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International Law on the Maintenance of Peace

Jus Contra Bellum

Robert Kolb

This book offers a comprehensive study into the use of force and the maintenance of peace in international relations. Whilst rooted in public international law, it also approaches the question from different angles, including its historical evolution and its sociological environment. The competences and practice of the UN and of regional organizations in the maintenance of peace are examined before the focus is shifted to the inter-State level, the main non-use of force rule and its claimed or recognized exceptions. Robert Kolb analyzes each of these rules separately, before concluding with insightful reflections on the current state-of-play and considerations for the future of this branch of the law.
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Index

Robert Kolb

abandonment

of ICJ judgment, lack of measures for 262

neutrality abandonment situations 311–12, 314

Abass, A. 203, 217

Abbas, H. 20

Abi-Saab, G. 6, 357, 368, 372, 382, 418, 441, 442

Abkhazia 302

abuse

fear of abuses by States 109–10

safeguards and humanitarian intervention 426–31, 432

see also violence

Acheson (‘Uniting for Peace’) Resolution 102–3, 215, 218–27, 296, 311–12

ad hoc orders to States, Article 41 (non-military measures) 149–51

ad hoc tribunals, Article 41 (non-military measures) 148–9, 159

Adebajo, A. 301

Afghanistan 20, 106, 142, 147, 148, 176, 178, 283, 299, 379, 392

Africa

African Union 199–201, 217, 302

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 98, 181, 189, 191, 199–200, 201, 203, 210, 211, 212, 216–17, 301

Organisation of African Unity 216, 301

aggression, acts of

aggressive nationalism and warlike propensities 14–16

allowing another State to use one’s territory to perpetrate acts of aggression 396

attacks not seen as armed aggression, UN Charter, Article 51 and self-defence 367

in breach of League of Nations Covenant 49–50

colonialism as permanent aggression 440–42

determination, UN Charter, Chapter VII 116–17, 128

end of armed aggression and immediacy, UN Charter, Article 51 391–5

prohibition against, UN Security Council 239–40

start of armed aggression, UN Article 51 385–91

wars of aggression as unlawful, League of Nations Covenant 51–3, 60, 61, 72–3

see also armed attack; force, use of

Ago, R. 59

AIDS pandemic 139

Akande, D. 105, 232, 406

Akehurst, M. 205, 206, 209, 210, 216, 314

Albania 19, 82, 167, 175, 177, 299, 303

Albert, S. 30

Alder, M. 351

Alexander, F. 71

Algeria 365

Alibert, C. 99, 351

Alland, D. 406

Alvarez, J. 105, 232, 234, 253

Ambos, K. 405

Amirhandeh, A. 377

Amr, M. 105, 232

Anand, R. 351

Andrassy, J. 219

Aneme, G. 199

Angelet, N. 241, 255, 280

Angola 116, 137–8, 147, 148, 252, 283, 298, 445

anticipatory self-defence, UN Charter, Article 51 388–91

Antonopoulos, C. 377, 386, 417, 431, 444, 445

Anzilotti, D. 351

Aolain, F. 83

Arab League 202, 206–7, 301

Arangio-Ruiz, G. 150, 155

Arcadi, M. 248

Arcari, M. 161

Arcidiacono, B. 70

armed attack

action to recover territory one claims, UN Charter, Article 51 393

armed conflict, knowing when it has ended, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 338–9

armed force restriction and interpretation, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 334–6

armed intervention in civil war see prohibition against the use of force, exceptions, armed intervention in civil war

attacker identification, UN Charter, Article 51 376–85

concept, UN Charter, Article 51 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367, 402

degree of intensity, UN Charter, Article 51 394–9

must have emanated from a State, UN Charter, Article 51 378

reprisal 442–5

as result of error, UN Charter, Article 51 401–2

scale and threshold, UN Charter, Article 51 399–402

on State positions outside its territory, UN Charter, Article 51 395

see also aggression, acts of; force, use of

armed forces, violation of agreements permitting stationing of armed forces in other countries 396

armistice lines, recognising, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 339–40

arms embargoes, UN Charter Article 41 (non-military measures) 144, 147

Armstrong, A. 391

Arntz, J. 125

assertion of rights by the use of force, UN Charter, Article 51 372

assistance request, in case of collective defence, UN Charter, Article 51 413–14

Aust, A. 224, 309

Aust, H. 238

authorisation

after the fact, UN Charter, Article 53 210–11

by General Assembly and Security Council blockages, UN Charter, Article 53 215–16

ex post facto, UN Charter, Article 53 211–13, 217

ex post or implicit, UN Charter, Article 42 185

retrospective, UN Charter, Article 42 186, 189–92

sui generis category, UN Charter, Article 42 171, 172

for use of force see UN Security Council, coercive powers, authorisation by UN General Assembly for use of Force

