.118, 5.123

lex originis, copyright law 4.102, 4.104, 4.105

licensing 1.04, 1.08

contracts 6.103, 6.109–111, 6.156–158, 6.161–164, 6.166–168, 6.182–186

copyright law 4.23, 4.44, 4.101, 4.107, 4.131, 4.135, 4.140, 4.150, 6.32, 6.184–186

trademarks, designs and patents 5.77, 5.145

Lindsay, D. 5.16, 5.22, 5.28

linguistic issues

trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.213

translated version of contract agreement 6.176

Lipton, J. 1.24, 5.28

lis pendens rules 1.19, 1.21

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.57–58, 1.60–61

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.95, 3.96–102

Little, L. 3.130

Lodder. A. 2.10, 6.11

Long, J. 4.22, 4.125

López-Tarruella, A. 2.31

Lugano Convention

and Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.35, 1.38, 1.43, 1.45, 1.52, 1.54, 1.117, 1.125, 1.131–132

copyright law 4.46, 4.47, 4.79

trademarks, designs and patents 5.73, 5.108

Lundstedt, L. 4.66, 4.67, 4.131

Lutzi, T. 1.25, 2.80, 5.153, 6.119, 6.139

McParland, M. 1.88, 6.146, 6.147, 6.155

Mankowski, P. 2.29, 2.31, 2.80, 2.83, 5.09, 5.169, 5.184, 6.70, 6.119, 6.183

Mann, R. 1.73

market effects principle 1.95

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.153, 5.157, 5.163, 5.167–182, 5.185, 5.190–192, 5.199, 5.200

Martin-Casals, M. 2.65

Martiny, D. 1.88, 6.58, 6.68, 6.135

Mathiason, J. 1.03

Matulionyte, R. 4.83, 4.117, 4.118, 4.150

Meeusen, J. 2.31

mere accessibility and significant effect

copyright law, place where damage occurred 4.71–80

trademarks, designs and patents 5.121, 5.122, 5.155–162, 5.177

Metzger, A. 1.04, 4.27, 4.101, 4.110, 4.117, 4.121, 5.82, 5.125, 6.141, 6.167

Mifsud Bonnici, J. 1.03

Mills, A. 3.129, 3.147, 3.150

minimum common standards, TRIPS Agreement, trademarks, designs and patents 5.04

minimum contact tests, US, private international law 1.68, 1.70, 3.130

minimum standards of protection of, copyright law 4.03, 4.07, 4.10, 4.12, 4.21

minors and children 2.09, 2.22, 2.24, 2.60, 2.62, 3.05, 3.13, 3.15, 3.17, 3.17, 3.22, 6.178

mirror-image approach 1.118, 3.158

Moerel, L. 3.42, 3.81

Moiny, J. 3.43

monetary judgments 1.106, 1.108

copyright law and foreign judgments 4.156–160, 4.165, 4.172

see also injunctions; sanctions

moral rights

contracts and copyright licensing challenges 6.184–186

copyright law 4.66–67, 4.171

mosaic approach

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.50

copyright law 4.81, 4.84–89, 4.115, 4.123

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.125–127

torts and illegal content 2.80, 2.91

trademarks, designs and patents 5.105, 5.157, 5.166, 5.193, 5.199

Moscon, V. 1.07

most-favoured-nation principle, copyright law 4.04

Moura Vicente, D. 3.02, 4.12, 4.49, 4.104, 4.117, 4.155, 5.08, 5.114, 5.134

Mueller, M. 1.03

multilateral agreements

copyright law 4.11–12, 4.16–17

trademarks, designs and patents 5.112, 5.131

multiple country infringements, trademarks, designs and patents 2.80, 5.115

multiple defendants

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.53–54

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.92

torts and illegal content 2.71

trademarks, designs and patents 5.79–80, 5.96–99

multiple places of delivery of goods 6.115

Murray, A. 1.17

mutual recognition 1.127

copyright law 4.70

EU E-Commerce Directive, country of origin principle 2.13, 2.14, 2.17, 2.32, 2.35

national fragmentation effects, copyright law 4.34–40

national jurisdiction 1.31, 1.38–41

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.36, 1.38–41

copyright law 4.43, 4.47–50, 4.68, 4.70

cyberlaw 1.03, 1.06, 1.07, 1.08, 1.11, 1.13

domain names, trademarks, designs and patents 5.37, 5.39, 5.40–47, 5.52–56

EU E-Commerce Directive 2.13, 2.28

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.19–22, 3.89–95

torts and illegal content 2.60–64

trademarks, designs and patents 5.148, 5.153

national rights, trademarks, designs and patents 5.67–90, 5.146

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 5.67–69, 5.71, 5.82, 5.84, 5.85, 5.89

bundle patents 5.68, 5.80

copyright comparison 5.79, 5.90

exclusive jurisdiction 5.67–78

FRAND patent licence 5.77

geo-blocking tools, use of 5.90

Hague Choice of Forum Convention 5.78

multiple defendant forum 5.79–80

patent infringement claims and grounds of potentially unlimited jurisdiction 5.79–84

