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Gender Inequality and Welfare States in Europe

Mary Daly

Gender equality has been one of the defining projects of European welfarestates. It has proven an elusive goal, not just because of political opposition but also due to a lack of clarity in how to best frame equality and take account of family-related considerations. This wide-ranging book assembles the most pertinent literature and evidence to provide a critical understanding of how contemporary state policies engage with gender inequalities.
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Index

Mary Daly

Ackerly, B. 9
adult worker model 3940
age, and poverty 712
Altintas, E. 114
Arpino, B. 10910
Atkinson, A.B. 64
austerity 175
autonomy 41, 54, 65, 119
Avram, S. 77
Bacchi, C. 1723
benefits see welfare benefits
Betti, G. 789
Bettio, F. 85, 1589
Bleijenberg, I. 120
Boeckmann, I. 94
Borchorst, A. 172
Bradley, H. 8
Brexit 3
capabilities approach 41, 54, 16970
capitalism 30, 159, 1778
care 448, 173
adult care and care services 1467, 1559
childcare 98, 99, 11314, 116, 11920, 134, 1525
combining with employment 89, 154, 156, 160, 167
defamilialization of 40, 42
encouragement of fathers to provide 151
family care 1567, 160, 1756
future research 1738
and inequality 178
location of (responsibility and work) 37
and migrants 47, 115, 155, 157, 1589, 1778
nurturant and non-nurturant 176
private care-related services 12021, 157, 1589
recognition of 159
unpaid caring-oriented work 22, 23, 30, 31, 44, 45, 46, 111, 11214, 11516, 117
care economy 1734, 175
‘caregiver parity model’ 120
carers
leave 156
welfare payments to 155
Castro-García, C. 151
Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union 136
childcare 98, 99, 11314, 116, 11920, 134, 1525
children
contemporary social policy focus on 145
investment in 1525
right to ECEC 1534
choice 16970
Choo, H.Y. 49
Ciccia, R. 120, 172
citizenship 378
class 30, 51
and childcare provision 154
and household model 107
and paid and unpaid work 113
and parenting 11314
climate change 178
commodification of care 46
comparative approach in feminist scholarship, from 1990s 3441
Connell, R. 8
Connolly, S. 109
Corsi, M. 71, 756
Council of Europe 1323
Da Roit, B. 158
Daly, M. 125
De Hanau, J. 174
de los Reyes, P. 1778
decommodification 42
defamilialization 40, 414
‘dependency’ 38
Dermott, E. 73
discrimination
direct and indirect 129
gender 28, 99, 129, 131, 136, 1379, 166
and intersectionality 48, 49, 52
multiple grounds of (EU policy) 1369
race 1367, 1389
against women of colour 48
diversity management 1389
domestic (household) labour 104, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 11819, 12021
Dotti Sani, G. 109, 114
dual breadwinner households 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 120, 1212, 167
dual earner households 109, 162
Duffy, M. 176
ECEC (early childhood education and care) 1524
economic case for gender equality 1412, 149
economic conceptualization of care 1745
economic ‘inactivity’ 74, 85
economic welfare 54
Elomäki, A. 141
employment 823, 1012
access to 836, 92
anti-discrimination policy 1367
of both parents 40
combining with care 89, 154, 156, 160, 167
culture 967
equal treatment 127, 128
explaining pay inequalities 98100
explaining women’s behaviour 938
gender mainstreaming 1334
gender pay gap 90, 98100
gender segregation 8990, 92, 989
in-work poverty 912
income from, and gender 648
intersectional inequalities 923
of mothers 856, 89, 945, 978, 99, 101
norms 96
part-time 869, 98, 111, 165
patterns, households 10510
terms and conditions 91
trade-offs for women 91
work-life balance 11819, 1468, 1667
see also labour market participation, women
Employment Equality Directive (EU) 1367, 138
equal pay 127
equal treatment 1278, 129, 132
