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Governing Compact Cities

How to Connect Planning, Design and Transport

Philipp Rode

Governing Compact Cities investigates how governments and other critical actors organise to enable compact urban growth, combining higher urban densities, mixed use and urban design quality with more walkable and public transport-oriented urban development. Philipp Rode draws on empirical evidence from London and Berlin to examine how urban policymakers, professionals and stakeholders have worked across disciplinary silos, geographic scales and different time horizons since the early 1990s.
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Index

How to Connect Planning, Design and Transport

Philipp Rode

6, Perri: 6, 71, 74, 99, 223
Abraham, Henry 48
Access to Opportunities and Services (ATOS) 186
accessibility 1417, 20, 23, 55, 1856, 220
accountability 6
Agenda 21: 69
Ahmedabad 27
air pollution 21, 29, 181
see also carbon emissions
airports 47, 129, 139, 146
Allmendinger, Philip 51, 56, 9091, 95, 98, 193, 1978
Angel, Shlomo 22, 25
area development planning see Bereichsentwicklungsplanung
Association of London Government (ALG) 159, 196
Atlanta 18
austerity measures 143
Australia 22, 28
autonomy 71, 74, 77, 89, 98, 129, 201, 208, 211, 218, 220
Bach, Tobias 148
Bailey, Nick 180, 190, 196, 205
Baldock, Robert 46, 160, 167, 191
Balls, Ed 187
banking industry 53
Barcelona 31, 220
Barking Riverside 183, 187
Baukultur70
Beckmann, Klaus J. 11718, 126, 145
behutsame Stadterneuerung 34
Beijing 26
Belaieff, Antoine 77
Bendor, Jonathan B. 70
Bereichsentwicklungsplanung (BEP) 130
Berlin 6, 813, 18, 24, 28, 579, 107, 15052, 20317, 21922, 225
Department for Urban Development see SenStadtUm
and integrated urban governance 60, 72, 8091, 945, 97101, 1056
integration instruments and enabling conditions 13850
integration processes 12538
integration structures 10724
Land Use Plan see Flächennutzungsplan
strategic development agenda 3244
Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) 123, 141, 145, 212
Bishop, Peter 167, 181, 186, 195
Blair, Tony 168
BMVBS 1023, 118
Bogdanor, Vernon 77, 119
Bogota 27
Bonn 110
Boston 26
BPlans 133, 136, 1389, 151, 21213
Brandenburg 3743, 82, 88, 11013, 1269, 131, 141, 151, 2056, 217, 219
see also joint state planning
Brazil 28
Brearley, Mark 47, 49, 167, 1712, 188, 193
Breheny, Michael 22
Bremen 206
Brighton 161
brownfield areas 44, 5051, 54
Brussels 26
building height limits 34
Bull, Hans Peter 114
Bullock, Steve 170, 200
Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung see BMVBS
Bundesverkehrswegeplanung 118, 125, 129, 131, 150
Bunzel, Arno 134
Bürgergesellschaft 152
Burgess, Rod 20
bus systems 26, 28, 43, 55, 166, 192
Busetti, Simone 4, 67, 206
business parks 52, 54
Cambridge 52, 54
capacity building 80, 1423
car ownership 289, 40, 43, 52, 56, 58
car sharing 29
carbon emissions 15, 17, 21, 35, 51
see also environmental sustainability
car-oriented design 1415, 29, 34, 1367, 148, 192
cars 19, 28, 312, 367, 40, 43, 489, 52, 55, 589, 165, 216
see also private motorised transport