Azar, A. 268

Badescu, C. 417, 419

Bailey, B. 20

Baillet, C. 161

Baker, B. 42

Bakircioglu, O. 389

Balladore Pallieri, G. 284

Balmond, L. 161, 217

Baltic States 82, 84

Bangladesh 226, 423

Banks, W. 351

Bannelier, K. 191, 383, 452

Bantekas, I. 161

Barandon, P. 47, 48, 57, 60, 63

Barnidge, R. 237

Bastid, S. 343

Bauer, A. 152

Beaufort, D. 30

Bedjaoui, M. 104, 168, 231, 253

Beesterm-Iler, G. 30

Bellamy, A. 298, 418, 419

belligerent status 305–6, 316, 450

Bennouna, M. 144

Bentham, J. 38

Bentwich, N. 145

Bernhardt, R. 263

Bethlehem, D. 380

Bettati, M. 109, 456

Binder, C. 102, 219, 222, 224, 226

Bindschedler, R. 310

Birkett, D. 379

Bjola, C. 19

blockages, Security Council blockages, UN Charter, Article 53 215–16

Blockmans, S. 203

Blokker, N. 161

Blum, Y. 251

Boer, L. 403

Boisson de Chazournes, L. 218

bombardment and blockade, UN Charter, Article 51 395

Borchard, E. 443

Bore Eveno, V. 238

Bosnia 167, 175, 203, 252, 284, 299, 303, 356, 359, 423

Dayton Accords 83, 217, 315–16

Bothe, M. 294–5, 297, 301, 305, 317, 415

Bouffard, H. 68

Bougenot, A. 68

Bourquin, M. 5, 17, 67, 92, 97, 101, 156, 222, 322, 443, 465–6, 467

Boutros-Ghali, B. 185

Bowett, D. 104, 167, 231, 350, 365

Boyle, F. 21, 93

breaches

consequences, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 345–8

sanction for breaches of international law, UN Charter, Chapter VII 125–9

Breau, S. 419

Brezhnev doctrine 22, 109, 287, 456

Brierly, J. 443

Briggs, H. 80

Bringham, R. 20

Brodbeck, P. 298

Bröhmer, J. 349

Brown, E. 242

Brown, P. 443

Brownlie, I. 41, 72, 73, 74, 76, 78, 80, 84, 155, 159, 339, 342, 352, 408, 435, 443, 455

Brugière, P. 50

Brune, L. 19

Buchan, R. 403

Buchwald, T. 416

Bugnion, F. 421

Burci, G. 290

Burke, C. 418

Byers, M. 378

Byrne, M. 446

Cadin, R. 104

Caflisch, L. 27, 104, 231

Cahin, G. 247

Calore, A. 30

Cambodia 411, 423

Campbell, E. 375

Cannizzaro, E. 242, 380, 406

Capotorti, F. 160, 323

Cardona Llorens, J. 299

Caron, D. 152

Carpenter, T. 109

Carswell, A. 219

Carver, J. 290

Cassese, A. 398

Castrén, E. 305

Cavaré, L. 443

Cellamare, G. 217

Central African Republic 167, 199, 298, 299, 302

centralisation

‘coercive’ action at regional level, UN Charter, Article 53 197–201

and decentralisation balance, UN Charter, Article 42 186, 188, 193–4

Chad 207, 301, 302, 379, 451

Chainoglu, K. 350

Charvin, R. 109, 457

Chaumont, C. 220

Chayes, A. 209

Chemain, R. 215, 230

Chen, T. 80

Cheng, B. 389

Chesterman, C. 103

Chesterman, S. 124

Chklaver, G. 38

Chonjacki, S. 465

Christakis, T. 79, 191, 326

Cimiotta, E. 100

civil war

armed intervention see prohibition against the use of force, exceptions, armed intervention in civil war

superpower interventions 103

Clark Arend, A. 107

Clavadetscher-Thürlemann, S. 29–30

coalitions of the willing, and right to use force 107

coercive powers, UN Security Council see UN Security Council, coercive powers

Cogan, J. 99–100, 464–5

Colbert, E. 443

Cold War 13, 64, 96, 99–103, 112–13, 165, 251, 352, 358–9, 449

collective action

over any international treaty obligation conflict 223–4

over unilateral measures of self-defence, UN Charter, Article 51 355

unilateralism and collective action intermingled 106–8

collective security

and centralising right to use force 95–8, 99, 102–3

and collective self-defence conflict, UN Charter, Article 51 353–4, 360–62

and neutrality concept 307–14

obligations by Member States 224–5

regional, UN Charter, Article 53 203

system suspension, League of Nations Covenant 108

collective self-defence 101

authorisation by UN General Assembly for use of force 222–3, 225–6

authorising collective, UN Charter, Article 42 193–4, 195

and collective security conflict, UN Charter, Article 51 353–4, 360–62

requesting assistance, UN Charter, Article 51 413–14

colonialism, as permanent aggression and self-determination by colonial peoples 440–42