personality rights 5.87, 5.88

place where damage occurred 5.85–90

place where damage occurred, US jurisdiction 5.89

and public interests 5.70

registration issues 5.67–68, 5.70, 5.71

Rome II Regulation 5.88

unitary rights 5.67, 5.80

validity challenges 5.72–77

website keywords 5.83

national treatment principle

copyright law 4.01–03, 4.04, 4.10, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15

trademarks, designs and patents 5.03

Neumann, S. 4.99, 4.115, 4.124

New York Convention 5.33, 6.212–214

Nielsen, P. 3.129

Nishitani, Y. 1.87, 4.120, 4.123, 6.183

non-contractual obligations 1.97, 1.98

contracts 6.80

copyright law 4.97

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.92, 3.108–109

and personality rights see personality rights and non-contractual obligations, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)

and Rome II Regulation 1.91, 1.92–93

torts and illegal content 2.65, 2.66, 2.67, 2.85–88, 2.91–99

trademarks, designs and patents 5.113–116, 5.124, 5.147–154, 5.192

non-physical performance contracts 6.104–111

non-recognition factors 1.104, 1.114, 1.115–120, 1.129–130

see also recognition and enforcement

non-state and ‘deterritorialized’ rules suggestion, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.150

Nordemann, J. 4.121, 4.140

Nordhausen, A. 2.11

notice-and-action mechanisms, torts and illegal content 2.61

Nuyts, A. 1.39, 1.50, 1.63, 2.72

OECD Recommendation on Consumer Protection in E-Commerce 6.03

Ohly, A. 2.31, 4.105, 4.112, 4.123, 4.125, 4.144, 5.57, 5.218

one-stop-shop mechanism implementation, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.66–70, 3.81

online delivery of goods and provision of services 6.119–124

online sharing platforms

copyright law 4.19, 4.22, 4.27, 4.125

safe harbour immunities and EU E-Commerce Directive 2.58–59

open source software 1.04, 1.08

overriding mandatory rules

contracts and public policy see choice of law, contracts, overriding mandatory rules and public policy

contracts and third country law 6.195–199

parallel download of works protected by copyright 4.113

parallel proceedings

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.57–59

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.102

Paris Convention, trademarks, designs and patents 5.01, 5.02, 5.03, 5.112, 5.115, 5.199

party autonomy 1.23, 1.79, 1.82, 1.95

contracts 6.71, 6.120, 6.135–146

contracts, DLT and blockchain technologies 6.64

copyright law 4.108

cyberlaw 1.09–10

Rome I, Rome I and Rome II Regulations 1.90

torts and illegal content 2.86–87

trademarks, designs and patents 5.172

patents see under trademarks, designs and patents

Peguera, M. 2.47, 4.160

performing artists, copyright law 4.01, 4.07

personality rights 1.14

copyright law 4.64–67, 4.86–88

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.80, 3.92, 3.160

torts and illegal content 2.62, 2.65, 2.66, 2.72, 2.79

trademarks, designs and patents 5.87, 5.88, 5.154

see also privacy rights

personality rights and defamation, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.134–152

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 3.137, 3.154, 3.159–160, 3.163–164

EU E-Commerce Directive 3.141–144

foreign judgment for defamation 3.157–158

forum shopping concerns 3.137

free speech rights of authors and publishers (US) 3.156

freedom of expression right 3.162

future perspectives 3.145–152

habitual residence law 3.136–137, 3.139, 3.143, 3.146, 3.151

harmonization issues 3.134–144

mirror-image approach 3.158

non-state and ‘deterritorialized’ rules suggestion 3.150

privacy violations 3.135–140, 3.143, 3.148

public policy 3.161–166

recognition and enforcement of judgments 3.153–166

right of reply 3.146

right to private life and margin of appreciation 3.164

Rome II Regulation 3.134–140, 3.145, 3.154–155

services limited to a community of users 3.149

and unfair competition 3.137

universal jurisdiction issues 3.152

verification of jurisdiction 3.157–160

personality rights and non-contractual obligations, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.110–133, 3.135–137, 3.139–140

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 3.115–118, 3.119, 3.125

centre of interest of the victim 3.119–124

centre of interest of the victim, habitual residence 3.121

criminal offences 3.115

foreign judgments, recognition and enforcement 3.114

forum non conveniens grounds for dismissal 3.112, 3.131–132

forum shopping (libel tourism) 3.110–114

forum shopping (libel tourism), defamatory statements 3.111–112, 3.116, 3.128, 3.129, 3.130, 3.131–132

harmonization issues 3.128–130

information removal and blocking injunctions 3.127

legal certainty principle 3.123

mosaic approach 3.125–127

‘place where the harmful event occurred’ jurisdiction 3.116–118

special jurisdiction rule ‘in matters relating to tort’ 3.116

Pertegás, M. 4.119, 5.125, 6.93

Petersen, C. 4.45, 4.129

Peukert, A. 4.34, 5.57, 5.213

place, and establishment see establishment

place of business, contracts and third country law 6.198

place of causal event

copyright law 4.60–63

trademarks, designs and patents 5.104

place of delivery, contracts 6.115, 6.119–120, 6.124

place of performance 1.25–26, 1.68, 1.98

and contracts 6.31, 6.96–100, 6.111, 6.112–113

place where damage occurred

and copyright law see jurisdiction, copyright law, place where damage occurred

Rome II Regulation 2.88–89

torts and illegal content see torts and illegal content, place where damage occurred