causal chains 8, 62, 66
centralisation 5, 19, 52, 54, 66, 7071, 81, 89, 208
Cervero, Robert 19
Charlottenburg 34
Chicago 30
China 258, 32
Chorverständnis 11718
cities as transport solutions 1417
citizenship theory 70
City Challenge Programme 188
city design 13, 78, 1114, 35, 589, 61, 678, 70, 723, 81, 83, 85, 90, 96, 98101, 1034, 1067, 117, 1225, 132, 146, 148, 15052, 164, 173, 180, 185, 19091, 1934, 1967, 199, 201, 204, 208, 211, 21314, 21819, 222, 2245
Clark, Greg 170
climate change 30, 32, 50
Clos, Joan 31
collegial principle 121, 209
Cologne 108
Commission for Integrated Transport 45
Commission of the European Communities 31
commuting 23, 89, 16061
compact city model 3, 710, 1314, 25, 357, 445, 4951, 55, 579, 102, 150, 207, 216, 224
planning policies and debates 2024
policy agenda 2932
compact urban growth 14, 1011, 1324, 5760, 81, 95, 100, 1025, 204, 209, 214, 219, 2234
see also compact city model
emergence of a compact growth agenda 2432
in Berlin 3244
see also Berlin
in London 4456
see also London
Confederation of British Industry 196
congestion 2, 15, 17, 19, 21, 29, 139
congestion charging 48, 55, 166, 183, 198
Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM) 14
Copenhagen 26, 28
cost–benefit analysis (CBA) 187
Cousins, Will 23
Cowell, Richard 4, 75
crime 212
critical reconstruction 345
Cross River Partnership 171
Crossrail 102, 176, 187, 200
cycling 1920, 279, 40, 423, 48, 52, 55, 57, 123, 141, 144, 154, 166, 195
see also non-motorised transport
data collection and analysis 1857, 199
Davies, Jonathan S. 94
decentralisation 14, 20, 234, 33, 368, 42, 44, 66, 156, 208
Dedring, Isabel 1723, 177, 179, 1823, 186, 188, 1945
Denmark 31
density 3, 17, 1922, 25, 3032, 39, 41, 50, 54, 58, 126, 179, 185, 216
Department for Communities and Local Government (DCLG) 94, 162, 176, 198
Department for Transport (DfT) 162, 176
Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions (DTLR) 168
Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions (DETR) 93, 168
departmentalism 118
deregulation 5
Design for London (DfL) 47, 1678, 172, 195
determinism 62, 102
Deutsche Bahn 123
digital technology 41, 53, 103
disruption as integration 924
Dittrich, Siegfried 117, 143
division of labour 6, 73, 131
Dix, Michèle 163, 172, 1867, 189, 200
Docklands Light Railway 164
Drews, Jan 38, 112, 1289, 141
Durkheim, Emile 6
Economic Development Strategy 1834, 194
economies of scale 68
Eder, Jan 1334, 144
Eichstädt-Bohlig, Franziska 128, 133, 148, 151
Elder, Jan 11718
emergency services 101
energy 2, 17, 21, 30, 51
English Partnerships 168
Environment Agency 196
environmental impact assessment (EIA) 139
environmental sustainability 23, 1921, 24, 2930, 323, 35, 38, 44, 47, 4951, 56, 63, 6970, 73, 789, 92, 97, 102, 118, 131, 134, 1389, 145, 168, 180, 182, 187, 1967, 2067, 220, 224
Ersson, Svante O. 62
Ethiopia 32
EUKN 14041
European city model 20
European Commission 7
European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP) 312, 154, 174
European Union 9, 31, 44, 72, 116, 125, 14041, 154
Faludi, Andreas 86
Federal Ministry for Building, Transport and Urban Affairs see BMVBS