Combacau, J. 126, 144

Community of Independent States (CIE) 302

Condorelli, L. 104, 231, 247, 286

Conforti, B. 113, 133, 142, 143, 150, 161, 170, 249, 251

Congo 216, 226, 283, 297, 302, 379, 438

consent of States in whose territory the force is to be stationed, peace-keeping operations 297

Constantin, D. 98, 313

Constantinou, A. 350

‘continental’ and English-speaking conceptions of self-defence under international law, difference between 363–4, 394–9

contingency, military contingent provision, UN Charter Article 43 164–71

Corten, O. 63, 100, 106, 161, 194, 211, 225, 308–9, 321, 326, 328, 331, 332, 336, 337, 339, 341, 344, 345, 350, 353, 355, 376, 378, 379, 383, 384, 389, 390, 406, 407, 411, 417, 422, 426, 431, 439, 440, 446, 447, 449, 452

Cotler, I. 419

Crawford, J. 46, 79, 81, 205, 312, 345, 426

Crema, L. 49, 459

Criddle, E. 351

criminal tribunals, UN Charter, Article 41 146, 147

Croatia 303

Cryer, R. 117

Cuba 98, 187, 189, 203, 205, 207, 209, 210, 365, 390

culture of violence 17–18, 467–8

Cunliffe, P. 418

customary law see international customary law

Cyprus 82, 83, 252, 287, 289, 358

Czechoslovakia 82, 456

Da Silva, P. 49

D’Amato, A. 187–8

Damrosch, L. 139

D’Angelo, D. 105, 232

D’Argent, P. 63

David, E. 150

Davis, L. 377

De Brabandère, E. 149

De Guttry, A. 161

De la Brière, Y. 30

De l’Hôpital, B. 443

De Rossanet, B. 83

De Visscher, C. 4, 443, 465

De Visscher, P. 170

De Vitoria, F. 34

De Wet, E. 105, 113, 139, 152, 153, 155, 161, 203, 231, 232, 237, 286, 446, 448, 449, 452

deal-making concerns, UN Charter, Article 42 191–2

‘Dean Acheson’ (‘Uniting for Peace’) Resolution 102–3, 215, 218–27, 296, 311–12

decentralisation, and centralisation balance, UN Charter, Article 42 186, 188, 193–4

Deeks, A. 379

Delbrück, J. 255, 280

delegation

to regional organisation see UN Security Council, coercive powers, delegation to a regional organisation (Article 53 of Charter)

UN Security Council practice, UN Charter, Article 51 359–60

delisting process for suspected terrorists 100

see also terrorism

Delivanis, J. 350, 368

Della Morte, G. 117

demarcation and armistice lines, recognising, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4339–40

democratic regimes, and influence on peace 12–13

Denis, C. 155

Derpa, R. 342

determination principle, armed intervention in civil war 449–50

Di Qual, L. 222

dictatorships, and influence on peace 13, 14

differentiated neutrality 308, 309–11, 312, 313–14

see also UN Charter, Chapter VII and neutrality concept

Dinstein, Y. 195, 274, 313, 400, 444, 452

diplomatic relationships, UN Charter, Article 41 146, 147–8

disarmament 38, 42, 68, 136–7

discretion as to use of force limited by precise criteria, UN Charter, Article 42 171–3

discretionary assessment on threats to peace 50

discretionary power

to act following determination, UN Security Council 130–33

UN Security Council 229–34

UN Security Council, limits to 234–50

unilateral first strike, UN Charter, Article 51 390

dispute resolution 93–4, 156–7

benefit assessment from use of force 18–19

disputed territory, recovery after hostilities ended, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 340

Geneva Protocol 69–70

international disputes to be resolved in accordance with requirements of justice and international law 91–2

limitations, UN Charter, Article 41 155–9

Locarno Treaties 71–2

mechanisms and threats to peace 50

modern warfare and culture of violence 17–18, 467–8

no war without first following dispute resolution procedures, League of Nations Covenant 46–7

short-term and long-term peace see short-term and long-term peace

UN Security Council, coercive powers 141, 248–9

and use of force 16–21

war on terror 18, 20

Doehring, K. 441

Dominican Republic 109, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 210, 301

