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Intellectual Property, Climate Change and Technology

Managing National Legal Intersections, Relationships and Conflicts

Abbe E.L. Brown

Exploring the potential for alignment as well as conflict between IP and climate change Intellectual Property, Climate Change and Technology encourages a coherent and integrated approach to decision making across the IP, climate change and technology landscape. This groundbreaking book identifies and challenges the lack of intersection between intellectual property law and climate change law at national level.
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Index

Abbe E.L. Brown

Aarhus Convention 145, 146–7, 199–200, 229, 241

Adelman, S 30, 32

African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, Social and Economic Rights Action Center v Nigeria 27

Agenda 214, 10, 15, 309

Ahmed, F 145

Albornoz, M 42

Allan, T 206

Alvarez, G 295–6

Alvarez, J 40

Am, M 36

Ama, O 297

Andhyarujina, A 215

Ansong, A 299

Aplin, T 14, 128, 134

Arbury, L 199

Atapattu, S 23

Austin, L 175

Australia

climate change risk cases 103

environmental law 81

JT international v Cth 281

Land and Environmental Court (LEC) 229–31

renewable energy installations and planning permission 102

restriction of use of environmentally significant land 182

Taralga Landscape Guardians v Minister for Planning 102

US–Australia FTA 286, 292

Austria

In re Vienna-Schwechat Airport Expansion 135–6

Averchenkova, A 8, 95

Baghai, K 176

Bailey, D 199

Baker, B 279

Baker, D x, 16, 88

Baker, K 50

Barbosa, D 85

Barczewski, M 60

Barnard, C 85

Barton, J 16

Beatson, J 201, 215

Beaumont, P 178

Becker, L 75

Beckett, J 303

Bentsi-Enchill, K 37

Berman, P 37, 173, 178, 179

Berne Convention 19–20

Berry, T 182

Bhuwania, A 215

Birss, C 128

Bjorge, E 36, 190, 194, 195, 197

Black, J 174

black holes 138, 147, 164, 168, 180, 204, 209, 236

Blackman, S 116

Bodansky, D 5, 9, 23, 34, 62, 79

Bogojevic, S 39

Boomer, E 302

Bosetti, V 12

Bosselmann, K 4, 31–2, 79, 182, 183

Botelho, A 116

Bourdieu, P 225

Boyle, J 69, 87, 226

Brew, G 7

Brexit 45, 55, 65, 133, 200, 204–205, 249, 265–6, 275

Brodie, D 133

Brown, A ix, xi, xiv, xv, xvii, xxi, xxii

Brown, C 100, 297

Brown, K 233

Brunnee, J 35

Bubela, T 15

Burdon, P 181

Burn-Murdoch, H 64

Burns, M 11

Burrows, A 193–4, 200, 201, 203, 204, 242, 245

Caine, C 154

Calabresi, G 86

Calboli, I 60

Callinan, C 30, 181, 182, 207, 233

Calvillo, C 46

Canada

Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) 39, 287–9, 290, 292, 300–301

Geophysical services v Encana 130

TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership) 266, 289–90, 301

carbon capture facility funding, Scotland 45, 46

Cardullo, M 222

Carnworth, Lord 100

Carroll, M 14

case studies 115–73

black holes 138, 147, 164, 168

conflict and driver for change 121–4

international and national jurisdiction overlaps 122–4

new technologies and passage of time, effects of 121

case studies (case study 1), emissions reduction from increased use of low noise technology (case study 1) 117, 129–38, 209–10, 216

copyright and freedom of information legislation regarding the environment and oil and gas 130–31

copyright legislation possibilities, and public interest provision 129–31, 134, 135–6

Crown use provisions, patents and designs 126–8, 209–10

Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) 127, 131–2

IP and competition 131–3

IP and competition, dominance abuse issues 132–3

IP and human rights 133–7, 210

IP infringement consideration 126–31, 216

IP and statutory landscape 137, 209–10

patents and compulsory licensing 128–9

case studies (case study 2), emissions reduction, and impact of government plans to encourage wider activity to reduce emissions 117–18, 139–41, 211, 216

common design issue 140

Crown use and patent and design compulsory licensing 139–40, 211

IP infringement and BEIS 140–41, 211, 216

joint tortfeasorship 140

case studies (case study 3), obligations under climate change legislation 118–19, 141–7, 211–12, 216, 217–18

Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) 142–3

IP infringement and BEIS 146, 169

judicial review availability 144–7

judicial review availability, and Aarhus Convention 145, 146–7

NGO climate change action 143–7, 216, 217–18

UK Climate Change Act (CCA) and mandatory obligations to reduce emissions 143–4, 146–7, 211–12

case studies (case study 4), planning law, local council climate change legislation obligations and discretionary powers 119–20, 147–59, 212–13, 216

Aberdeenshire Local Development Plan (2017) 151–2, 153, 154, 156

copyright and planning conditions 157

decision makers 149–50

injunctions and damages 158–9

IP actions and planning impact 157–9, 216

noise considerations 153–4, 158

patent and design and planning conditions 157–8

planning enforcement process 155–7, 212–13

planning enforcement process, failing to comply 156–7

planning enforcement process, withdrawal 157

planning permission and IP owner’s consent 154–5

planning permission subject to conditions 152–7

planning system (Scotland) 148–59

representations and appeals 154–5

Scottish Government Onshore Wind Policy Statement 150–51

technological uncertainty considerations and environmental impact 154

wider development plans, consideration of 150

case studies (case study 5), noise issues, planning law, local council climate change legislation obligations and discretionary powers 120–21, 153–4, 158, 159–70, 213, 216

climate change actions 169–70

consent application 162–3

Electricity Act 149, 162, 165

environmental impact assessment 162–3, 167

IP infringement action 161, 213, 216

IP owner, actions against 161–2

judicial review 165–9

judicial review and human rights 166–7

judicial review, NGO and local council involvement 168–9

judicial review, regard to differing views 167

judicial right interest 165–6

noise issue 163

planning permission conditions 164

planning and pollution overlap 163–4

technology sharing and duty of care 161

Wind Policy Statement 162

Catenacci, M 12

CETA (Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement) 39, 287–9, 290, 292, 300–301