trademarks, designs and patents 5.85–90, 5.151, 5.153, 5.157, 5.158–160, 5.163

trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.197

place where goods were physically transferred, and contracts 6.114

place where harmful event occurred

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.116–118

torts and illegal content 2.72, 2.73, 2.74–77, 2.75, 2.76

trademarks, designs and patents 5.100–106, 5.149, 5.151–152, 5.193

platform economy 1.05–06, 1.08, 1.10

contracts and intermediation services 6.27–29

contracts and social networks 6.46–56, 6.61, 6.139–142

copyright law 4.22

see also social networks

Plender, R. 1.85, 2.34, 2.97, 3.137, 6.35, 6.147, 6.155

Post, D. 1.02, 1.12

Pretelli, I. 1.24

privacy rights

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.04, 3.29, 3.90, 3.135–140, 3.143, 3.148, 3.164

torts and illegal content 2.62, 2.65, 2.66, 2.72

see also personality rights

private international law 1.01–135

alternative dispute resolution see alternative dispute resolution

applicable law see applicable law

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) see Brussels I Regulation (Recast)

choice of court agreements 1.75–76

choice of law see choice of law

cooperation mechanisms 1.19–22, 1.23

DLT and blockchain technologies see classification, contracts, DLT and blockchain technologies

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.27–28, 3.75–80

Hague Conference 1.74–76, 1.96, 1.117, 4.17, 4.154, 4.165

ICANN Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) see under domain names

intellectual property rights see intellectual property rights

jurisdiction see jurisdiction

lis pendens rules see lis pendens rules

national jurisdiction see national jurisdiction

party autonomy see party autonomy

personality rights see personality rights

public interests see public interests

public international law comparison 1.30

recognition and enforcement see recognition and enforcement, private international law

self-regulation issues 1.03, 1.10, 1.11, 1.13, 1.18, 1.95

US see US, private international law

product liability, Rome II Regulation 2.76, 2.94–95

production and supply contracts 6.163

provision of services contract 6.103, 6.152, 6.157–158, 6.163

provisional measures

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.55–56, 1.128

copyright law 4.90–95, 4.161–163

domain names, trademarks, designs and patents 5.29

trademarks, designs and patents 5.198, 5.215, 5.216

proximity principle, and contracts 6.148, 6.165

Psychogiopoulou, E. 3.134

public interests 1.16, 1.99

act of communication to the public concept, and copyright law 4.125

and contracts 6.138

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.36

trademarks, designs and patents 5.70

public international law, private international law comparison 1.30

public policy

copyright law 4.169, 4.170–176

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.25–26, 3.27, 3.161–166

and overriding mandatory rules see choice of law, contracts, overriding mandatory rules and public policy

trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.218

publicly available electronic communications services, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.09

publishing agreements, and contracts 6.163

Puurunen, T. 1.73

recognition and enforcement

contracts, absence of choice 6.130–134

copyright law and foreign judgments see foreign judgments, recognition and enforcement, copyright law

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.100

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), personality rights and defamation 3.153–166

trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.214–218

recognition and enforcement, private international law 1.101–135

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.103, 1.109, 1.117, 1.125–130, 1.131

copyright infringement 1.108

double instruments 1.117

fair trial right 1.120

fundamental rights balance 1.75, 1.124

geolocation tools, use of 1.119

Hague Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Judgments 1.123, 1.132, 1.134–135

harmonization 1.129

injunctions 1.107, 1.110–111, 1.119, 1.124

intermediaries, injunctions against 1.110–111, 1.124

Lugano Convention 1.125, 1.131, 1.132

mirror-image approach 1.118

monetary judgments and punitive sanctions 1.106, 1.108

mutual recognition and enforcement 1.127

non-monetary judgments and negative declarations 1.106–107, 1.128

non-recognition factors 1.104, 1.114, 1.115–120, 1.129–130

public policy as grounds for non-recognition 1.120–124, 1.125, 1.130

third country judgments 1.131–132

US state laws 1.103

registration

trademarks, designs and patents 5.06–08, 5.22

trademarks, designs and patents, domain names 5.21, 5.22, 5.24

trademarks, designs and patents, national rights 5.67–68, 5.70, 5.71

see also licensing

Reidenberg, J. 1.02

Reindl, A. 4.123

Reithmann, C. 1.88, 6.135

remuneration test, EU E-Commerce Directive 2.04

rental rights for computer programs and cinematographic works 4.05, 4.07

reproduction, copyright law 4.03, 4.07, 4.19, 4.25, 4.26

resale outside a selective distribution network, trademarks, designs and patents 5.157, 5.191

right of reply, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.135, 3.146

right to be forgotten, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.04, 3.15, 3.55–56, 3.58, 3.60

right of withdrawal, EU Consumer Rights Directive 6.17–18

Riis, T. 1.05, 4.44, 4.45, 4.129

Riordan, J. 2.45, 4.156

Roffael, C. 5.74

Rome I Regulation 1.80, 1.82, 1.83–94, 1.98, 1.99

and Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.85

choice of law, contracts 6.135, 6.137–138, 6.139, 6.140, 6.141, 6.142, 6.143, 6.146, 6.173, 6.178, 6.180

