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The European Union and the Geopolitics of the Arctic

Andreas Raspotnik

The Arctic is a region that has seen exponential growth as a space of geopolitical interest over the past decade. This insightful book is the first to analyse the European Union’s Arctic policy endeavours of the early 21st Century from a critical geopolitical perspective.
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Index

Andreas Raspotnik

Aalto, P. 22, 169
acquis communautaire65
Agnew, J. 16
animal welfare 912, 13839
Arctic amplification effect 48
Arctic Climate Impact Assessment 56
Arctic cooperation frameworks 45
Arctic Council 413
observers in 423
Arctic Eight (A8) 30, 336, 41, 42, 44, 115, 144
Arctic energy resources 7071
Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS) 33, 42
Arctic–EU entanglement 65
Arctic fisheries 567, 72, 79, 120
Arctic Five (A5) 30, 34, 39, 44, 58, 141, 144
Arctic geopolitics 2962
Arctic Gold Rush 49
Arctic governance 3645, 15360
governance/impact round-up 15860
institutional approach 41
legal situation 3640
round-up 445
Svalbard, legal case 389
Arctic maritime transportation 535, 57, 71, 78
Arctic meltdown 29, 47
Arctic meltdown geopolitics 36
Arctic Ocean, claiming 3940
Arctic policymaking process 86130
Arctic policy milestones 934
Arctic resources 49, 57
Arctic sea ice 479
Arctic shipping 535
Arctic status quo 93, 177
Arctic sub-zones 36
Arctic ties 99, 105, 172
Arctic trouble 3
Bachmann, V. 5, 22, 57, 170
Barents Euro–Arctic Council (BEAC) 33, 43, 889
Barroso, J. M. 3, 94, 149
Borg, J. 134, 135, 142
Brzezinski, Z. 13
Canada 30, 34, 40, 92
Canadian–European seal dispute 92
China 42, 147
Churchill, R. 39
Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) 50, 51, 149
Claes, D. H. 76, 77
clash of civilizations 14
classical geopolitics 1113
climate change 3, 95, 1345, 175, 176
close association dimension 69
coherent policy 124
Cold War 32
confrontation 32
geopolitics 1314
Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) 3840
Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) 67, 72
Communication on European Union and Arctic Region (2008) 98103
Conclusions on Arctic (2016) 11718
European state of Arctic 11718
Conclusions on Developing a European Union Policy towards the Arctic (2014) 11213
continental shelf (CS) 3740
Council Conclusions on Arctic Issues (2009) 103105
critical geopolitics 5, 1517
Denmark 30, 34, 40, 120
Dodds, K. 123, 157
ecologic and research-financed footprint 8081
economy 759
Arctic energy resources 767
Arctic fisheries 79
Arctic maritime transportation 789
eight national identities 335
Einarsson, N. 30
empty geopolitical map 14
enhanced governance 105, 136
environmental geopolitics 1415
EU Arctic Footprint and Policy Assessment 76, 123, 143
EU Arctic policy 93, 126, 149, 172
EU Maritime Security Strategy (EUMSS) 132
EU-internal inevitability 172
EU-PolarNet programme 161
EU–Arctic credentials 86
EU–Arctic entanglement 65
EU–Russia relationship 21
EU’s Arctic space-making practices 13163
Arctic governance 15460
EU’s Arctic storyline 13954
geopolitical ideas 1319
geopolitical ordering, ‘frozen’ technologies 16063
Union’s moral Arctic language 1319
EU’s Arctic storyline 13953
actor typification 1448
assembly of storylines 1512
causality attributions 1489
location specifications 14042
performative geopolitical script 1523
situation descriptions 1424
strategic calculations 14951
EUropean Arctic discourse 139
EUropean Arctic space 36, 16977
European dimensions, Arctic presence 6585
European Economic Area (EEA) 65, 66, 69, 71, 73, 74, 132
European Economic Community (EEC) 19, 65, 67
EUropean geopolitical agency 20, 169
EUropean geopolitical leitmotifs 5
European geopolitical subject, Arctic 16977
European legal feature 6575
Arctic energy resources 7071
Arctic fisheries 723
Arctic legal capacity 6970
Arctic maritime transportation 712
Arctic responsibilities 734
indigenous peoples 74
legal round-up 745
legislative basis 678
European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) 2021
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) 81, 82
European Security Strategy (ESS) 19
European spaces
externalisation aspect 20
of interaction 2021
European state of Arctic 104105
European Territorial Cooperation (ETC) 82
European Union Arctic Information Centre (EUAIC) 157
Europeanisation 132
exclusive economic zone (EEZ) 32, 37, 39, 83
external dimension 69, 73, 148
external reading 978, 102103, 107, 110, 116, 119
financial carrot 154, 172
fin de siècle epoch 11
Finland 30, 34, 120
Fisheries Partnership Agreement (FPA) 70, 83
Foreign Affairs3
foreign policy discourse 16
Galileo satellite navigation system 101, 162
genuine renaissance 15
geographic determinism 10
geopolitical actor 5, 18, 169, 175
geopolitical ambitions 9, 20
geopolitical Arctic
history and identity 316
of twenty first century 579
geopolitical battles 9
geopolitical crossroads 9
geopolitical earthquake 9
geopolitical ideas, EU 1319
animal welfare, guardian 1389
climate change and 1345
EU, sustainability manager 1356
governance stabiliser and enhancer 1367
rights of indigenous peoples, promoter 1378