Chapman, A 28

Chon, M 60

Church, J 97

Claeys, E 86

Clara, R 294

Clayton, R 190, 193, 194

climate change

international climate change responses 3–8

and investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) 272–4, 285–91, 309

legislation obligations see case studies (case study 3)

local council legislation see case studies (case study 4)

local council legislation and noise issues see case studies (case study 5)

national legislation and policy making see national legislation and policy making, climate change perspective

new judicial approaches and Climate Change and Technology-related (CCT) human rights 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215

NGO climate change action, case studies (case study 3) 143–7, 216, 217–18

technology-based responses to climate change 38–40, 236–7

and Wild Law see new judicial approaches, Wild Law and climate change focus

climate change law, conflict and alignment 79–85, 95–110

air quality obligations 103

constitutional implications 97–8

ecosystem-based approach 79–80, 86

emission reduction levels 95–100

environmental law lessons 80–82

and government structures 110–11

and human rights 98, 99–100, 104–109

IP, limited levels of engagement with 96–7

judicial review 98–9, 103–104

obligations 95–7

obligations and potential for litigation 97–100

parliamentary process 111–12

planning permission and land use 102

and precautionary principle 81–2, 106

public bodies and companies, litigation against 100–101

public versus private law 82–5

regulation effectiveness 103–104

societal values regarding environmental protection 81–2

state action steering private sector to deliver outcomes which meet state’s obligations 84–5

tax arrangement changes 103

technological development effects 96

Climate Change Principles for Enterprises 25

Collins, D 275

Collins, R 42

Colon-Rios, J 181

common design 140

commons and IP rights 76–7, 87

competition law 65, 131–2, 133, 143

complementary approaches to IP and technology-based responses to climate change 38–40

investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) 39–40

trade and investment agreements and investor disputes 39–40

UK climate change legislation 38–9

Conconi, P 293

conflict and alignment see climate change law, conflict and alignment; IP law, conflict and alignment; IP rights, conflict and alignment

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) 4, 10, 15

copyright 13, 18, 20

Crown Use provision 93

and design intersection 91, 93

and freedom of information legislation 130–31

infringement and direct or indirect reproduction 94

licensing 92, 93, 128–9, 139–40, 211, 241

originality requirement 90–91

and planning conditions, case studies (case study 4) 157

and public interest provision 93, 129–31, 134, 135–6

see also designs, registered; IP; patents; trade marks

Cornish, W 70

Correa, C 21, 269

courts

balancing laws and remedies awards 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213

discretionary powers see case studies (case study 4) and planning law

new international investment court suggestion 297–8

see also cases (listed under individual countries and courts); ‘judicial’ headings

Coyle, S 81, 86, 89, 102, 113, 171, 191, 198

CPTPP (Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership) 266, 289–90, 301

Craig, R 205

Crown use 92–3, 126–8, 139–40, 209–10, 211

Culver, K 16, 88

Cunningham, R 87, 181, 182, 226

Currie, B 179

damages, and planning law 158–9

Davies, A 85

Davison, M 282

Daya-Winterbottom, T 197

De Meeus, J 11

De Paor, R 35

Dechezlepretre, A 34, 223

Derclaye, E 59, 90, 91

designs, registered 13, 18, 20

copyright and design intersection 91, 93

Crown use provisions 93, 126–8, 139–40, 209–10, 211

licensing 92, 93, 128–9, 139–40, 211, 241

see also copyright; IP; patents; trade marks

Dicey, A 190–91

Dinwoodie, G 177–8

dispute settlement see investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS); WTO, Dispute Settlement

Dodd, J 221

Douglas-Scott, S 37, 122, 123, 124, 172, 176, 189, 190

Drahos, P 19, 20, 71

Drake, L 36

Dreyfuss, R 14, 231, 279

Dupuy, P-M 294, 298

Dworkin, R 123, 187

Earth Charter 29, 31, 50, 181

Earth Summit 4–5, 10–12, 15, 50, 84, 111

ecosystem-based approach, climate change law 79–80, 86

Edenhofer, O 68

Eisenberg, R 74

Elliott, M 193, 205

emissions

Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 (CCSA) 49–51, 52, 64, 80, 96, 97

reduction from increased use of low noise technology see case studies (case study 1)

reduction, and impact of government plans to reduce see case studies (case study 2)

reduction levels, and climate change law 95–100

third climate change plan 2018–2032, Scotland 45–6

UK, Climate Change Act (CCA) 97, 98, 112, 143–4, 146–7, 211–12

energy efficiency standards, national legislation and policy making 45, 46, 50

energy innovation, national legislation and policy making 53–5

Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) 127, 131–2, 142–3

England

Civil Justice Council and consideration of new rules 232

Regulatory Reform and Sanctions Act 83

Senior Courts Act 232

see also Scotland; UK

England, cases

A (No2) v Secretary of State for the Home Department 193

AJA v Commissioner of Police for the Metropolis 194

Alconbury v Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport 150

Anderson v Secretary of State for the Home Department 195

Armstrong DLW v Winnington Networks 87

Ashdown v Telegraph Group 134–5, 139, 157, 208, 210, 211, 213

Assange v Swedish Prosecution Authority 137

AXA General Insurance v HM Advocate 145, 165

British American Tobacco UK Ltd v Secretary of State for Health 166, 281

Bromley LBC v Greater London Council 202–203

Bucks CC v Secretary of State for Transport 195

Re Budniok 202

Calveley v CC of Merseyside 144

Campbell v MGN Ltd 134, 198, 214–15

Child Poverty Action Group v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions 194

ClientEarth v Secretary of State for Food, Environment and Rural Affairs 103

Coventry v Lawrence / Lawrence v Fen Tigers 158–9, 162

Designers Guild v Russell Williams 94

Dimmock v S of S Children, Schools and Families 145

Donoghue v Poplar Housing 85

Drax Power Ltd v Revenue and Customs Commissioner 103

Edwards Lifesciences v Boston Scientific 158

Edwards v Environment Agency 145

Eli Lilly v Actavis 94

FA Premier League v QC Leisure 65

Fish & Fish Ltd v Sea Shepherd UK 141

Friends of the Earth v Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform 97, 143