choice of law, contracts, applicable law in absence of choice 6.147–150, 6.153, 6.154, 6.157, 6.159, 6.165–166, 6.167–170, 6.172

choice of law, contracts, overriding mandatory rules and public policy 6.188, 6.189, 6.190, 6.191, 6.193, 6.195–196

classification, contracts 6.30, 6.32–33, 6.37–40, 6.42, 6.51–53, 6.55–58, 6.62, 6.67, 6.68

contractual claims 1.88–89

EU Geo-blocking Regulation 2.42, 2.43

foreign law application 1.87

party autonomy and freedom of choice 1.90

uniform interpretation 1.84, 1.86

universal application 1.83

Rome II Regulation 1.80, 1.82, 1.83–94, 1.98, 1.99

and Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.85

choice of law, contracts 6.181, 6.182

choice of law, trademarks, designs and patents 5.113, 5.116, 5.120, 5.123, 5.124, 5.126, 5.127

classification, contracts 6.35

copyright law 4.13

copyright law, potentially unlimited jurisdiction, grounds for 4.67

EU E-Commerce Directive, country of origin principle 2.32–33

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), personality rights and defamation 3.134–140, 3.145, 3.154–155

foreign law application 1.87

and lex loci protectionis, choice of law, copyright law 4.96–105, 4.109–113, 4.116–123, 4.126, 4.128, 4.131, 4.133, 4.137–138, 4.142, 4.144, 4.151

non-contractual obligations 1.91, 1.92–93

torts and illegal content see torts and illegal content, Rome II Regulation

trademarks, designs and patents 5.88, 5.105, 5.163–164, 5.167–174, 5.176, 5.181, 5.183, 5.185, 5.186, 5.188, 5.190–192

uniform interpretation 1.84, 1.86

universal application 1.83

Rühl, G. 6.145, 6.218

Rutledge, P. 1.65, 1.103, 1.113, 6.87

safe harbour immunities see service provider intermediaries, safe harbour immunities and EU E-Commerce Directive

sales contracts

applicable law in absence of choice 6.152, 6.157, 6.163, 6.171

EU Consumer Rights Directive 6.14–18

jurisdiction, absence of choice 6.102, 6.107, 6.108–110, 6.111, 6.112–118

and supply of digital content and services 6.19–23

UN Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) 6.07, 6.09

sanctions 1.106, 1.108

copyright law 4.42

EU E-Commerce Directive 2.13, 2.28

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.211

see also injunctions; monetary judgments

Saumier, G. 3.153, 4.17

Savola, P. 4.71, 4.125

Schack, H. 4.18, 4.38, 4.102, 4.104, 5.126

Schaub, M. 2.03

Schmitz, S. 4.24, 4.152

Schönherr, F. 4.25

self-employment 6.88, 6.89, 6.146, 6.190

see also employment contracts

self-regulation issues 1.03, 1.10, 1.11, 1.13, 1.18, 1.95, 2.60, 6.08

sensitive data, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.09, 3.14, 3.18

service contract definition 2.15, 6.16

service provider

contracts, absence of choice 6.112–124

and electronic mail address contact 2.12, 2.19

headquarters of service provider in third country 2.16

limited to a community of users 3.149

non-established 2.17, 2.18

place of establishment 6.121, 6.122–123

provision of services contract 6.152, 6.157–158, 6.163

services provided at a distance and personal data protection 3.07

third country service providers, EU E-Commerce Directive 2.14–20

service provider intermediaries 2.45–59

blocking access to damaging content 2.46

and copyright law 4.121–129

copyright law and lex loci protectionis 4.1214.123, 4.126, 4.128, 4.129

EU E-Commerce Directive 2.05, 2.07–08, 2.10, 2.20, 2.53–59

harmonization, need for 2.49

lex loci protectionis and copyright law 4.121, 4.123, 4.126, 4.128, 4.129

liability regime implications 2.45–46, 2.48

third parties, services used by 2.46

US Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) 2.47, 2.50–52

user generated content 2.55, 2.59

service provider intermediaries, safe harbour immunities and EU E-Commerce Directive 2.47–59

consumer protection 2.57

copyright protection 2.58–59

fundamental rights protection 2.57

hyperlinks 2.54

information removal 2.57

injunctions 2.57

limitations of liability 2.53–54

‘online content-sharing service provider’ concept 2.58–59

passive or neutral intermediaries, identification issues 2.55

severability principle, and contracts 6.74

single copyright title suggestion 4.38–40, 4.116–120, 4.124, 4.142–143

Sirinelli, P. 1.15

‘sliding scale’ test to Internet contacts, US 1.69, 5.89

smart contracts 6.63–67

see also classification, contracts, DLT and blockchain technologies

Smith, G. 2.65, 5.145

social networks 1.05–06, 1.08, 1.10

choice of law, contracts 6.139–142

classification, contracts 6.46–56, 6.61

torts and illegal content 2.63

see also platform economy

special jurisdiction 2.72–73

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 1.40, 1.48–54

copyright law and localization of activities 4.130

non-contractual claims and trademarks, designs and patents 5.147–154, 5.192

personality rights and non-contractual obligations, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.116