Dorman, A. 43

Dörr, O. 321, 331, 336, 337, 338, 342, 344, 365, 366, 370, 371, 376, 385, 387, 394, 395, 400, 402, 403, 404, 406, 408, 435, 439, 440, 441

Dörschel, T. 294

Doswald-Beck, L. 444

double game of practising and abandoning neutrality 314

see also UN Charter, Chapter VII and neutrality concept

double veto, UN Security Council 112

see also vetoes

Draper, G. 30

drone attacks 374

dual sources, problems arising from, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 324–5

Dubin, M. 92

Dubuisson, F. 194, 333

Dubuy, M. 389

Duffy, H. 4

Dugard, J. 79, 84

Dumbarton Oaks project 128–9

Dunn, T. 419

Dupuy, P. 215, 230

Dupuy, R. 462

Duroselle, J. 74

Dutheil de la Rochère, J. 413

Eagleton, C. 77

East Timor 84, 134, 149, 177, 298, 299

Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) 98, 181, 189, 191, 199–200, 201, 203, 210, 211, 212, 216–17, 301

economic relations, UN Charter, Article 41 145–6, 147–8

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 92, 93

Elshtain, J. 30

embargoes, arms embargoes, UN Charter, Article 41 144, 147

Enabulele, A. 377

end of armed aggression and immediacy, UN Charter, Article 51 391–5

end of armed conflict, knowing when it has ended, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 338–9

Epirotis, C. 66, 67

equality principle and sovereign rights 236

see also sovereignty

Erakleides, A. 421

Erich, R. 443

Eritrea 130–31

error, armed attack as result of, UN Charter, Article 51 401–2

Escher, R. 112

Ethiopia 130–31

Europe

Abbé de St Pierre and Project for perpetual peace 39

economic and social cooperation 12, 15

European Court of First Instance, Yusuf v. The European Council 238, 256–7, 284

European Court of Human Rights

Behrami v. France 173

Lawless 242

and proportionality 242

Saramati v. France, Germany and Norway 173

European Court of Justice, Kadi and Al Barakaat International Foundation v. Commission 238–9, 257

Evans, G. 418

ex post authorisation

UN Charter, Article 42 185

UN Charter, Article 53 211–13, 217

exceptions to prohibition against the use of force see prohibition against the use of force, exceptions

extension of mandates, peace-keeping operations 298

Eyffinger, A. 351

Fabbri, F. 143

Fabri, P. 449

failed States 139–40, 341–2

failure to comply with obligations, UN Charter, Chapter VII 137–8

Falklands/Malvinas 118, 392, 393

Farer, T. 417

Farrall, J. 245

Fassbender, B. 215, 230, 281, 352

Fastenrath, U. 7

Feinäugle, C. 239

Feinstein, B. 383

Fenwick, C. 26, 27, 322

first strike, discretionary unilateral, UN Charter, Article 51 390

First World War and radicalism of ideological change 39

Fischer Williams, J. 443, 459

Flasch, O. 383

Focarelli, C. 113, 133, 142, 143, 150, 161, 170, 242, 251, 411, 419, 469

Fontaine, A. 220

Forarelli, C. 377

forbidden authorisations, UN Charter, Article 53 209–13

forbidden wars, and preservation of peace, League of Nations Covenant 50–63

force, use of

assertion of rights, UN Charter, Article 51 372

authorisation for use of see UN Security Council, coercive powers, authorisation by UN General Assembly for use of Force

and coalitions of the willing 107

collective security and centralising right to use force 95–8, 99, 102–3

falling short of war, League of Nations Covenant 62

indirect force, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 337

as instrument of national policy, Kellogg-Briand Pact 76

intentional use, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 337

limitations on recourse to see limitations on recourse to force, historic development

parallelism between threat and use of force, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 and prohibition against the use of force 332