financial crisis (2007–08) 32, 46, 53
Flächennutzungsplan (FNP) 38, 85, 1257, 12939, 144, 146, 149, 151, 21011
food security 26
forecasting 1389
foreign direct investment 47
fragmentation 6, 53, 68, 72, 956, 100, 102, 104, 114, 124, 152, 1623, 170, 184, 200, 213, 216, 223
Frankfurt 108, 207
Freitagsrunde 121
Friedmann, John 71
Friends of the Earth 196
functionalism 624, 66, 215
Funktionalreform 113
Gaebler, Christian 117, 134
garden city 14
Gavron, Nicky 49, 91, 162, 1745, 185, 194, 1967, 200
Gebietsreform 113
Geerlings, Harry 73
Gegenstromprinzip 125
Gemeinsame Landesplanungsabteilung (GL) 112, 122, 127, 129, 131, 206
Gemeinsamer Landesentwicklungsplan see LEP
gentle urban renewal 335, 44
Germany 9, 28, 323, 36, 39, 41, 108, 11011, 12021, 123, 12930, 136, 139, 144, 150, 206, 211
see also individual cities
reunification of 6, 33, 367, 39, 41, 90, 1078, 11011, 113, 120, 148, 150, 2046, 214
GLA Act (1999) 49, 85, 154, 156, 159, 1634, 167, 1746, 17882, 194, 196, 198, 211
global city narrative see world city strategy
globalisation 30, 456
Goodin, Robert E. 61, 215, 219
Gordon, Ian 176
Gordon, Peter 223
Government Office for London (GOL) 46, 158, 162, 164, 176, 206
Graham, Stephen 221
Greater London Authority (GLA) 12, 4650, 848, 9094, 99101, 105, 154, 156, 15960, 162, 164, 16770, 1727, 17980, 1823, 1858, 1917, 199200, 202, 2069, 21213, 216
Greater London Council (GLC) 46, 48, 923, 154, 1568, 170, 192, 207
green city strategy 45
green space 35, 38, 132
see also open spaces
green-belt policy 30, 44, 50, 54, 57, 161, 181, 212
greenfield sites 23, 42, 58
greenhouse gas emissions 2
Greiving, Stefan 74
Guangzhou 25, 27
Hajer, Maarten 22, 51, 64, 148, 219
Hall, Peter 46, 100, 162, 175, 177
Hamburg 26, 206
Hangzhou 25
Haughton, Graham 193, 197
Häussermann, Hartmut 139
Healey, Patsy 856
health and well-being 21, 29, 63, 102, 158, 180, 186, 224
Hendy, Peter 10, 169, 175, 181, 1834, 1889, 192, 200
hierarchical structures 5, 11, 6061, 64, 70, 745, 778, 8190, 99, 105, 11925, 153, 160, 16970, 1724, 1923, 213
Higgins, David 192
highway codes 136
highways 19, 37, 40, 42, 48, 139
Highways Agency 1645
Hill, Dan 8
Hong Kong 268, 30, 167
horizontal integration 69, 75, 78, 95, 97, 125, 1315, 137, 15051, 18084, 201, 212, 215, 217, 21921, 223
financing instruments for 1879
house price inflation 19
housing 1314, 32, 35, 4042, 54, 99, 103, 121, 1678, 17980, 189
Housing Corporation 168
Hoven, Eivind 69
Howard, Ebenezer 14
Huxham, Chris 170
Imrie, Rob 45, 51, 56
India 256, 28
Indonesia 28
information and communication technology 79
innovation 29, 46, 645, 68, 83, 102, 125, 127, 131, 137, 155, 167, 175, 186, 191, 1989, 202, 213
institutional change 812, 6061, 646, 9096, 1045, 110, 190, 200, 202, 2048, 2225
timing and types of 21415
institutional reforms 9, 66, 95, 164, 205, 21416, 223
institutional stickiness 65, 95
institutionalism 645, 81, 224
integrated urban governance 1011, 57, 5961, 1046
see also planning and policy integration
defining and operationalising integration 7281
hierarchies and networks 8190
implications for planning and policy integration 6772