unitary rights see unitary rights, trademarks, designs and patents, special jurisdiction rules

speciality principle, trademarks, designs and patents 5.22

Spindler, G. 2.47, 2.63, 4.121, 5.145, 6.89

Staiger, D. 3.33

standard of equivalence approach, copyright law 1.118, 3.158, 4.166

Sujecki, B. 3.93

supplementary sanctions, trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.211

see also sanctions

Svantesson, D. 1.26, 3.43

Swire, P. 1.23, 3.42

Symeonides, S. 1.97, 1.98, 1.129, 2.86, 6.87

Synodinou, Y. 4.25

Tang, Z. 6.35, 6.81, 6.170

targeting criterion

classification, contracts 6.57–62

copyright law, place where damage occurred 4.73–74, 4.82

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) see territorial scope, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), targeting criterion

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.156

technical infrastructure control issues 1.03, 1.12

telecommunication services provision, and cyberlaw 1.06

tenancy of immovable property, contracts, applicable law in absence of choice 6.38, 6.154, 6.167

territorial scope

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), civil claims against a controller or processor 3.103–109

EU Geo-blocking Regulation 2.39, 2.44

lex loci protectionis, trademarks, designs and patents 5.111–116, 5.118, 5.123

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.194–202, 5.210–212

territorial scope, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.37–60

data controller and processor, concepts of 3.38–41

establishment of controller or processor 3.44–48

establishment of controller or processor, natural persons application 3.47

establishment of controller or processor, processing of personal data requirements 3.46–48, 3.56

online platform providers and users, relationship between 3.37

public international law and controllers or processors not established in the Union 3.41–43

rights and remedies, territorial limits 3.55–60

rights and remedies, territorial limits, dereferencing obligation 3.57–60

rights and remedies, territorial limits, right to be forgotten 3.55–60

territorial scope, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), targeting criterion 3.49–54

Brussels I Regulation 3.51

clear intention and question of degree 3.52

and controller or processor non-compliance 3.49

goods or services offered to data subjects in the Union 3.49–52

location of the data subject 3.49

monitoring behaviour of data subjects 3.53–54

special jurisdiction on consumer protection 3.51

territory-neutral market strategy 3.52

third countries

contracts, and overriding mandatory rules 6.195–199

copyrights granted by 4.151

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), cross-border transfers of data 3.32–36

and EU Geo-blocking Regulation 2.39

headquarters of service provider in 2.16

judgments, recognition and enforcement 1.131–132

jurisdiction, contracts 6.72, 6.81, 6.86

service providers, EU E-Commerce Directive 2.14–20

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.148

and unitary rights, trademarks, designs and patents 5.128

see also foreign judgments

Thornburg, E. 5.30

Thum, D. 5.57

Thünken, A. 2.31

top level domains (TLD) 5.17–19, 5.21, 5.26, 5.48

see also domain names, trademarks, designs and patents

Torremans, P. 4.12, 4.13, 4.49, 4.51, 4.67, 4.97, 4.167, 5.09

tort issues

contracts and ‘matters relating to tort, delict or quasi-delict’ 6.94

personality rights and non-contractual obligations, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.116

Regulations 1.94

torts and illegal content 2.60–99

blocking injunctions 2.84

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 2.66, 2.68–71

choice of law agreements 2.85–99

country of origin principle 2.63

domicile issues 2.69–70, 2.72–73

EU E-Commerce Directive 2.61, 2.64

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 2.66

EU Sexual Abuse and Sexual Exploitation of Children Directive 2.60

freedom of choice restrictions 2.87

and intellectual property rights 2.67, 2.72

intermediary service providers 2.61

and Internet of Things 2.65, 2.76

jurisdiction 2.68–84

legal certainty 2.49, 2.73, 2.78, 2.80, 2.86, 2.97

multiple defendants domiciled in different Member States 2.71

national level measures 2.60–64

non-contractual obligations 2.65, 2.66, 2.67, 2.85–88, 2.91–99

‘notice-and-action’ mechanisms 2.61

party autonomy 2.86–87

place where harmful event occurred 2.72, 2.73, 2.74–77

place where harmful event occurred, and defective products 2.76

place where harmful event occurred, electronic mail 2.75

privacy and personality rights 2.62, 2.65, 2.66, 2.72

private international law 2.64, 2.65–67

social network providers 2.63

special jurisdiction in tort matters 2.72–73

torts and illegal content, place where damage occurred 2.78–84

accessing or hacking computer systems 2.76, 2.78, 2.83

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 2.80

cloud services expansion concerns 2.59, 2.83

damages compensation 2.84

defective products liability 2.78

intellectual property rights 2.79, 2.81

mosaic approach 2.80

personality rights 2.79

trademark infringements 2.79

torts and illegal content, Rome II Regulation 2.66, 2.67, 2.85–91

direct damage in more than one country 2.89

escape clause and mosaic approach 2.91

habitual residence of companies 2.90

intermediary liability 2.96–99

intermediary liability, and E-commerce Directive 2.98–99

place where direct damage occurred (locus damni) 2.88–89

product liability 2.76, 2.94–95

unfair competition liability 2.93

trademark infringements, torts and illegal content, place where damage occurred 2.79