equality, conceptualizations of 1011
Esping-Andersen, G. 389, 42
ethnicity 56
EU (European Union)
and adult care 1467
and employment of both parents 40
and labour market participation 34
legal system, and substantive equality 17071
and work-life balance 1478
EU Gender Equality Index see Gender Equality Index
EU (European Union) gender equality policy 7, 125, 12631
conclusions about 1423
gender aware and gender equality-oriented policy 139
gender mainstreaming 1316, 140, 166
gender-specific developments 13942
multiple grounds of discrimination 1369
progressive diminishing of 136, 139, 142, 166
EU Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) 69, 75
European Central Bank Household Finance and Consumption Survey 634
European Employment Strategy (1997) 1334
European Institute for Gender Equality 59, 1412
European Pact for Gender Equality (2011–20) 140
European Quality of Life Survey 11819
familialization/defamilialization 40, 414
family 31
continuing policy concern with 16061
gendered division of labour 39, 120, 151, 163, 164, 165
patriarchal 22
and welfare state models 4041
women’s contribution 21
work-family forms and arrangements 10410
work-family policies and arrangements 945, 967
family-based social rights 368, 40
family care 1567, 160, 1756
fathers and fatherhood 114, 15051, 160
‘father’s quota’ (parental leave) 151
female breadwinner/main-earner households 10910
feminism and feminist scholarship/work 56, 9, 1617
approaches 2730
and care and care economy 44, 46, 1734
contemporary (from 1990s) approaches to gender and social policy 3441, 43, 53
and distribution of paid and unpaid work 1478
early work on gender and social policy 1617, 18, 19, 2021, 2230, 32
and EU gender equality policy 129, 135, 142
and intersectionality 48, 5051, 1712
and public and private spheres 144
and re-emergence of women’s movement, 1960s 27
and social reproduction 103, 176
Ferragina, E. 150
Ferree, M.M. 49, 50, 51
financial autonomy 54
financial equality 5963
Fisher, B. 45
Folbre, N. 173, 174
framing approach 32
Francavilla, F. 113
Fredman, S. 49, 137, 17071
freedom 412
future research agenda 168
crisis, contemporary global capitalism and the state 1758
familial considerations, care and social reproduction 1735
gender equality and purpose of welfare state 16871
intersectionality 1713
key questions 17880
García-Faroldi, L. 945
gender
as concept 89
differences 169
patterns, continuation of traditional 1678
as process and performance 21
gender and social policy, broad-ranging consideration of 1445
conclusions about 15961
contemporary policy frames 1459
investment in children 1525
investment in parents and parenting 14952
long-term (older) care 1559
social investment 1489
work-life balance 1468
gender and social policy, contemporary approaches to 345
care 448
conceptualizing processes and end points 414
conclusions about 523
gender and other inequalities 4852
institutions, ideologies and rights 368
system-oriented work 3541
types and regimes 3841
gender and social policy, early work on 1617
benefits, organizational structure and access 237
conclusions about 3033
grounding in developed countries 17
originating concerns and orientations 1727
practices and relationships 2730
underpinning values and assumptions 223, 32
women’s experiences of welfare 2021
gender budgeting 1356
gender change, asymmetrical nature of 1624
gender discrimination 28, 99, 129, 131, 136, 1379, 166
gender employment participation gap 836
part-time employment 869
gender equality
attitudes towards 11718
economic case for 1412
and inequality, current position and context 16
and purpose of welfare state 16871
varied routes to 1645
and welfare state models 4041
Gender Equality Index 2, 5962, 80, 923, 11516, 135, 1634
gender equality policy 1256
see also EU (European Union) gender equality policy