powers to use force, peace-keeping operations 298–9

prohibition against 5–11, 69, 285–6

prohibition exceptions see prohibition against the use of force, exceptions

right to use force, first steps in limiting (1899-1919) 42–4

and state of war, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 329–30

threats to use see threats to use force

see also aggression, acts of; armed attack

Forlati Picchio, L. 102–3, 170

Forteau, M. 103

forum perpetuum principle, International Court of Justice 274–5

Fox, G. 452

Fraas, M. 105, 232

France, German deserters at Casablanca affair 14–15, 93, 120

Franck, T. 4, 103, 215, 230, 323, 356, 390, 404, 423, 436, 445

Fremuth, M. 150

Freud, S. 24

Frowein, J. 119, 163, 327

Frulli, M. 298

Frye, W. 294

Fux, P. 227

Gabon 451

Gaeta, P. 83

Gaggioli, G. 239

Galbraith, J. 183

Gardam, J. 163, 406, 407, 443

Gardner, R. 390

Garner, J. 80

Gazzini, T. 121, 168, 208, 286, 444, 465

Geneva Protocol (1924), limitations on recourse to force 68–71

Genoni, M. 350

Genser, J. 419

Georgia 303, 437

Germany

German deserters at Casablanca affair 14–15, 93, 120

Llandovery Castle 14–15

Naulilaa arbitration award 41

Ghébali, V.-Y. 303

Gill, T. 143, 388, 403

Giraud, E. 59, 60, 66, 67, 351

Glennon, M. 465

global treaties post-1945358–74

Gmür, H. 30

Goa 187, 340–41

Goepner, E. 18

Gonsiorowski, M. 47, 48, 63

good intentions as condition, humanitarian intervention 428

Goodrich, L. 128, 353, 467

Gowlland-Debbas, V. 104, 117, 125, 144, 148, 231

Graefrath, B. 150, 153

Graham, M. 80

Grandi, B. 465

Great Powers’ influence 45, 96–7, 99–101, 106–7, 128–9, 131, 154, 179–80, 185, 197, 226–7

Green, J. 326, 331, 351, 375, 389, 406

Green, L. 452

Greenwood, C. 364–5, 378

Grenada 109, 374, 436

Grewe, W. 30, 420, 422

Griebel, J. 150

Grimal, F. 331

Grotius, H. 45–6

Grove, E. 165

Guani, A. 443

Guggenheim, P. 52, 466

Guillaume, G. 393

Guiora, A. 389

gunboat diplomacy 43

Haass, R. 18

Haggenmacher, P. 30

Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) 42–3, 51

Haiti 122, 134, 137, 138–9, 147, 148, 167, 194, 204, 283, 299

Hajjami, N. 162

Hakimi, M. 99–100, 464–5

Hambro, E. 128, 467

Hanania, R. 89

Hargrove, J. 370

Harper, K. 155

Haug, H. 306, 308

Hausmanninger, H. 30

Hechtl, M. 389

Hegelianism 36–7

Hehir, A. 19, 419

Helmke, B. 465

Henckaerts, J. 444

Henderson, C. 383, 468

Henkin, L. 322, 368

Herbst, J. 105, 232

Herdegen, M. 341

Hershey, A. 41

Heselhaus, S. 130, 248

Higgins, R. 357, 365, 386, 400

Hill, D. 75

Hill, N. 80

Hilpold, P. 383, 419

Hindmarsh, A. 6, 62, 443

Hmoud, M. 377

Hoffmann, J. 419

Hoffmann, S. xii, 22, 64, 100–101

Hoisington, M. 417

Honegger, C. 203

Hüfner, K. 98

human rights 133–5, 237, 238–9

humanitarian intervention

and armed intervention in civil war 454

delegation to a regional organisation, UN Charter, Article 53 199–200

prohibition against the use of force see prohibition against the use of force, exceptions, humanitarian intervention

right to intervene on humanitarian grounds 106, 109

UN Security Council involvement 106, 423–4, 429–31

violations of international humanitarian law 124

Hungary 226, 447, 456

Huslmann, J. 290

identification, attacker identification, UN Charter, Article 51 376–85

Immerman, R. 20

imminent attack, and self-defence, UN Charter, Article 51 386–8, 391

immunity to personnel participating in international operations authorised by Security Council, UN Charter, Article 41 150

implied consent, and delegation to regional organisation, UN Charter, Article 53 209–10

implied (improper) delegation, UN Charter, Article 42 186, 187–9

incidental powers, UN Security Council 141–3

indifference doctrine and international law 36–42

contradictory values, limitations on recourse to force 39–41

predatory activity and right to resort to war 39–40

individuals, sanctions against, UN Charter Article 25 283

Indonesia 451, 461

Ingravallo, I. 149

intensity of attack, UN Charter, Article 51 394–9

intentional use of force, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 337

interceptive self-defence, UN Charter, Article 51 388

interim measures of protection, International Court of Justice 264–5

interim power, self-defence as, UN Charter, Article 51 353, 354–5

internal affairs, non-intervention in another State, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 334

internal conflicts

becoming internationalised, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 338

decision that a situation requires action, UN Charter, Chapter VII 123–5, 133–4

international administration of territories, UN Charter, Article 41 149

International Arbitral Awards

Eritrea/Ethiopia 372, 411

Ethiopia’s Claims 341, 354, 401

Fletcher Smith 241

International Atomic Energy Agency 101

international community, conforming to will of 249–50

International Conference of American States 72–3

International Court of Justice

Anglo-Iranian Oil 265, 268, 276

Armed Activities, Democratic Republic of the Congo v Uganda 254, 322–3, 355, 380, 386–7, 410, 411, 413, 447, 453