institutional change as integration 9096
the integrated ideal 47
key questions for 78
policy capacity 617
from total to privileged integration 96104
integration, three forms of 734
integration paradox 7072
interest groups 85, 193
International Building Exhibition (1984) 34
INTERREG 14041
Ipsen, Detlev 44
Istanbul 219
Italy 28
Japan 22, 28
Jaques, Elliott 834
Jenks, Mike 21
Jensen, Ole B. 44
Johannesburg 29, 221
Johnson, Boris 156, 168, 170, 178, 182
Joint Berlin–Brandenburg Planning Department see Gemeinsame Landesplanungsabteilung
Joint London Advisory Panel 160
joint state planning 88, 91, 98, 1279, 131, 141, 151, 205, 213, 217
Junge-Reyer, Ingeborg 10
Kemper, Raimund 74
Kidd, Sue 4
Kiley, Bob 92, 192
Kingdon, John W. 214
Kirchner, Jens-Holger 141, 144
knowledge economy 39, 41
Kollegialprinzip 121, 209
Kreuzberg 34
Kunst, Friedemann 36, 95, 97, 117, 119, 139, 142, 1457
Kyoto Protocol 207
Lafferty, William 69
Landesentwicklungsprogramm (LEPro) 127
land-use planning 5, 89, 11, 15, 17, 19, 26, 28, 33, 38, 412, 49, 545, 62, 6870, 734, 81, 889, 95, 105, 11213, 126, 132, 134, 1369, 149, 151, 153, 174, 183, 1867, 199202, 222
Lane, Jan-Erik 62
Lawrence, Paul R. 73
LDP 167
leadership 910, 12, 58, 76, 78, 80, 83, 88, 91, 114, 11822, 124, 135, 142, 1478, 153, 156, 158, 1634, 1678, 170, 173, 175, 1778, 181, 183, 194, 2012, 2079, 215, 218, 220, 222
Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities 70
LEP 1279, 151
Livingstone, Ken 10, 4750, 93, 156, 1634, 16870, 1757, 182, 19092, 198, 206
Local Development Frameworks (LDFs) 1789
Local Implementation Plans (LIPs) 179, 1889
localism 156
Localism Act (2011) 154, 198
lock-in effects 19, 65, 68, 79
London 810, 1213, 24, 26, 289, 579, 63, 152, 200217, 22022, 225
and integrated urban governance 60, 72, 8095, 98100, 1056
integration instruments and enabling conditions 18599
integration processes 17484
integration structures 15374
strategic narrative 4456
London Business Board 196
London Chamber of Commerce 196
London County Council 94
London Development Agency (LDA) 167, 172, 175, 190, 195
London Docklands Development Corporation 171
London Ecology Unit 190
London First 46, 93, 159, 196, 207
London Legacy Development Corporation (LLDC) 88, 171
London Plan 56, 878, 90, 17581, 1836, 18990, 1948, 201, 210, 212
2004 46, 49, 1756, 178, 197
2008 46, 49, 178, 181, 196
2011 4950, 181, 183, 186
London Planning Advisory Council (LPAC) 46, 49, 91, 15860, 1745, 190
London Pride Partnership 46, 1589
London Prospectus 196
London Rail 166
London Regional Transport 164
London Research Centre (LRC) 160, 185, 190
London Transport 1645
London Underground 166, 183, 189, 192
Lorsch, Jay W. 73
Lunts, David 168, 191
Lütke-Daldrup, Engelbert 10, 95, 14041
Mahoney, James 65
Martin, Steve 4, 75
Marvin, Simon 221
Masterplans see Planwerke
Mayor’s Transport Strategy (MTS) 176, 182, 184, 186, 189, 195
mayors 10, 12, 4750, 82, 878, 90, 93, 100, 110, 112, 123, 128, 1534, 156, 15960, 1634, 16870, 1723, 175, 17780, 1824, 187, 19092, 1957, 2012, 204, 209, 21113
Mayors’ Forum 1223
Medellin Integrated Projects 220
Mega, Voula 33
megacities 289