trademarks, designs and patents 1.12, 5.01–218

advertisements and company referencing websites 5.11

choice of law see choice of law, trademarks, designs and patents

counterfeit goods and online trade 5.64–66

cross-border activities 5.57–66

domain names see domain names

exclusive rights 5.62, 5.63

exhaustion of rights 5.61–63

geolocation technologies use 5.60

harmonization 5.09–12

legal certainty principle 5.73, 5.169, 5.181

Lugano Convention 5.73, 5.108

national rights see national rights, trademarks, designs and patents

national treatment principle 5.03

Paris Convention 5.01, 5.02, 5.03, 5.112, 5.115, 5.199

provisional measures 5.198, 5.215, 5.216

registration and granting procedures 5.06–08, 5.22

sign use on Internet 5.57–60

speciality principle 5.22

trademarks and ‘use in the course of trade’ 5.10–11

TRIPS Agreement and minimum common standards 5.04

unfair competition see unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents

unitary rights see unitary rights, trademarks, designs and patents

unregistered trademarks 5.02

well-known marks, provision for 5.03, 5.04

WIPO Joint Recommendation on the protection of signs on the Internet 5.58–60

WIPO Patent Cooperation Treaty 5.07

see also copyright law; intellectual property rights

transfer or license of IP rights, choice of law, contracts, applicable law in absence of choice 6.156–158, 6.161–163, 6.166, 6.167, 6.168, 6.182–186

translated version of contract agreement 6.176

see also linguistic issues

transparency

contracts, overriding mandatory rules and public policy 6.192–193

contracts, platform economy and intermediation services 6.28

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.11–13

Treppoz, E. 4.46, 4.105

Trimble, M. 1.26, 4.119, 4.167, 4.170

Ubertazzi, B. 4.48, 4.117, 4.121, 5.71, 5.167

ubiquitous infringements

copyright law 4.109–129, 4.151

trademarks, designs and patents 5.115

UK

Ablynx v. Vhsquared 5.69

Apple Corps Ltd v. Apple Computer 6.169

Cartier International v. British Telecommunications 2.46, 4.21

Conversant Wireless Licensing v. Huawei Technologies 5.77

Defamation Act 3.110, 3.129

Digital Economy Act 4.24

EMI Records v. British Sky Broadcasting 2.46, 4.45

Football Association Premier League Ltd v. British Telecommunications 2.46, 4.45

Hillside (New Media) Ltd v. Baasland 2.91

Lucasfilm Ltd. v. Ainsworth 4.46

Pearce v. Ove Arup Partnership 4.53

Twentieth Century Fox Film v. British Telecommunications 2.46, 4.45

Unwired Planet International v. Huawei Technologies 5.77

UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods (CISG) 1.78, 6.07, 6.09

UN Convention on the Use of Electronic Communications in International Contracts 6.05–06, 6.77

UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Commerce 6.03, 6.04–09, 6.11, 6.77, 6.214, 6.215

unfair competition

and contracts 6.181

and copyright law 5.129

EU E-Commerce Directive 2.07–08, 2.30, 2.32

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), personality rights and defamation 3.137

EU Geo-blocking Regulation 2.44

torts and illegal content, Rome II Regulation 2.93

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 5.58, 5.129–193

bilateral acts affecting exclusively the interests of a specific competitor 5.163–166

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 5.147–151, 5.153, 5.155–157, 5.166, 5.192

‘business-to-consumer commercial practices’ 5.137–142

centre of interests criterion 5.154

consumer interests protection 5.170

country of origin principle 5.181–188

dominant position abuse 5.145, 5.150

EU E-Commerce Directive 5.183–185, 5.186, 5.187, 5.190

EU Unfair Commercial Practices Directive 5.129, 5.130, 5.137–142, 5.186–187

geo-blocking 5.162, 5.178

imitation with a risk of confusion to consumers 5.129, 5.150

‘inertia selling’ concept 5.142

information society services 5.185

infringement liability 5.189–193

intellectual property rights 5.129–135

intermediation services 5.173–174

jurisdiction 5.147–166

market effects principle 5.153, 5.157, 5.163, 5.167–182, 5.185, 5.190–192, 5.199, 5.200

mere accessibility of Internet content 5.155–162, 5.177

mosaic approach 5.157, 5.166, 5.193

multilateral treaties 5.131

national court jurisdiction 5.148, 5.153

national laws and equivalence and effectiveness test 5.189

non-contractual claims and special jurisdiction 5.147–154, 5.192

party autonomy exclusion 5.172

personality rights 5.154

‘place where the damage occurred’ 5.151, 5.153, 5.157, 5.158–160, 5.163

‘place where the harmful event occurred or may occur’ 5.149, 5.151–152, 5.193

resale outside a selective distribution network 5.157, 5.191

Rome II Regulation 5.163–164, 5.167–174, 5.176, 5.181, 5.183, 5.185, 5.186, 5.188, 5.190–192