Certain Expenses 169, 206, 207, 221, 252, 255, 291

Consequences of the construction of a wall in occupied Palestinian territory advisory opinion 81, 227, 251–2

Corfu Channel 276, 372, 405, 438, 443–4, 456

Court judgment implementation, and legality of use of force 454–6

Crime of Genocide (Bosnia-Herzegovina v Serbia) 141, 237, 284, 382, 397

East Timor 277, 453

judicial review, sanctioning Security Council when it exceeds its powers 252–7

Legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons 332, 411

Lockerbie 199, 252, 254, 272, 273, 274–5, 278, 284

Namibia 81, 112, 114, 252, 264, 279, 280, 310

Nicaragua 23, 99, 223, 254, 267–70, 272, 323–4, 332, 334, 337, 354–5, 366, 371–2, 387, 394, 396–8, 401, 406, 410–11, 413–14, 433, 446, 450, 452, 455, 457

Nottebohm 437

Oil Platforms 375, 401, 408, 411, 412–13

Tehran Hostages 269, 272, 438

International Court of Justice, exercise of parallel competences by Security Council 272–8

automatic jurisdiction under Chapter VII 276–8

forum perpetuum principle 274–5

mutual respect principle 278

non-justiciability concept 274

UN Security Council/Assembly and Security Council/Court relationships 272–4

UN Security Council’s prohibition of State from seising Court 275–6

International Court of Justice, judgment execution and implementation 260–71

abandonment of judgment, lack of measures for 262

execution by military means 263–4, 266, 267

interim measures of protection 264–5

judicial pronouncement types 264–5

nemo judex in causa sua principle 266–8

revision procedure restrictions 262–3

UN Charter, Article 94 § 2260–61, 263–6, 267

UN Charter Article 94 § 2 of Charter, Security Council practice 268–9

UN General Assembly action 269–71

UN Security Council measures 261–3

UN Security Council voting and vetoes 265–8, 269

‘unjust’ judgments 268–9

International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Tadic 146, 147, 148–9, 234, 252, 382, 397, 398, 399

International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, Akayesu 147

international customary law

humanitarian intervention, no justification under 432

norm, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 325

parallel but wider scope under, UN Charter, Article 51 364–6

prohibition against the use of force, exceptions 350

prohibition under, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 327–8

International Labour Organization Administrative Tribunal, Ferecchia 243

international law

‘continental’ and English-speaking conceptions of self-defence under, difference between, UN Charter, Article 51 363–4, 394–9

and international politics changes 11–12

obligations, UN Charter Article 103 286–7

peremptory norm, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 344–5

progressive juridicalisation 9–11

sanction for breaches of–UN Charter, Chapter VII 125–9

threats to use force, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 333–4

international peace

objective of maintaining 243–4

requirement that situation is a danger to, UN Charter, Chapter VII 123–5

see also peace

international relations, in UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 337–42

invitation, intervention by 445–9

Iran 108, 118, 228

Iraq 118, 131, 167, 176, 281, 310, 341, 359

economic and diplomatic restrictions 147, 149

humanitarian needs 187

intervention 20, 106–7, 141–2, 189, 190, 191–2, 308, 314, 317, 369, 468

non-ratification of 1972 Convention on biological and bacteriological weapons 137

nuclear reactor attack 365, 374

Oil for Food programme 227, 229

peace settlement, Resolution 687 (1991) 129, 181–2

Security Council authorisation, Resolution 678 177–8, 179–80, 181–2, 194–6

and terrorism 20

UN Compensation Commission (UNCC) 157–8, 347

irregular forces sent into territory of another State, UN Charter, Article 51 396–9

Islamic State 20, 341

Israel

Israel–Palestine conflict 25, 131–2, 142, 227, 251–2, 390, 411, 445

peace treaty with Egypt 303–4

Ivory Coast 181, 299

Jachec-Neale, A. 374

Jacobson, J. 71

Jahn, I. 413

Jennings, R. 364

Jepes, J. 49

Jessup, P. 85

Jiménez de Aréchaga, E. 93, 132, 215, 280, 322

Johnson, J. 30

Jordan 451

just cause as condition for humanitarian intervention 427

just war doctrine

decline and sovereignty rights 34–7, 39–40

limitations on recourse to force 29–35

medieval period 31–3

as prototype punitive war 33–4, 37

Kadelbach, S. 344, 358

Kajtar, G. 383

Kälin, W. 282, 431

Kalulu, T. 122, 250, 256

Kammerhofer, J. 363

Kant, I. 38

Kashmir 119–20

Keber, T. 403

Kellogg-Briand Pact see limitations on recourse to force, historic development, Kellogg-Briand Pact