Meijers, Evert 4, 74
Metropolitan Board of Works 63
Mexico City 29
migration 30, 53
Milton Keynes 52, 54, 161
mixed-use 3, 2021, 23, 30, 32, 34, 50, 101, 126
mobility 15, 17, 22, 24, 27, 29, 31, 3940, 43, 48, 523, 55, 62, 80, 100101, 139, 145, 154, 165, 167, 186, 200
mobility-on-demand 29
modelling 1389
modernist urban project 1416, 32, 34, 72, 104, 148, 209
Moonen, Tim 170
Moscow 219
motorcycles 40, 43
motorisation 22, 279, 434, 578
motorways 19, 32, 34, 37, 40, 42, 478, 52, 55, 108
Munich 108
Nadin, Vincent 45
Nagoya 26
Nahverkehrsplan (NVP) 135, 145
Nanjing 25
National Sustainable Development Programme 33
natural disasters 21
natural resources 4, 32, 38, 50, 98
Netherlands 5, 31, 72, 219
network governance 5, 11, 61, 72, 8792, 105, 107, 121, 1234, 144, 193, 196, 202, 20910
balancing mayoral and 16974
network integration 1112, 71, 78, 856, 105, 120, 153, 173, 209
Neues Steuerungsmodell 113
New Labour 445, 154, 156, 15960, 162, 177, 2057, 214
new public management 113
new realism 15, 20
New Urban Agenda 4, 32, 2245
New Urbanism 20, 31
New York 29, 207, 221
NIMBYism 152, 222
Nissen, Sylke 113, 1234
noise 21, 181
non-motorised transport 3, 20, 279, 35, 37, 40, 423, 52, 55, 101
see also cycling; walking
O’Brien, Stephen 93, 196, 202, 207
OECD 7, 246, 71, 219, 224
Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) 93
Olympic Games (2012) 50, 54, 88, 178, 1867, 192
Olympic Park Legacy Company (OPLC) 88, 171
open spaces 21, 35, 38, 130, 186
Outer London Commission 51
overcrowding 21
Oxford 52, 54
Page, Edward 100
Paris Agreement on Climate Change 225
parking 19, 141, 144, 179, 185, 199
path dependencies 65, 97, 103, 211, 225
pedestrians 55, 141, 166
see also walking
Peters, B. Guy 71, 73, 77, 82, 96
Pierson, Paul 63, 66
Pimlott, Ben 190
place marketing 50
Planfeststellungsverfahren 13940, 146
Planning Act (2004) 178, 198
planning and policy integration 1, 1012, 57, 60, 67, 724, 7984, 8890, 92, 95, 103, 105, 114, 11619, 124, 1467, 14951, 157, 162, 164, 168, 173, 182, 2034, 20810, 213, 21516, 2223, 225
see also integrated urban governance
implications for 6772
planning permission 126, 130, 1789, 189, 213
Planwerk Innenstadt 35, 1356
Planwerke 1357, 149
Plate, Elke 114
Plowden, Ben 48
plurality 5
Pohl, Felix 119, 140
policing 13
Pollitt, Christopher 71
population growth 19, 28, 41, 53
portfolio principle 83, 99, 113, 11521, 124, 137, 140, 146, 1678, 178, 194, 206, 209
Portsmouth 161
Potsdammer Platz project 367
Powell, Walter W. 84
predict and provide model 15
Prescott, John 162, 168
privacy 21
private motorised transport 278, 31, 367, 43, 58, 139, 154, 216
see also cars
private sector 5, 51, 56, 75, 79, 85, 92, 117, 1234, 156, 159, 17071, 178, 1967, 2012
privatisation 6
privileged integration 96, 98104
ProBahn 145
professional capture 6
property cycles 19
property rights 48
public participation 79, 1468, 152, 1979, 202, 222
public sector 9, 69, 79, 81, 85, 92, 124, 143, 159, 17071, 196, 199, 202, 213, 216
public transport 3, 8, 1920, 269, 312, 358, 40, 423, 45, 478, 512, 545, 578, 101, 112, 119, 134, 1389, 1445, 154, 164, 183, 1856, 189, 192, 212