special treatment for unfair competition claims 5.172

substantive and procedural law, differences between 5.134–135

targeting criterion 5.156

third states and forum choice 5.148

unitary rights 5.150

unregistered trademarks and designs 4.108, 5.50, 5.129, 5.133

website keyword metatags use 5.83, 5.143

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents, advertising

and domain name use 5.143, 5.144

intra-community unfair 5.181, 5.183, 5.188

misleading and comparative 5.139, 5.141, 5.143, 5.150, 5.163

restrictions 5.175–180

tobacco 5.180

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.02, 5.194–218

adwords and service provider 5.204

ALI Principles 5.199

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 5.198, 5.215, 5.217, 5.218

CLIP (Conflict of Laws in Intellectual Property) Principles 5.115, 5.199

copyright comparison 5.216

EU E-Commerce Directive 5.203, 5.205

global injunction concerns 5.195, 5.199, 5.201–202

information, protection of undisclosed 5.200–201

intermediaries 5.203–207

marketing products through websites 5.208–209, 5.211

mosaic approach 5.199

place where damage occurred 5.197

provisional relief 5.198

public policy 5.218

recognition and enforcement 5.214–218

Rome II Regulation 5.200, 5.206

supplementary sanctions 5.211

territorial scope 5.194–202, 5.210–212

third party use of sign and linguistic issues 5.213

unitary rights 5.208–213, 5.215

unlimited jurisdiction 5.198, 5.199

WIPO Joint Recommendation 5.195

UNIDROIT Principles on Commercial Contracts 6.140

unification and choice of law implications, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.17–22

uniform rules, copyright law 4.96–108, 4.142–143

unitary copyright title proposal, copyright law 4.38–40, 4.116–120, 4.124, 4.142–143

unitary rights, trademarks, designs and patents

choice of law 5.123–128

national rights 5.67, 5.80

unfair competition 5.150

unfair competition, foreign judgments 5.208–213, 5.215

unitary rights, trademarks, designs and patents, special jurisdiction rules 5.09, 5.12, 5.13–14, 5.91–110

Brussels I Regulation (Recast) 5.92–93, 5.95, 5.96–97, 5.101, 5.105, 5.106, 5.108, 5.109, 5.110, 5.116

cascade rules 5.94–95

general jurisdiction 5.91–95, 5.106

mosaic approach 5.105

multiple defendants 5.96–99

multiple defendants, close connection requirement 5.98

multiple defendants, same situation of law requirement 5.98–99

place of causal event 5.104

place in which act of infringement has been committed 5.100–106

Rome II Regulation 5.105

Unified Patent Court 5.107–110

unlimited jurisdiction

and copyright law see jurisdiction, copyright law, potentially unlimited jurisdiction, grounds for

EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) 3.115, 3.116, 3.126, 3.127, 3.152

patent infringement claims 5.79–84

unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents, foreign judgments 5.82, 5.147, 5.152, 5.198, 5.199, 5.201

unregistered trademarks and designs, unfair competition, trademarks, designs and patents 4.108, 5.50, 5.129, 5.133

Unsworth, R. 6.63

US

ALI (American Law Institute) Principles 4.16, 4.105, 4.117, 4.122, 5.115, 5.199

Anticybersquatting Consumer Protection Act (ACPA) 1.71, 5.41–45

Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act 3.05, 3.43

CLOUD Act 3.36

Communications Decency Act (CDA) 1.124, 2.51, 3.166

consumer interest protection, US, data protection and personality rights 3.05

contracts and consumer protection 6.87

data protection as fundamental right 3.05

Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) 2.47, 2.50–52

EU-US Privacy Shield, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), cross-border transfers of data 3.33

fair use approach 4.28

Foreign Country Money Judgments Recognition Act 1.103

Foreign Money Judgments Recognition Act, 1.103

Fourth Restatement of Foreign Relations Law 3.43

free speech rights of authors and publishers (US), EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), personality rights and defamation 3.156

minimum contact tests 1.68, 1.70, 3.130

personality rights and ‘multistate defamation’ 3.148

place where damage occurred, US jurisdiction, national rights, trademarks, designs and patents 5.89

recognition and enforcement implications, US recognition issues, jurisdiction, contracts, absence of choice 6.133–134

right to privacy 3.148

Second Restatement of Conflict of Laws 1.98

SPEECH Act 3.156, 3.157, 3.158, 3.165–166

state laws, recognition and enforcement 1.103

Stop Enabling Sex Traffickers Act 2.51

Third Restatement on Foreign Relations Laws 1.103

Uniform Electronic Transactions Act 6.08

unregistered trademarks 5.133

US, cases

A&M Recording v. Napster 2.52

ALS Scan v. Digital Serv. Consultants 1.70

Armstrong v. Virgin Records 4.46

Asahi Metal Industries Co. v. Superior Court 1.68

Authors Guild v. Google 4.28

Baldwin v. Fischer-Smith 3.130

Barcelona.com v. Excelentisimo Ayuntamiento de Barcelona 5.34, 5.41, 5.45

Bord v. Banco De Chile 5.30

Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. v. Superior Court of California 1.67, 1.68