Kelsay, J. 30

Kelsen, H. 40, 57, 76, 98, 126, 129, 156, 208, 215–16, 246, 262, 265, 267, 277, 281, 455

Khandekar, R. 419

Kherad, R. 350

Kioko, B. 200

Kirkpatrick, J. 109

Klein, E. 251, 276

Klein, P. 136, 291

Klose, F. 421

Knight, W. 419

Kohen, M. 19, 212, 239, 431

Köhler, M. 12

Kolliopoulos, A. 228

Kooijmans, P. 375

Köpfer, J. 308

Korea 97–8, 102, 118, 166–7, 175, 194, 195, 216, 218–19, 225, 226, 313, 361

Korhonen, O. 149

Kosovo

and Acheson Resolution 226–7

and humanitarian intervention 424, 426–7, 432–3, 454

intervention 19, 106, 187, 189, 190, 200, 317, 359, 423, 468

intervention and implied consent 209–10

intervention legality and Council Resolution 1244 (1999) 191

intervention, opposition to 249

peace-keeping forces 298, 299

transitional arrangements 149

Verification Mission 303

see also Yugoslavia (former)

Koufa, K. 105, 232

Krajewski, M. 383

Kreipe, N. 103, 114, 161, 171

Kress, C. 351, 379, 465

Kretzmer, D. 406

Krieger, J. 20

Krisch, N. 113, 124, 127, 128, 131, 132, 133, 142, 143, 145–6, 150, 152, 155, 158, 160, 161, 164, 178, 180, 192, 248, 350, 360

Kunde, M. 388

Kunz, J. 47, 61, 63

Kuwait 82, 103–4, 107, 118, 158, 174, 194–5, 206–7, 291–2, 301, 347, 361, 392, 411

Kuwali, D. 199

Lachs, M. 335, 366

Lagerwall, A. 63, 80, 333, 339

Laghmani, S. 35

Lailach, M. 124, 139

Lamberti Zanardi, P. 350, 353

Lanciotti, A. 351

Langer, R. 80

language, ‘continental’ and English-speaking conceptions of self-defence under international law, difference between 363–4, 394–9

‘last 23 words’, interpretation problem (territorial integrity or political independence of any state), UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 342–4, 425

last resort measure, and humanitarian intervention 428

Latty, F. 100, 107, 196, 383

Lauterpacht, H. 80, 443

Lavalle, R. 144

lawful wars League of Nations Covenant (1919) 54–63, 71, 78

see also unlawful wars

Le Fur, L. 38

Le Gall, R. 73

Le Mon, C. 452

League of Nations Covenant see limitations on recourse to force, historic development, League of Nations Covenant (1919)

League of Nations principles, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 346–7

Leary, D. 100

Lebanon 207, 301, 451

Special Tribunal for Lebanon, Ayyash 252

Ledermann, L. 38

Legaz y Lacambra, L. 25

legitimacy and effectiveness connection, UN Security Council 233

legitimate self-defence, and delegation of power, UN Charter, Article 42 194–7

Leiss, J. 246, 284, 285

Lenze, F. 105, 232

Lepard, B. 417

Leporatti, A. 105, 232

Leprette, J. 219

Lewkowicz, G. 106

Liakopoulos, D. 417

Liang, Y. 132

Liberia 147, 148, 189, 199–200, 203, 210, 211, 212, 217, 299, 301

Libya

economic sanctions 148, 192, 256, 281, 289–90, 310

humanitarian intervention 423

Lockerbie case 199, 252, 254, 272, 273, 274–5, 278, 284

and nuclear weapons 108

and terrorism 122, 135–6, 141, 149, 196

US bombing 141, 404, 429, 445

Lieblich, E. 446

limitations on recourse to force, historic development 29–86

Abbé de St Pierre and Project for perpetual peace in Europe 39

Bentham on disadvantages of warfare 38

Bryan Treaties (US bilateral treaties) 43–4, 47, 54

classical Rome and just war doctrine 31

early Christian period and just war doctrine 31

First World War and radicalism of ideological change 39

Geneva Protocol (1924) 68–71

Geneva Protocol (1924), compulsory system of dispute resolution 69–70

Geneva Protocol (1924), prohibition against war 68–9

gunboat diplomacy 43

Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) 42–3, 51

indifference doctrine and international law 36–42

indifference doctrine and international law, contradictory values 39–41

indifference doctrine and international law, predatory activity and right to resort to war 39–40