Public Transport Accessibility Levels (PTALs) 1856, 199, 202, 215, 221
quality of life 2930, 33, 45, 47
Radaelli, Claudio M. 66
rail systems 19, 268, 367, 423, 55, 132
Rao, Nirmala 190
rapid transit systems 267
Raumbilder 44
Raynsford, Nick 10, 45, 154, 168, 207
RDA Act (1998) 167
Rechtsstaat tradition 9
redevelopment 30, 41
regeneration 13, 20, 33, 44, 5051, 188, 198, 200
Regional Assemblies 156
Regional Development Agencies (RDAs) 156
Regional Spatial Strategies 180
Reimer, Mario 30
resource allocation 68
retail 42, 129
retrofitting 21, 33, 51
reunification of Germany 6, 33, 367, 39, 41, 90, 1078, 11011, 113, 120, 148, 150, 2046, 214
Rhodes, Rod 82, 856
Richardson, Harry 223
Richardson, Tim 44
Richtlinie zur Anlage von Strassen (RAST) 1367
Rio de Janeiro 221
Rio Declaration (1992) 4, 20, 35, 49, 69
road accidents 15
road safety 29
road-building 45, 48, 52, 88, 1289
roads 19, 26, 37, 40, 48, 129, 166
Rode, Philipp 81
Rogers, Richard 167, 172, 192
Ross, John 175, 197
Ruhr Area 378
Rydin, Yvonne 154
Sager, Tore 856
Salet, Willem 95, 159
Sao Paulo 29
S-Bahn 123, 132, 145, 212
Scharoun, Hans 32
Scharpf, Fritz W. 63, 667, 77, 223
Scheurer, Jan 31
schools 22
Schulte, Marc 114, 11920
Section 106
agreements 189
segregated cities 14
Senatsverwaltung fur Stadtentwicklung und Umweltschutz see SenStadtUm
SenStadtUm 43, 824, 86, 89, 91, 94, 99, 112, 11426, 132, 13443, 2089, 21112
Seoul 30, 221
sewage system 63
Shanghai 25
silo-isation 8
Singapore 28
Single Regeneration Budget 188
size of cities 17, 20
Skelcher, Chris 158
smart city strategies 224
smart growth 20
sociability function of cities 17
South Africa 28
South East Regional Planning Conference (SERPLAN) 162
Spain 31
Spatial Development Strategy (SDS) 1745, 180
see also London Plan
spatial impact assessments 118
spatial planning 2, 4, 79, 20, 223, 389, 49, 56, 58, 689, 72, 74, 79, 91, 94, 100103, 105, 110, 112, 120, 125, 127, 129, 131, 133, 136, 154, 159, 173, 1756, 180, 186, 190, 193, 200, 208, 212, 216
speed limits 37, 42
sprawl see urban sprawl
Städtebaufördungsgesetz 33
Stadtentwicklungskonzept (StEK) 133, 145
Stadtentwicklungspläne see StEPs
Stadtforum 1489, 222
stakeholder engagement 1445, 149, 1956, 199, 201
Stead, Dominic 4, 45, 734
steering groups 124, 167
StEP Verkehr 85, 91, 1345, 137, 1456, 149, 211, 215
StEPs 122, 1335, 137, 151
Stewart, John 158
Stimmann, Hans 33, 119, 1357
Stockholm 26
Stoker, Gerry 222
Strassengesetz 139
strategic authorities 1536
Streeck, Wolfgang 66, 91
street layout/design 17, 48, 86, 103, 117, 12930, 1367, 139, 147, 151, 1667, 195
Strieder, Peter 10, 35, 11617, 119, 121, 128, 142
structuralism 623
Stuttgart 219
suburbanisation 6, 19, 26, 35, 4041, 52, 54, 58, 139, 151
sustainability agenda 12
Sustainable Development Goals 4, 2245
sustainable urban development 34, 910, 14, 20, 3031, 33, 38, 69, 180, 2067, 215, 2245
Sweeting, David 170
Sydney 30
Syrett, Stephen 46, 160, 167, 191
tax policy 83, 95, 100, 188
taxis 43, 55, 166
temporality of integration 946
Tewdwr-Jones, Mark 92, 160
Thames Gateway development 54, 88, 162, 1712, 1767, 181, 183, 197
Thelen, Kathleen 66, 91