geopolitical reasoning 4, 65, 139
geopolitical subject, EU 223
geopolitics
classical 1113
Cold War 1314
critical 1517
environmental 1415
and Europe, connection 1720
new world order14
Schrödinger’s cat 245
thought experiment 926
Geopolitik12, 13
geo-power 160
geo-strategic dynamics 94
global climate change 48
global confrontation 32
global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) 162
global warming 3, 29, 46
Glomsrød, S. 51
goal-oriented ability 172
Gorbachev, M. 32, 33
Greenland 30, 34, 1467
case of 83
Greenlandic support scheme 84
Guggenheim, D. 46
Harsem, Ø. 76, 77
Haushofer, K. 12
Heartland theory 131
Henriksen, T. 39
hidden treasures, of Arctic 4957
Arctic resources 4950
fisheries 567
maritime transportation 53
mining 523
reality check 55
shipping 534
High North narrative 35
historic development, of geopolitics 5
Iceland 30
An Inconvenient Truth (Guggenheim) 46
India 42
indigenous peoples 74
indigenous peoples’ organisations (IPOs) 41
Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP) 87, 8991, 151
integration 124, 125
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 46
internal dimension 69
International Maritime Organization (IMO) 43
International Monetary Fund 14
international politics
Schrödinger’s cat 245
international relations (IR)
objective geography in 16
realism 13
International Treaty for the Protection of the Arctic (2009) 103
Interreg IV A Botnia-Atlantica 82
Interreg IV A Nord 82
Interreg IV B Northern Periphery Programme 82
Italy 42
Japan 42
Joint Communication on an Integrated European Union Policy for Arctic (2016) 11314, 116
European state of Arctic 11416
external reading 116
spatio-temporal Arctic setting 114
Joint Communication on Developing a European Union Policy towards Arctic Region (2012) 107108, 110
European state of Arctic 108109
external reading 110
spatio-temporal Arctic setting 108
Joint Paper on Climate Change and International Security (2008) 94, 95
Kaplan, R. D. 15
Karelia-Russia programme 82
Keil, K. 50
Kissinger, H. 13
Kjellén, R. 12
Koivurova, T. 154
Kolarctic-Russia programme 82
Kyoto Protocol 139
last frontier, melting of 459
Law of the Sea (LOS) Convention 32, 37, 38, 43, 58, 72, 95, 101, 104, 141
Lebensraum12
legitimisation process 6
Lindholt, L. 51
Mackinder-Haushofer-Spykman tradition 15
Mackinder, H. J. 12
Mahan, A. 12
mare sovieticum32
Mecca of climate tourism 3
Megoran, N. 15
Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) 88
member states and Arctic 11922
Merkel, A. 3
mining, in Arctic 523
Müller, M. 131, 157
Murmansk momentum 33
Nansen, F. 31
neighbourhood 21
neighbourhood radar 4
new world order geopolitics14
Northern Dimension (ND), regional foci of 21
northern neighbourhood 21
Northern Periphery Programme 83
Northern Sea Route (NSR) 33, 40, 53
North Polar ice cap 3
Northwest Passage (NWP) 40, 53
Norway 30, 35
Norwegian Northerness/Arcticness 35
Ó Tuathail, G. 139, 140
observer status 912
Oil Dorado 4950
Operation Atalanta 20
opportunity/solution, problem and 945, 99102
Ordering 170
Østhagen, A. 66, 86, 141, 156
Partnership Agreement (PA) 70
Pedersen, T. 39
policy entrepreneurship 35
policy operationalisation 174
policymaking process 87, 1237
politico-economic union 4
post-Cold War euphoria 33
Powell, R. C. 29, 87, 98, 174
Prodi, R. 3
Ratzel, F. 12
regional fisheries management organisations (RFMO) 44, 72
regional policy 81, 96
regional set-up, European Arctic 84
regional zeitgeist 2962
Resolution on an Integrated European Union Policy for the Arctic (2017) 118, 119
external reading 119
Resolution on Arctic Governance (2008)
external reading 978
opportunity/solution, problem and 967
spatio-temporal Arctic setting 96
Resolution on EU Strategy for the Arctic (2014) 112
European state of Arctic 111
spatio-temporal Arctic setting 11011
Resolution on Sustainable EU Policy for High North (2011) 105, 107
Arctic ties and territorial delimitation 105106
external reading 107
opportunity/solution, problem and 106107
Rocard, M. 121
Rovaniemi process 33
Russia 30, 35, 40, 148
Schrödinger’s cat 9, 245
Scott, J. W. 10, 175
Sellheim, N. 139
Serreze, M. C. 48
Sidaway, J. D. 157
Singapore 42
sober Arctic 176
South Korea 42
spatio-temporal Arctic setting 94, 99
Spykman, N. J. 12
Stoltenberg, J. 122
Støre, J. G. 58
sui generis Arctic 176
Sweden 30, 35, 12021
Techau, J. 24
terra nullius37
territorial delimitation 99
thought experiment 926
totalitarian world 14
transarctic or circumarctic aspect 89
transnational liberalism 14
Transpolar Sea Route (TSR) 53, 55
Treaty of Amsterdam 68
Treaty of Lisbon 67, 68, 132, 139, 170
Treaty of Maastricht 67
Treaty of Rome 67
Treaty on European Union (TEU) 67
Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) 67, 72, 73
Ulfstein, G. 39
Union’s moral Arctic language 1319, 170
Union’s ‘stipulatory’ moral language 1324
United Kingdom 121
United Nations Fish Stock Agreement 37, 72
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 104
United States of America 30, 35, 40
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 50
Van Rompuy, H. 122
Vella, K. 155
Wall Street Journal9
Wallis, D. 89, 157
Warsaw Meeting 122
World Bank 14
World Trade Organization 14
Young, O. R. 30