Gateshead MBC v S of S for the Environment 164

General Tire v Firestone 90

Ghaidan v Godin Mendoza 195

Glyn v Weston Feature Film Co 91

Hillingdon LBC v Secretary of State for Transport 242

HM Stationery Office v Automobile Association 131

Holder v Gedling 102, 150

Home Office v Harman 194

Hopkins Developments Ltd v First Secretary of State 164

HRH Prince of Wales v Associated Newspapers 135

HS2 Action Alliance Ltd v Secretary of State for Transport 195

HTC v Nokia 158

Hulme v Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government 153

Hyde Park Residence v Yelland 129

Innes v Information Commissioner 242

Intel Corporation v Via Technologies 65

Jackson v Attorney General 205

JH Rayner (Mincing Lane) Ltd v Department of Trade and Industry 63

JS v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions 197

Kennedy v Information Commissioner 192

Larner v Solihull Metropolitan BC 97

Lethem v Secretary of State for Transport 164

Lucasfilm v Ainsworth 91

Ludlow v Williams 158

McCartan Turkington v Times 202

In re McKerr 197

Magmatic Ltd v PMS International Ltd 94

Miller v Secretary of State for Exiting the European Union 205, 237

MMI Research Ltd v Cellxion Ltd 127

Moohan v Lord Advocate 194–5, 205–206

O (A Child) v Rhodes 192

Pepper (Inspector of Taxes) v Hart 200, 242, 250, 252

Pfizer Corp v Minister of Health 141

Philips Electronics NV v Ingman Ltd 133

Phillips v News Group Newspapers 200

Pioneer Aggregates (UK) Ltd v S f S for the Environment 174–5

PJS v News Group Newspapers 215

Plan B Earth v Secretary of State for Business, Enterprise and Industrial Strategy 98–100, 108–9, 121, 144, 160, 198

Pozzoli v BDMO 90

Quintavalle v Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority 200, 203

R v Horseferry Road Magistrates Court 143

R v Inland Revenue Commissioners ex p National Federation of Self-Employed and Small Businesses 145

R v Lyons 63

R v Panel on Takeovers & Mergers (ex p Datafin) 85

R v Rochdale MBC ex p Milne (no 1) 154

R v Secretary of State for Home Department ex p Simms 194

R v Secretary of State for Home Dept ex p McQuillan 191

R v Smith 242

R(O) v Secretary of State for International Development 145

Royal College of Nursing of the UK v Department of Health and Social Security 203

Ryanair Ltd v HM Revenue and Customs 246

Salomon v Commissioners of Customs and Excise 137

ShelleyFilms Ltd v Rex Features Ltd 91

Smartsource Drainage v Information Commissioner 84

Smith Kline & French Laboratories Ltd Cimetidine Patent (No.2) 128

Solar Century Holdings Ltd v S of S for Energy and CC 97

Spath Holme Ltd v Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions 185, 202

Sportswear Co SpA v Stonestyle Ltd 131, 132

Synthon v Smithkline Beecham 90

Tesco Stores Ltd v Secretary of State for the Environment 150

Thoburn v Sunderland City Council 195

Three Rivers DC v Bank of England 200

UBS AG v Revenue and Customs Commissioners 200

Unison v Lord Chancellor 194

University of London Press v University Tutorial Press 90

Unwired Planet International Ltd v Huawei Technologies Ltd 142

Various Claimants v Wm Morrison Supermarkets 215

Wilson v First County Trust (No 2) 200, 242

Wobben Property GmbH v Siemens 90

Worboys 145, 146

X (Minors) v Bedfordshire CC 144

environmental impact assessment 154, 162–3, 167, 182–3

environmental law 80–82, 86–9, 104, 106

Ethier, W 36

EU

competition law 65, 131–2

Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) 39, 287–9, 290, 292, 300–301

environmental law 81

EU-Japan Agreement for an Economic Partnership 290–91

human rights 24, 27–8, 108

investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS), non-trade factors contributions 266, 298–301

IP and climate change 17–18

IP Enforcement Directive 63

Strategic Energy Technology Plan 34

TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) 266, 299–300

EU, cases

Accord ECG 300

Achmea 300

Carvalho v Parliament and Council 108

Fish Legal v Information Commissioner 84

Huawei Technologies v ZTE 142

IMS Health v NDC Health 65, 132

Infopaq International A/S v Danske Dagblades Forening 90–91, 94

Krizan v Slovenska inspekcia zivotneho prostredia 130

Magill 132

Microsoft Corp v Commission 65, 132

Philip Morris Brands Sarl v Secretary of State for Health 166, 281

Radio Telefis Eireann v Commission of the European Communities 132

Stichtung Greenpeace Nederland v European Commission 130

United Brands Co v Commission of the European Commission 132

Volvo AB v Erik Veng 132

Eurodefence 65, 131

European Court of Human Rights

Anheuser-Busch v Portugal 27

Balan v Moldova 27

Sporrong & Lonnroth v Sweden 27

Evensky, J 68

fair and equitable treatment, investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) 267, 272, 276–7, 280, 283–4, 285, 307–308

Feldman, D 183, 199, 203, 257

Feldman, M 296

Fiedler, S 290

Firth, A 86, 135

Fischer-Lescano, A 176–7, 178, 179

Fisher, E 41, 100, 109, 175

Fisher, W 70

France-Hudson, B 62, 87

Francioni, F 269

Franck, S 295, 297, 307

Frankel, S 20, 36, 272, 279

freedom of information 84, 130–31, 192, 215

French, D 271, 292

Friedman, D 191, 196

Fuller, L 1, 9, 177, 186–7, 219

future legislative conflict avoidance see integration delivery, future legislative conflict avoidance

Galloway, K 182, 198, 207

Gardiner, S xiv, 79

Gearty, C 134, 191, 192, 193, 247

Geddes, K 279

Geiger, C 28

Germany, compulsory licensing legislation 92

Gervais, D 20, 60, 303

Ghaleigh, N S 2, 5, 17, 62, 103

Gill, G 182, 229, 230, 236

Ginsburg, J 19, 74

Gold, R 15

Gordon, G 228

Gordon, W 75

Gover, D 244, 245, 246, 247, 249

government structures, and climate change law 110–11

Graham, S 74

Greenberg, D 199, 242, 244, 245, 246, 247, 249, 252

Greenhalgh, C 70

greenhouse gas emissions see emissions

Griffiths, J 135, 166, 282

Grosse Ruse-Khan, H 36, 37, 40, 177, 270, 274

Habermas, J 225–6

Hall, B 77

Hansom, J 3

Hardin, G 76

Harrison, J 298

Hart, H 187–8

Helfer, L 28, 37, 313

Heller, M 76

Hellinx, E 277, 295

Hemel, D 78

Henckels, C 284, 293

Hettinger, E 70, 71, 72, 73, 76, 86, 87, 126

Hiebert, J 247

Hilson, C 80

Himsworth, C 165, 166

Hirsch, M 294, 295

Ho, C 271

Howarth, D 205

Howe, H 88, 183

Hsu, S-L 62

Huber, M 298

Hughes, J 75, 76

human rights

and climate change law, conflict and alignment 98, 99–100, 104–109

and IP, case studies (case study 1) 133–7, 210

and judicial review, case studies (case study 5) 166–7

new courts consideration, UK Intellectual Property, Climate Change and Technology Act 240