third sector 10, 117, 1234, 145, 202
Thomas, Louise 23
Thompson, Grahame 82
Thornley, Andy 82, 86, 158, 162, 182, 1968, 207, 211
Tokyo 267, 30
Toronto 30
tourism 41, 53
Town and Country Planning Act (1947) 44, 178, 189
traffic calming measures 31, 33, 37, 40, 42, 48, 139
Traffic Control Systems Unit 1645
Traffic Director of London 1645
trams 423
transferability 22, 21516
transit-oriented development 20
transport corridors 38, 127, 130, 132
Transport for London (TfL) 48, 838, 90, 923, 105, 154, 160, 1637, 169, 1723, 175, 179, 183, 18590, 192, 1945, 199, 2089, 212
transport infrastructure 2, 16, 19, 36, 38, 40, 42, 49, 523, 56, 62, 70, 889, 989, 103, 108, 112, 118, 123, 125, 129, 150, 167, 1734, 184, 187, 189, 199, 201, 218, 221, 224
Travers, Tony 89, 92, 156, 172, 191, 213
trucks 28
Tsebelis, George 63
turf wars 6
UN Conference on Environment and Development 14
UN Habitat 31, 69, 224
underground systems 423, 55, 132, 166, 183, 189, 192
UNEP 224
United Kingdom 6, 9, 14, 22, 30, 446, 49, 51, 53, 56, 71, 9091, 1013, 153, 156, 161, 171, 1748, 180, 185, 205, 207, 213
see also individual cities
United Nations 4, 7, 32, 116, 224
United States 14, 1819, 22, 25, 27, 31
United States National Research Council 19
URBACT 14041
urban compaction 16, 212, 24, 26, 312, 45, 49, 53
urban decay 30, 44
urban development 14, 6, 810, 1317, 1933, 357, 45, 47, 512, 579, 62, 67, 74, 823, 857, 91, 945, 99, 1023, 105, 11520, 123, 126, 128, 13038, 1412, 1445, 1479, 151, 160, 163, 1678, 17071, 173, 178, 180, 1849, 199200, 206, 20813, 216, 221, 2245
urban development corporations (UDCs) 171
Urban Development Plan for Transport see StEP Verkehr
Urban Development Plans see StEPs
urban form 11, 1315, 1720, 29, 35, 37, 4041, 52, 57, 61, 89, 97101, 103, 105, 130, 1367, 160, 207, 210, 2212
urban form and transport nexus 11, 1719, 61, 97, 99101, 103, 222
urban growth 10, 20
urban heat island effect 21
urban nexus 2, 14, 69, 97, 99, 104, 218, 220
urban planning 13, 58, 1114, 22, 28, 33, 36, 44, 5861, 67, 70, 723, 78, 81, 835, 90, 956, 98, 100, 1024, 1067, 114, 11725, 130, 132, 134, 136, 138, 140, 146, 15052, 160, 164, 173, 180, 1845, 19091, 1934, 1967, 199201, 204, 21314, 21819, 2212, 2245
urban renewal 14
urban sprawl 2, 16, 1920, 257, 2931, 35, 378, 445, 50, 134, 145, 206
Urban Task Force 45
urbanisation 256, 28, 32, 42
van der Valk, Arnold 86
Vancouver 30
vehicle-kilometres-travelled (VKT) 19
Verfassungsreform 113
Verkehrsverbund Berlin–Brandenburg (VBB) 112
vertical integration 1112, 23, 75, 78, 82, 85, 95, 100, 120, 122, 12531, 135, 1378, 15051, 1739, 184, 199201, 21013, 215, 217, 21921, 223
financing instruments for 1879
Verwaltungsakademie Berlin 142
Verwaltungs-/Managementreform 113
Vienna 221
von Lojewski, Hilmar 134, 136
Walder, Jay 192
walking 1920, 279, 43, 48, 55, 57, 154, 195
see also non-motorised transport; pedestrians
Weber, Max 6
Wegrich, Kai 148
welfare state 9, 51
West, Karen 49, 82, 86, 160, 169, 182, 211
West Germany 324, 1078
Westerman, Hans 73
Westtangente 34
Wong, Cecilia 19
World Bank 25, 224
world city strategy 457, 51, 207, 215
X-shaped integration 220
Zonneveld, Wil 22, 219