gender essentialism 11718
gender gap (overall), changes in 1634
gender inequality, as concept 1011
gender informal care gap 158
gender mainstreaming 1267, 1316, 140, 142, 166
gender money gap 5962, 80, 81
gender-neutral concepts 18
gender pay gap 90, 98100
gender pensions gap 72, 779
gender perspective, scholarship adopting 16
gender poverty gap 6977, 8081
gender regimes 39
gender roles 43, 94, 11718, 11920, 151
gender segregation in employment 8990, 92, 989
gender system, future research see future research agenda
gender wealth gap 635, 80
gendered division of labour 289, 39, 120, 151, 163, 164, 165
genderization/degenderization 43
Gershuny, J. 117
global care chains 47
Goldin, C. 99
Gornick, J. 77
Graham, H. 45
Haberkern, K. 158
Hafner-Burton, E. 132, 133
Harewood, A.-M. 8
Hassim, S. 178
health services 29
home care 157, 160
Hook, J. 95, 100, 107, 159
household labour 104, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 11819, 12021
households
assumption of equal sharing of income 58, 62, 746, 81
composition of 1045
employment patterns 10510
Htun, M. 11, 14
human capital 4, 117
identity 489, 103
income
assumption of equal sharing in household 58, 62, 746, 81
gender gap 5962, 746, 80, 81
loss of partner’s, and poverty 76
men, and recession 71
proportion of women with high 64
transfers 767
women, household earnings contribution 658
independence 41, 54
‘intensive parenting’ 11314
interactions, and intersectionality 50
international development and resource flows 1778
intersectionality 910, 4852, 556, 171
and care 467
and childcare provision 154
and current capitalist accumulation models 1778
employment inequalities 923
and EU discrimination policy 1369
future research 1713
Gender Equality Index 59
and marriage and motherhood 23
and poverty 714
Jacquot, S. 134, 135, 136, 139
Jenson, J. 55, 139, 14041, 1545
job security 91
Kan, M.Y. 117
Karamessini, M. 85, 96
Kodate, N. 1567
labour market participation, women 82, 836, 92, 1012, 1645
and childcare provision 153, 154
economic case for increasing 1412, 149
explaining behaviour 938
and gender mainstreaming 134
and length of maternity leave 152
part-time employment 869
as policy priority 1656
Lang, L. 152
leisure time 116
Leitner, S. 42
Lewis, J. 3940, 42
liberal feminism 28
life course model 145, 148
life satisfaction 11819
lone parents 723, 105, 116, 1512
Lutz, H. 47
Luxembourg Income Study 658, 77
male breadwinner model 22, 30, 37, 39, 107, 110, 120
‘marketization’ of care 46, 157, 175
marriage/marital status 23
and gender pensions gap 78, 79
and social rights 36, 37, 39
and wealth 63
and welfare benefits 245, 26, 130, 131
Marxism 29, 30
maternalism 434, 1545
maternity leave 978, 99, 14951, 152
Mathieu, S. 43
Matthew Effect 154
McCall, L. 50
McDowell, L. 956
means-testing 21
men
fathers and fatherhood 114, 15051, 160
income, and recession 71
male bias in early social policy scholarship 1819
patriarchy 289
and power 29
and social policy research 10, 172
#MeToo movement 56
migrants
care and care work 47, 115, 155, 157, 1589, 1778
and poverty 734
Mink, G. 53
‘motherhood penalty’ 856, 99
motherization/demotherization 434
mothers and motherhood
‘caregiver parity model’ 120
and employment 856, 89, 945, 978, 99, 101
and feminism 5
and liberal feminism 28
lone mothers 723, 1512
maternalism 434, 1545
maternity leave 978, 99, 14951, 152
‘new maternalism’ 1545
and race 53
and social policy 223, 166
and social rights 36, 39
and welfare benefits 245
neoliberal feminism 5
neoliberalism 2, 3, 467, 170
‘new maternalism’ 1545
Nieuwenhuis, R. 658, 73
OECD Gender Index 135
OECD Gender Initiative 59
one-and-a-half earner households 1056, 107, 108, 120
organizational culture 967
Orloff, A. 9, 169
Paek, E. 95
paid work, volume and distribution of 11012, 1478
Pantazis, C. 73