new judicial approaches see new judicial approaches, human rights

Scotland’s reputation as a leader in 45

and structural change call, Scotland 257–8

Humphreys, S 13

Hunt, M 197

Hunter, D 2, 3, 5

Hutchens, G 103

hybrid action, new judicial approaches, human rights 215–17

ICSID

Allard v Barbados 272–3

Burlington Resources Inc v Republic of Ecuador 273

Canada v Eli Lilly 40

Metalclad Corporation v United Mexican States 292, 294

Philip Morris v Oriental Republic of Uruguay 40, 283–5, 293, 308

Tecmed v United Mexican States 292

Waste Management v United Mexican States II 280

Iljadica, M 93

incentive rationales, IP rights70–72, 77–8

India

Ahmed v India 190

Forward Foundation v State of Karnataka 230

human rights and climate change actions 189–90, 197

National Green Tribunal (NGT) 181–2, 229, 230–31

Subhas Kumar v State of Bihar 189

injunctions, and planning law 158–9

innovation

energy innovation, and national legislation 53–5

Innovation Fund, Scotland 45, 141

Manufacturing Future for Scotland 47

Ofgem competition 55–6

promotion, and integration delivery 222–4

Saltire Prize 51–2, 56

integration delivery 219–64

barriers removal issues 225, 226, 231, 239, 243, 261

legislation use 234–43

legislation use, existing platforms 234–5

new judicial approaches 176–80, 215–17

new rules consideration 231–4

new rules consideration, existing possibilities 231–2

new rules consideration, new structural intervention 233–4

new rules consideration, substantive amendment to existing legislation 235–6

oil and gas industry 219–22

oil and gas industry, regulatory analogies 223–5

oil and gas industry, renewable energy links 221–3

oil and gas industry, Wood Report and Maximising Economic Recovery (MER) programme 223–4

remedies 239, 243, 254, 262–3

resistance management 219–27

and systems theory 226–7

technology-based responses to climate change 236–7

theoretical justifications for direct integration 225–7

integration delivery, future legislative conflict avoidance, Scottish level 254–62

Commission on Parliamentary Reform and committee collaboration 256–7, 259–60, 261

current process 255–7

existing and potential connections 257–60

human rights and structural change call 257–8

judicial review 257

standing orders review 260–61

structural changes, proposed 260–62

integration delivery, future legislative conflict avoidance, UK level 244–54

draft legislation review opportunities 249–50, 252

drafting and committee contribution opportunities 244–7

impact assessments 246–7, 252

Industrial Strategy Green Paper recommendations 252–3

Joint Human Rights Committee 246, 247–9, 251–2

new statement proposal 253–4

Select Committees 246–7

structural suggestions 250–51

temporary joint Commons and Lords Committee proposal 252–3

integration delivery, IP power holders, challenge from 219–24

competition questions 224

and innovation promotion 222–4

oil and gas industry 219–20

oil and gas industry, hydroelectric industry regulation comparison 224

integration delivery, new courts consideration 228–31

examples outside UK 229–31

specialist Scotland-wide environmental court, dismissal of 229, 230–31

integration delivery, new courts consideration, legislative proposals for UK Intellectual Property, Climate Change and Technology Act 237–43

and Aarhus Convention obligations 241

clarity requirement and detailed instructions 241–2

and human rights 240

impact 242–3

IP licensing terms and formalities 241

justification for 239–41

and proportionality 239–40

working with 241–3

Inter-American Commission, global warming in the Arctic 27

International Bar Association, Model Statute on Legal remedies for Climate Change 25

International Court of Justice, Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia) 24

International Energy Charter 33, 34

International Law Association, Declaration of Legal Principles Relating to Climate Change 17

international and national jurisdiction overlaps 122–4

International Panel on Climate Change 101

investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) 265–310

climate change and the environment 272–4, 289, 290–91, 309

complementary approaches to IP and technology-based responses to climate change 39–40

Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP) 266, 289–90, 301

draft Dutch model BIT and sustainable development 291

EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) 39, 287–9, 290, 292, 300–301

EU-Japan Agreement for an Economic Partnership 290–91

expansion 268–9

fair and equitable treatment 267, 272, 276–7, 280, 283–4, 285, 307–308

integrated approach 274–5

IP and climate change 285–91

IP as covered asset 269–79

Korea-US Agreement 287

mega-regional agreements 266, 268

new framework proposal 304–309

new framework proposal, independent expert integrated decision making 307

new framework proposal, minimum standard and fair and equitable treatment 307–308

opportunities 267–9

proportionality principle 281, 285, 293–4, 308

sustainable development 288, 291, 294, 302–303, 309

trade agreements 265–7

US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement 286–7

US–Australia FTA 286, 292

and WTO, Dispute Settlement approach 293–4

investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS), national-level proposals, analogies to 275–85

plain packaging disputes and right to use trade marks 281–5

regulatory action, Bilcon v Canada and core community values concept 279–81

regulatory action, Bilcon v Canada, standard of treatment requirement 280

statutory interpretation, IP innovation, Eli Lilly v Canada 275–9, 292

statutory interpretation, IP innovation, Eli Lilly v Canada, patent utility evidence 276, 277–8

investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS), non-trade factors 291–303

application and interpretation 291–5

decision making, impact of nature of 295–301

EU contributions 266, 298–301

EU contributions, Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) 266, 299–300

new international investment court suggestion 297–8

new model suggestions 302–303

IP

challenge on integration delivery see integration delivery, IP power holders, challenge from

and competition 131–3

as covered asset 269–79

and human rights 133–7, 210

impact of government plans to encourage wider activity to reduce emissions (case study 2) 140–41, 211, 216

infringements 64, 126–31, 146, 161, 169, 213, 216

innovation 275–9, 292

national legislation and policy making, climate change perspective 61–5

and planning impact 154–5, 157–9, 161–2, 216

and statutory landscape 137, 209–210

TRIPS Agreement 20–22, 35, 36, 37, 59, 60, 63, 88, 90, 94, 236, 241, 287, 288, 309