Burnham v. Superior Court of California 1.62

Calder v. Jones 1.70, 3.130

Capitol Federal Sav. Bank v. Eastern Bank Corp. 5.89

Carnival Cruise Lines v. Shute 1.73, 6.87

Creative Tech. v. Aztech Sys. Pte. 4.51

Cybersell v. Cybersell 5.89

Daimler AG v. Bauman 1.67

De Fontbrune v. Wofsy 1.108

Dluhos v. Strasberg 5.34

Doe v. Geller 4.55

GlobalSantaFe Corp. v. Globalsantafe.com 5.43, 5.44

Goodyear Dunlop Tires Operations S.A. v. Brown 1.67

Google v. Equustek 1.114, 1.124, 3.166, 4.167, 4.174, 5.202

Hanson v. Denckla 1.68

Helicopteros Nacionales de Colombia SA v. Hall 1.66

Inset Systems v. Instruction Set 1.69

International Shoe Co. v. Washington 1.67

Itar-Tass Russian News Agency v. Russian Kurier 4.105

Jan K. Voda, M.D. v. Cordis Corporation 5.70

Koch v. America Online 1.73

London Film Productions v. Intercontinental Communications 4.46, 4.51

MacDermid v. Deiter 2.83

McIntyre Machinery Ltd. v. Nicasio 1.68

Metro-Golwyn-Mayer Studios v. Grokster 4.125

MGM Studios v. Grokster 2.52

Millennium Enterprises v. Millennium Music 1.70

Monroig v. RMM Records & Video Corp. 4.67, 4.112

Murray v. British Broad. Corp. 4.51

Parisi v. Netlearning 5.34

Penguin Group (USA) v. American Buddha 4.65

Perfect 10 v. Google 4.28, 4.125

Plixer Int’l v. Scrutinizer 5.89

Sallen v. Corinthians Licenciamentos LTDA 5.41

Sarl Louise Ferand Int’l v. Viewfinder 4.173

Shaffer v. Heitner 1.68

Shropshire v. Canning 4.111

Spanski v. Telewizja Polska 4.88

Stoner v. Ebay 2.51

Tiffany (NJ) v. eBay 4.45

Tire Engineering and Distribution v. Shandong Linglong Rubber 4.112

Toys R Us v. Step Two 5.89

US v. Microsoft 3.36

Viacom International v. YouTube 2.52, 4.45

Weber-Stephen Products Co. v. Armitage Hardware and Building Supply 5.34

Wells Fargo Company v. Wells Fargo Express Company 5.146

World-Wide-Volkswagen Corporation v. Woodson 1.68

Yahoo ! v. La Ligue Contre Le Racisme et L’Antisemitisme 1.114, 1.124

Young v. New Haven Advocate 3.130

Zeran v. AOL 2.51

Zippo Manufacturing Co. v. Zippo Dot Com 1.69, 5.89

US, private international law 1.62–77

common law principles 1.64–65

constitutional limitations over personal jurisdiction 1.64

‘doing business’ general jurisdiction 1.64

domain names, seizure issues 1.71

domicile or residence of the defendant 1.67

due process analysis 1.65, 1.68, 1.70, 3.130, 3.157, 6.133

‘effects test’ for establishing personal jurisdiction 1.70, 3.130

forum non conveniens doctrine 1.64, 1.72

incorporated business entity domicile 1.67

interactive and passive websites, distinction between 1.69, 1.70

interest analysis approach. 1.98

minimum contact tests 1.68, 1.70, 3.130

non-contractual obligations 1.98

place of performance of contract 1.68, 1.98

‘sliding scale’ test to Internet contacts 1.69, 5.89

user generated content

copyright law 4.44, 4.45

service provider intermediaries 2.55, 2.59

validity

challenges, trademarks, designs and patents 5.72–77

contract 6.74–80, 6.173–179

Van Alsenoy, B. 3.37

Van Dongen, L. 4.21

Van Eechoud, M. 4.14, 4.16, 4.38, 4.108

Vandezande, N. 6.68

verification of jurisdiction, EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), personality rights and defamation 3.157–160

visually impaired people provisions, copyright law 4.07

Von Hein, J. 3.138

Waddell, A. 5.18, 5.19, 5.28, 5.56, 5.57, 5.60

Wang, F. 1.24

Wang, J. 2.47

weaker party, contracts with 6.125–129, 6.130, 6.143–146, 6.170–172

Weber, R. 1.01

Wendehorst, C. 6.51

Wilderspin, M. 1.85, 2.34, 2.97, 3.137, 5.74, 6.35, 6.147, 6.155

Wilson, C. 5.22

Winn, J. 1.73

WIPO Copyright Treaty (WCT) 4.07, 4.18

WIPO Internet Domain Name Process 5.25

WIPO Joint Recommendation 5.58–60, 5.121, 5.131, 5.176, 5.195

WIPO Model Provisions 5.136

WIPO Patent Cooperation Treaty 5.07

WIPO Performances and Phonograms Treaty (WPPT) 4.07, 4.18

Woebbeking, M. 6.66, 6.67

Wong, M. 4.44

Wright, A. 1.04, 1.06, 6.63, 6.66

‘writing’ requirement, contracts 1.45, 6.05, 6.06, 6.13, 6.30, 6.76–78, 6.179, 6.211, 6.214

WTO TRIPS Agreement

copyright law 4.04–06, 4.07, 4.10, 4.12, 4.13, 4.21, 4.27, 4.175

trademarks, designs and patents 5.04

Wu, T. 1.03

Yokomizo, D. 4.118

Zimmermann, A. 6.65

Zittrain, J. 1.12