parental leave 978, 99, 128, 14951, 152
parenting
and class 11314
continuing gendered patterns of 166
‘intensive’ 11314
investment in 14952
parents
employment of both 40
fathers and fatherhood 114, 15051, 160
lone 723, 105, 116, 1512
right to ECEC 154
support for 97
see also mothers and motherhood
part-time employment 869, 98, 111, 165
paternity leave 15051
patriarchy 289
Pazod-Moran, M. 151
Pearse, R. 8
pensions 72, 779, 130
Pettit, B. 100, 159
Pollack, M. 132, 133
poverty 8081
and access to benefits 767
factors associated with gender distribution of 714
Gender Equality Index 6061, 62
in-work 912
and involuntary part-time employment 88
rates and trends 6971
underlying patterns 746
power 22
Gender Equality Index 60
and liberal feminism 28
men 29
and substantive equality 171
precarious work 91, 93, 96
private care-related services 12021, 157, 1589
problem representation 32
public and private spheres 28, 31, 37, 1645
quality of life 11819, 146
race 32, 489
and care 176
and motherhood 53
Racial Equality Directive (EU) 1367, 138
racism and race discrimination 1367, 1389
radical feminism 289
Rai, S. 1767
recession 23, 4, 68, 71, 83, 85, 1089, 175
research agenda see future research agenda
research conventions 1819
right-wing politics, growth of 3
Roadmap for Equality for Women and Men 2006–10 (EU) 13940
Rottenberg, C. 146
Rubery, J. 85, 96
Sainsbury, D. 367, 172
Saraceno, C. 42, 149, 161
Saxonberg, S. 43
Schneebaum, A. 65
service sector employment 956
sex discrimination 28, 99, 129, 131, 136, 1379, 166
sexual assault and harassment 5
Shaver, S. 9
Sierminska, E. 634
Siim, B. 172
‘siloing’ 1819
single breadwinner households 105, 106, 107, 108
situated agency 20, 545
social activities, time spent 115, 116
social assistance, as female 25
social citizenship 38
social entitlements 256
social exclusion 6971, 74
social insurance 18, 24, 25, 79
social investment 3, 1489, 167
social policy 1112
and intersectionality 51
purpose of, and gender equality 16871
and recession 3
role and development of 1658
types and regimes 3841
see also gender and social policy, broad-ranging consideration of; gender and social policy, contemporary approaches to; gender and social policy, early work on
social reproduction 2930, 31, 44, 1034, 1767
social rights, individualized and family-based 368, 40
social risks 19, 245
social security, EU and gender equality 1278, 12931, 138, 143
socialist feminism 2930
socio-economic inequality 3
‘stalled revolution’ 117
state, and care provision 46, 47
Stier, H. 856, 89, 98
substantive equality 17071
Sullivan, O. 114, 117
taxation 23, 77
Thévenon, O. 97, 98
Thomas, C. 45
time use 11012, 114, 11517, 122
Timonen, V. 1567
tiredness 11819
Treas, J. 114
Treaty of Amsterdam (1997) 132, 136
Tronto, J. 45
True, J. 9
unpaid caring-oriented work 22, 23, 30, 31, 44, 45, 46, 111, 11214, 11516, 117
unpaid work 1034, 122
and poverty 74
volume and distribution of 11014, 1478
and work-life balance 1478
US, welfare state 312
Uunk, W. 94
Van Lancker, W. 154
Verashchagina, A. 85
Verschuur, C. 176
Vitali, A. 10910
wealth inequalities 635, 80
Weldon, L. 11, 14
welfare benefits
access to 2021, 769
and care 155
gender and entitlement 256
individualized 40
and motherhood and marriage 223, 245, 26, 130, 131
organizational structure and access 237
welfare production 21
welfare state
purpose of, and gender equality 16871
regime types 35, 3841, 567
Swedish model, undermining of 4
US 312
use of term 12
and women 2027
Williams, F. 278, 2930, 32, 5051, 178
Williams, J. 967
women-oriented scholarship 16
Women’s Charter (EU) (2010) 140
women’s lives, variation in changes 1624
work autonomy 65
work-family arrangements, forms and policies 945, 967, 10410
work intensity 69, 73, 74
work-life balance 11819, 1468, 1667
working hours 91, 99, 111