WIPO 18–19, 31, 55

see also copyright; designs, registered; patents; trade marks

IP and climate change

climate change law and limited levels of engagement 96–7

instrumental engagement 14–18

investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) 285–91

IP protection and impact on technology access and transfer 15

private rights and state goals, possible conflict between 15–16

relationship between 1–2, 13–18

IP law, conflict and alignment 89–95

copyright and compulsory and collective licensing regimes 93

copyright and design intersection 91, 93

copyright infringement and direct or indirect reproduction 94

copyright and originality requirement 90–91

copyright and public interest defence 93

copyright, registered designs legislation and Crown Use provision 93

criteria for existence of rights 89–92

patent and compulsory licensing 92

patent legislation and Crown Use provision 92–3

patents and importance of variants 94

patents and novelty requirement 90

stewardship approach suggestion 81, 88, 89, 94, 113

term limits 92

IP rights, climate change perspective

Scotland 49, 52

UK 55, 56, 58–61

IP rights, conflict and alignment 69–79, 86–9

and environmental law 86–9

and environmental law, information environment 87–8

and environmental law, and stewardship approach 88–9

history of benefits and disadvantages 70–72, 74, 75

and innovation 69

IP rights, commons and tragedy of anticommons 76–7, 87

and link between the work and the person 75–6

natural rights approach 74–5

and patent thickets 76–7

public goods and private rights conflict 69–72

reward and incentive rationales 70–72, 77–8

social contract rationale and climate change 73–4

utilitarian rationale and future innovation 73, 74, 77–8

Ireland, Friends of the Irish Environment CLG v Fingal County Council 107–108

Jacob, R 126, 222

Japan, EU-Japan Agreement for an Economic Partnership 290–91

Jayawickrama, N 134

Jolly, S 189

Jones, G 164

judicial approaches, new see new judicial approaches

judicial review

climate change law, conflict and alignment 98–9, 103–104

and human rights 107–108

integration delivery, Scotland 257

obligations under climate change legislation 144–7

and planning decisions 149–50, 165–9, 226

see also cases (listed under individual countries and courts); courts

judicial right, title and interest, case studies (case study 5), noise issues, planning law, local council climate change legislation obligations and discretionary powers 165–6

Karpilow, Q 78

Kavanagh, A 195, 196, 217, 247

Kernochan, J 19

Kim, R 31

King, J 240

Kizer, K 301

Klimchuk, D 175

Klug, F 134, 247

Knoll-Tudor, I 294

Knowles, D 76

Knox, J 23

Korea-US Agreement 287

Korth, P 37

Kramer, L 179

Ku, C 5

Kulovesi, K 11

Kur, A 60

Kyoto Protocol 6, 15–16, 23, 101

Lai, J 74

Lametti, D 77

Lane, E 13, 86, 223

Lang, A 37

language use, and new judicial approaches, statutory interpretation 206–207

Lazacrowicz, M 237, 256, 257, 259

Lazarus, R 80

Lazo, R 290

Lee, B 16

Lee, M 162

legitimate radicalism, new judicial approaches 183–9

Leistner, M 91

Lemley, M 68, 70

Levesque, C 299

Levine, D 14

Liberman, J 281

licensing 92, 93, 128–9, 139–40, 211, 241

see also patents

Liddell, K 204, 270, 276, 278

Liebenberg, S 190

Lin, J 100, 104, 105

Liscow, Z 78

Llewelyn, D 128

Lo, C 294–5

local council climate change legislation see case studies (case study 4); case studies (case study 5)

Locke, J 74, 75, 76

Lorenzen, E 179

Loy, F 6

Lybbert, T 9

McCluskie, J 256

McCorkindale, M 221

MacCormick, N 177, 188, 201

McEleavy, P 178

McFadden, J 237, 256, 257, 259

McGrady, B 283

McHarg, A 97, 144, 146, 204–205, 256

Machlup, F 72, 75

MacKinnon, R 7

McLachlan, C 292

McMaster, P 144

McMaster, R 47

Macmillan, F 22

MacQueen, H 133

Macrory, D 222, 243

Macrory, R 69, 81, 83, 89, 97, 98, 114

Magnus, U 100

Makuch, Z 189

Malkani, B 205

Malloy, R 68

Maloney, M 181, 182, 198, 207

Mandel, G 68

Marceau, G 36

Margil, M 80

Maskus, K 69, 70

Masterman, R 134

Matthews, D 16

Meadows, D 3

Mehling, M 62–3

Melamed, D 86

Meltzer, J 290

Mercurio, B 270, 287–8

Merges, R 70

Merry, S 37

Mestral, A de 269, 270, 281, 285, 286, 295

Meyer, T 2

Michaels, R 176, 177, 179, 180

Mikadze, K 298

Miles, K 274, 297

Mitchell, A xxii, 271, 274, 281, 284, 286, 293, 294, 295, 302

Morgera, E 11

Morrow, K 81, 86, 89, 102, 113, 171, 191, 198

Mullen, T 166

Munro, J xxii, 271, 274, 286, 295

Murray, C 177, 233

Naiki, Y 37

national and international jurisdiction overlaps 122–4

national legislation and policy making, climate change perspective, Scotland 45–53

carbon capture facility funding 45, 46

Climate Change Bill and Paris Agreement 46, 51

Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 (CCSA) and greenhouse gas emissions 49–51, 52, 64, 80, 96, 97

diesel and petrol cars, phasing out 45

energy efficiency standards 45, 46, 50

Energy Strategy and renewable energy 47

human rights, reputation as a leader in 45

Innovation Fund 45, 141

IP infringement and discretionary interdict 64

IP rights 49, 52

Manufacturing Future for Scotland and innovation 47

planning system and climate change 47–9, 50, 52–3

public bodies involvement 47–8, 49–50, 61

Royal Society of Edinburgh, Energy Inquiry 47, 50

Saltire Prize and innovation 51–2, 56

Scottish National Planning Framework (NPF3) and energy efficiency 52–3

sustainable development 49–50

technology and third climate change plan 2018–2032, greenhouse gas emission reduction targets 45–6

Wind Policy Statement 48–9

see also climate change; Scotland

national legislation and policy making, climate change perspective, technology, IP and climate change conflict 61–5

climate change enforcement 64

and EU competition law 65

treaty obligations in national courts 63–5

national legislation and policy making, climate change perspective, UK 53–9

Carbon Plan and technology focus 57–8

Clean Growth Fund 55

Clean Growth strategy and IP 54

Climate Change Act (CCA) 56–7, 64, 80, 81, 96

Climate Change Act (CCA) and greenhouse gas emissions 97, 98, 112, 143–4

Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) 53, 54–6, 98, 110, 140–41, 169

Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) 96

Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) 54–5, 96

Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 54–5, 96

energy innovation 53–5

Industrial Strategy White Paper and low carbon technologies 53–4

Innovate UK 54–5

InnovateUK 55

IP infringement and discretionary injunction 64

IP rights 55, 56, 58–61

offshore wind target 58

Ofgem competition and innovation 55–6

patents and commercial exploitation issues 59, 90

Renewable Energy Roadmap 57

see also climate change; UK

national-level proposals, and investor–state dispute settlement see investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS), national-level proposals, analogies to

natural rights approach, IP rights, conflict and alignment 74–5

Netherlands

draft Dutch model BIT and sustainable development 291

Urgenda Foundation v The State of the Netherlands xx, 105

new framework proposal, investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) 304–309

new international investment court suggestion 297–8

new judicial approaches 174–218

black holes 180, 204, 209

established hierarchies 177–8

fragmentation and integration of international law 176–80, 215–17

fragmentation and integration of international law, and lex specialis 177–8, 180

legislation interpretation, judicial creativity, coherence and integrity 186–9

legislation interpretation and misunderstood intentions 185–6

legislation interpretation, purpose and conflicting interests 183–6

legitimate radicalism 183–9

private international law and classification of action 178–9, 215–17

ProEarth approach 198, 206, 208, 211, 213, 215, 235–6, 239, 308

new judicial approaches, human rights 189–98, 214–17

cause of action and new changes 215–17

freedom of expression and freedom of information 192, 215

Human Rights Act (HRA) impact and common law 190–93, 208, 215

hybrid action 215–17

and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 198, 208

and unincorporated treaties 196–7

new judicial approaches, statutory interpretation 199–207

and Aarhus Convention 199–200

Climate Change and Technology-related (CCT) human rights 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215

conflicting range of human rights relevant to facts 208

courts balancing laws, interpretative possibilities and rights 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213

courts balancing laws, remedies awards 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213

engagement with silence 202, 204–205

identification of relevant fields of law 207, 209, 210, 211–12, 212–13

judicial disobedience possibility 205–206

lack of silence or ambiguity 201–202

and language use 206–207

meaning, context and legitimacy consideration 206, 209, 210, 211, 212

purposive-based approach 199–200

societal and technological change 203–204, 207

wider goals of the legislature 201–203

new judicial approaches, Wild Law and climate change focus 180–83, 191, 198, 206–207

and climate change focus, initiatives 181–2

environmental impact assessment and downstream consequences 182–3

and prioritisation of nature 182

property and ecocentric relationship with nature 183

and restriction of use of environmentally significant land 182

technology engagement, limited 183

new model suggestions, investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS), non-trade factors 302–303

new rules consideration see under integration delivery

New Zealand

Sarah Thomson v The Minister for Climate Change Issues 101

Re Xstrata Coal Queensland 102

NGO involvement 143–7, 168–9, 216, 217–18

Ni, K-J 16

noise issues

emissions reduction from increased use of low noise technology see case studies (case study 1)

and planning law see case studies (case study 5)

Nollkaemper, A 63

non-trade factors, investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) see investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS), non-trade factors

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) 266, 285–6, 292

Bilcon v Canada 279–81

Eli Lilly v Canada 275–9, 292, 306, 307–308

International Thunderbird v United Mexican States 297

SD Myers v Government of Canada 292

TransCanada Corp v USA 273–4

Nozick, R 75

Nsoh, W 84

Oberthur, S 35

O’Donoughue, A 177, 257

oil and gas industry 90, 130–31

integration delivery see under integration delivery

Okediji, R 270–71, 279, 302, 303

O’Neill, A 257

O’Neill, C 165, 166

Ortino, F 284

Osofsky, H 27, 100, 110, 218, 228, 243

Osterwalder, A 9

Ouellette, L 78

Pakistan, Asghar Leghari v Federation of Pakistan 104–105

Palmer, S 85

Paris Agreement xi-xiv, xvi-xvii, 6–8, 17, 24, 25, 26, 32–3, 37, 46, 50, 51, 57, 290

parliamentary process, and climate change law, conflict and alignment 111–12

patents

commercial exploitation issues 59, 90

Crown use provisions 92–3, 126–8, 139–40, 209–10, 211

licensing 92, 93, 128–9, 139–40, 211, 241

and planning conditions 157–8

thickets 76–7

utility 276, 277–8

variants, importance of 94

see also copyright; designs, registered; IP; trade marks

Paterson, J 227

Patron, M 7

Pauwelyn, J 60, 176, 177, 179, 180

Pavoni, R 294

Peel, J 27, 80, 100, 109, 110, 217, 218, 228, 243

Penrose, E 72, 75

Perez, R 158

Perry, A 145

Peru, US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement 286–7

Petersmann, E-U 269, 297

Pettinger, M 8

Philippines, climate change and human rights 105

Pillai, A 84

plain packaging disputes and right to use trade marks 281–5

planning conditions 157–8

planning law 102, 182

case studies see case studies (case study 4); case studies (case study 5)

Plaza, C 85

Popp, D 34

Pottage, A 71

precautionary principle, and climate change law 81–2, 106

Preston, B 46, 100, 161–2, 174, 208, 229

private international law, classification of action and new judicial approaches 178–9, 215–17

private law, public law versus 82–5

private rights, public goods and private rights conflict 69–72

private sector, state action steering private sector to deliver outcomes which meet state’s obligations 84–5

ProEarth approach 198, 206, 208, 211, 213, 215, 235–6, 239, 308

proportionality principle

and integration delivery, new courts consideration 239–40

investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) 281, 285, 293–4, 308

public bodies and companies, litigation against 100–101

public bodies involvement, national legislation and policy making, Scotland 47–8, 49–50, 61

public goods and private rights conflict 69–72

public interest provision 93, 129–31, 134, 135–6

public law, private law versus 82–5

public versus private law, climate change law, conflict and alignment 82–5

Pyc, D 60

Ragavan, S 60

rationale for IP, utilitarian 73, 74, 77–8

Raz, J 184, 185

Reaume, D 180

Reichman, J 69

Reid, C 64, 84, 97, 98, 143, 144, 148, 150, 258

Reid, E 22, 40, 284, 293–4

Reinisch, A 298

remedies

courts balancing laws 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213

integration delivery 239, 243, 254, 262–3

Renewable Energy Roadmap 57

resistance management, integration delivery 219–27

reward and incentive rationales, IP rights, conflict and alignment 70–72, 77–8

Richard, C 221

Ricketts, A 182

Rimmer, M ix-xxiii, 267, 290

Rio+20 conference 23, 30

Rio Declaration 4, 10, 23, 309

Rittel, H 80

Rivkin, D 292

Robinson, N 4

Rogers, M 70

Rogers, N 181, 182, 198, 207

Ronneberg, E 3

Rosati, E 91

Ross, A 209, 259

Ross, C 124

Ruiz Bou-Nigm, V 271, 296

Russell, M 244, 245, 246, 247, 249

St John, T 269

Sales, P 191, 194, 197, 215

Sandeen, S 14

Santamauro, J 16, 223

Sardinha, E 299, 300

Sarnoff, J 78

Saunders, C 63

Savaresi, A 32

Scarman, Lord 174–5, 201

Schacherer, S 268

Scherer, F 70, 222

Schill, S 297

Scotford, E 44, 81, 100

Scotland

Aberdeenshire Local Development Plan (2017) 151–2, 153, 154, 156

Civil Justice Council and consideration of new rules 231–2

Climate Change Bill and Paris Agreement 46, 51

climate change and national legislation see national legislation and policy making, climate change perspective, Scotland

Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 (CCSA) 49–51, 52, 64, 80, 96, 97, 235–6, 258

Commission on Parliamentary Reform 256–7, 259–60, 261

Electricity Act 149, 162, 168

hydro-electric sector and public/private law 83–4

Innovation Fund 45, 141

integration delivery see integration delivery, future legislative conflict avoidance, Scottish level

Manufacturing Future for Scotland and innovation 47

planning system (Scotland) 148–59

publicly owned not-for-profit energy company proposal 84

renewable energy installations and planning permission 102

Royal Society of Edinburgh, Energy Inquiry 47, 50

Saltire Prize and innovation 51–2, 56

Scotland Act and legislative changes 237, 258

Scottish National Planning Framework (NPF3) and energy efficiency 52–3

specialist Scotland-wide environmental court, dismissal of 229, 230–31

third climate change plan 2018–2032, greenhouse gas emission reduction targets 45–6

Wind Policy Statement 48–9, 150–51, 162

Wood Report and Maximising Economic Recovery (MER) programme 223–4

see also case studies; England; UK

Scotland, cases

British Airports Authority v Secretary of State for Scotland 153

Christian Institute v Lord Advocate 165

City of Edinburgh Council v S of S for Scotland 150

Elsick Developments v Aberdeen City 153

Ineos Upstream v Lord Advocate 163, 166, 237

Kaur v Lord Advocate 197

McGinty v Scottish Ministers 165

Mackie v Askew 63

Moray CC v Scottish Ministers 150

North East Fife DC v S of S for Scotland 153

Rape Crisis Centre v Secretary of State for the Home Department 165

RSPB v The Scottish Ministers 102, 119, 163, 167, 168–9, 199

Re Scottish Old People’s Welfare Council 165

Sustainable Shetland v Scottish Ministers 102, 149, 168, 169

Trump International Golf Club v Scottish Ministers 153

Walton v The Scottish Ministers 145

Whaley v Lord Watson of Invergowrie 257

Wordie Property Co v Secretary of State for Scotland 165

Scott, P 93

Scott, S 5

Sedley, S 189

Segger, M-C 33, 285

Sell, S 60

Seymour, S 74

Shaffer, G 35

Sharpe, J 301

Sherman, B 71

Sherwood, R 70

Shiffrin, S 74

silence engagement, new judicial approaches 201–202, 204–205

Sims, A 91

Slade, A 38

Slater, A-M 47, 150

social contract rationale 73–4

societal and technological change, and new judicial approaches 203–204, 207

societal values regarding environmental protection 81–2

Soltau, F 82

South Africa

BP v MEC for Agriculture, Conservation, Environment and Land Affairs 189

Director of Mineral Development v Save the Vaal 189

human rights and climate change actions 189, 190, 197

Laugh it Off v South African Breweries 190

Ministry of Health v Treatment Action Campaign 190

Spiers, J 100

Spijkers, O 105

Stallworthy, M 8, 98, 144–5

standing orders 145, 260–61

Stark, S 240

state action steering private sector to deliver outcomes which meet state’s obligations 84–5

statutory interpretation

emissions reduction from increased use of low noise technology (case study 1) 137, 209–10

IP innovation, Eli Lilly v Canada 275–9, 292

new judicial approaches see new judicial approaches, statutory interpretation

stewardship approach suggestion, IP law, conflict and alignment 81, 88–9, 94, 113

Stiglitz, J 68

Stokes, B 3

Stone, C 181, 183

Strandburg, K 14

Strowel, A 11

Summers, R 188, 201

Sumner, D 9

sustainable development 4–5, 10, 29, 31, 49–50

draft Dutch model BIT 291

investor–state dispute settlement (ISDS) 288, 291, 294, 302–303, 309

and new judicial approaches, human rights 198, 208

systems theory, and integration delivery 226–7

Tainsh, L 50

Taylor, A 52

technology

complementary approaches to responses to climate change 38–40

development effects, climate change law 96

emissions reduction from increased use of low noise technology see case studies (case study 1)

integration delivery and technology-based responses to climate change 236–7

national legislation and policy making, climate change perspective 61–5

new judicial approaches, Climate Change and Technology-related (CCT) human rights 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215

new judicial approaches, societal and technical context of legislation 207

new judicial approaches, societal and technological change 203–204

new technologies and passage of time, effects of 121

patents and technology access and transfer 15

and public goods perspective 68–9

sharing and duty of care 161

and third climate change plan 2018–2032, Scotland 45–6

UK Carbon Plan and technology focus 57–8

uncertainty considerations and environmental impact 154

Wild Law and limited engagement 183

wind farm technology case studies see case studies

technology and climate change

Earth Charter 29

human rights, changes in approach 29–33

human rights and the environment, link between 24

human rights, international 23–6

human rights, and IP protection 27–9, 75

human rights, regional 26–7

international recognition of technology and Earth Summit 10–12

IP and legal conflict concerns 34–8

IP and legal conflict concerns, national level 37–8

IP and legal conflict concerns, regime shifting 37

IP protection 27–9

legal landscape 22–33

patents and copyright 13–14, 19–20, 28–9

relationship between 1, 8–13

sustainable development 22–3, 26–7, 29–31

technology responding to climate change 9

technology transfer issues 10–11, 12–13

Tereposky, G 298

Teubner, G 37, 176–7, 178, 179, 227

Tierney, S 257

Topham, G 8

Torremans, P 178

TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership) 266, 289–90, 301

Trade marks, plain packaging disputes 281–5

see also copyright; designs, registered; IP; patents

TRIPS Agreement 20–22, 35, 36, 37, 59, 60, 63, 88, 90, 94, 236, 241, 287, 288, 309

Tsilikas, H 142

TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) 266, 299–300

Tung, K-Y 268, 297

UK

Brexit 45, 55, 65, 133, 200, 204–205, 249, 265–6, 275

Carbon Plan and technology focus 57–8

Clean Growth Fund 55

Climate Change Act (CCA) 56–7, 64, 80, 81, 96, 97, 98, 112, 143–4, 146–7, 211–12, 235–6, 250

climate change legislation, complementary approaches 38–9

climate change and national legislation see national legislation and policy making, climate change perspective, UK

Copyright Designs and Patents Act (CDPA) 129–31, 135, 234–5

Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) 53, 54–6, 98, 110, 140–41, 169

Department for Energy and Climate Change (DECC) 54–5, 96

Department for Environment Food and Rural Affairs (DEFRA) 54–5, 96

Electricity Act 149, 162, 165

Energy Innovation Board 54–5

Environment (Principles and Governance) Bill 81–2

freedom of information 84

Human Rights Act (HRA) 98, 133–5, 190–93, 208, 215

Industrial Strategy Green Paper recommendations 252–3

integration delivery see integration delivery, future legislative conflict avoidance, UK level

Intellectual Property Act 234, 247, 249

Intellectual Property, Climate Change and Technology Act proposals see integration delivery, new courts consideration, legislative proposals for UK Intellectual Property, Climate Change and Technology Act

Joint Human Rights Committee 246, 247–9, 251–2

Ofgem competition and innovation 55–6

Patents Act 126

Renewable Energy Roadmap 57

see also England; Scotland

UN Declaration on the Right to Development 22

UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 4, 5, 6–8, 10–13, 16–18, 24–5, 34, 37, 101, 290

UN General Assembly, ‘Transforming our World’ 30–31, 50

UN Global Judges programme 81

UN Human Rights Council 24–5

UN Millennium Development Goals 23

UNCITRAL

Methanex v Unites States of America 294

Philip Morris v Australia 282

Sustainable Development Goals 309

UNESCO, Venice Statement on the right to enjoy the benefits of science 26

UNESCO Universal Copyright Convention 19

Universal Declaration of the Rights of Mother Earth 30, 181, 198, 208, 240

Upreti, P 40

US

Clean Air Act 101

climate change 93, 103, 106–107, 189

human rights and climate change actions 106–7, 189

Korea-US Agreement 287

nuisance actions and effect of fossil fuels on sea levels 102

TPP (Trans-Pacific Partnership) 266, 289–90, 301

TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) 266, 299–300

US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement 286–7

US–Australia FTA 286, 292

US, cases

BG Group v Republic of Argentina 267

California v BP 102

City of Oakland v BP 102

County of San Mateo v Chevron 102

Exxon Mobil v Attorney General 103

Marin County v Chevron 102

Massachusetts v EPA 101

Paice LLC v Toyota Motor Corp 86

Youth/Juliana v United States 106–7, 189

utilitarian rationale and future innovation 73, 74, 77–8

Vadi, V 294

Van Asselt, H 63

Van Calster, G 44

Vanhonnaeker, L 286

Vaver, D 72, 73, 74, 77

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 36, 277, 291–2, 299

Von Benda-Beckmann, F 37

Voon, T 266, 267, 268, 281, 284, 293, 302

Vytautas, M 60

Waibel, M 270, 276, 278

Waldron, J 73, 77, 78

Walker, D 190

Walker, N 38, 122, 180

Watchman, J 155

Watson, B 221

Weatherall, K 290

Webber, M 80

Wei, Z 36

Weisbach, D 79

White, R 199

Whitman, M 221

Wiener, J 82

Wild Law see new judicial approaches, Wild Law and climate change focus

Wildbore, H 247

Williams, A 218

wind farm technology case studies see case studies

Winter, G 81

WIPO 18–19, 31, 55

Wolstenholme, R 255

Wood, G 50

Woolley, O 8, 149, 182, 183, 252

World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission) 4, 22–3

WTO

GATT and proportionality focus 293

TRIPS Agreement 20–22, 35, 36, 37, 59, 60, 63, 88, 90, 94, 236, 241, 287, 288, 309

WTO, Dispute Settlement 35, 293–4

Australia – Plain Packaging 281

Canada – Patent Protection of Pharmaceutical Products 36

China – Protection of Intellectual Property 36, 293

European Communities – Biotech 293

European Communities – Measures Affecting Asbestos 35

India – Solar Cells and Solar Modules 36

United Arab Emirates – Trade in Goods and Services 36

United States – Gambling 293

United States – Gasoline 36

United States – Section 110(5) of US Copyright Act 36

United States – Shrimp and Shrimp Products 293

Young, M 37

Yowell, P 247

Yu, P 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 279, 296, 297

Zasinaite, A 209

Zegarac, J 3

Ziemer, L 74

Zuleta, E 297