International Conference of American States and wars of aggression 72–3

just war doctrine 29–35

just war doctrine decline and sovereignty rights 34–7, 39–40

just war as prototype punitive war 33–4, 37

Kant and Perpetual Peace 38

League of Nations Assembly Resolutions (1925–1927) 72–3

limits to permissible measures falling short of war 41

Locarno Treaties (1925) 60, 71–2

Locarno Treaties (1925), dispute resolution by arbitration 71–2

medieval period and just war doctrine 31–3

Monroe Doctrine 43, 78

Organization of American States Charter 81, 98

peace as Utopian ideal 38–9

reprisals, rules governing 41

right to use force, first steps in limiting (1899–1919) 42–4

Saavedra Lamas non-aggression Treaty (1933) 75, 81, 85

self-defence doctrine as diplomatic concept 40

self-preservation theory (19th century) 41–2

Versailles Peace Treaty and rights of possession 48

limitations on recourse to force, historic development, Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris) (1928) 61, 62, 73–9, 81

origins 74–5

and self-defence 75, 77–8

threat of war 79

US support 74

use of force ‘as an instrument of national policy’ 76

use of force short of war as lawful 76

war between States parties and non-State parties, or between non-State parties 78

as watershed 73–4

limitations on recourse to force, historic development, League of Nations Covenant (1919) 45–67, 459–60

act of aggression in breach of Covenant 49–50

collective security system suspension 108

constitutive principles 45–50

failure 66–7

guaranteeing the territorial status quo 48–50

lawful wars 54–63

no general prohibition against war 45

no war without first following dispute resolution procedures 46–7

preservation of peace and forbidden and permitted wars 50–63

priority of the legal over the political 50

‘reserved domain’ of exclusively domestic jurisdiction as lawful 54–7

resort to war before exhausting means of peaceful resolution, as unlawful 53

sanctions for State’s failure to comply with its obligations 63–7

‘surprise’ wars, elimination of 48, 61

unlawful wars 51–4

use of force falling short of war as lawful 62

war against a State refusing to comply with an award or judgment as lawful 57–8

war against a State which was in compliance with a legal judgment, as unlawful 54

war on basis of non-unanimous report by Council, begun after expiry of three-month moratorium 58

war begun prior to expiry of three-month moratorium, as unlawful 54

war between Members and non-Members or between non-Members as lawful 62–3, 78

war as evil element of international affairs 45–6

war where Council do not succeed in establishing report within six months, as lawful 58–9

wars of aggression as unlawful 51–3, 60, 61, 72–3

wars of self-defence as lawful 59–61, 71

limitations on recourse to force, historic development, Stimson Doctrine of non-recognition (1932) 79–85, 310

application consequences 83–5

defeats 82

implementation 82–3

origins 81

renaissance and renewal 82–3

and sanctions 84

limits to Security Council’s powers, UN Charter, Article 41151–9

Llull (Lulle), R. 25

Locarno Treaties (1925) 60, 71–2

long-service missions and consolidation of peace 303

long-term peace see short-term and long-term peace

Lotus-principle 6

Lowe, V. 89, 161, 417

Luard, E. 98, 165, 226, 341, 407

Lubell, N. 361, 377

Macedonia 303

McKeever, D. 375

McNab, M. 377

MacQueen, N. 417

McWhinney, E. 104, 231

Magi, L. 191

Magnusson, F. 229

Maison, R. 461

Mali 189, 191, 211, 302, 379, 452–3

Malone, D. 20, 227

Manchukuo 81, 82

Manchurian crisis 62, 74, 78, 81

Mancini, M. 160

Mandelstam, A. 73

Maneggia, A 377

Mani, V. 105

Manin, P. 89, 222

Mantovani, M. 30

Marchisio, S. 209–10, 247, 286

maritime law 329, 365

Martenczuk, B. 105, 232, 287

Martin, A. 145

Massart, E. 63

Meeker, L. 207

Meernik, J. 18

Mensah, T. 157, 347

Meyer-Ohlendorf, N. 105

Meyrowitz, H. 224, 312, 313, 363

Michel, N. 128, 419, 430

Middelbush, F. 80

military action, and delegation of power see UN Security Council, coercive powers, substantive powers, Article 42 (military action) and delegation of power

military means, execution by, International Court of Justice 263–4, 266, 267

military personnel supplied on voluntary basis, peace-keeping operations 297

Miller, D. 68

Miron, A. 228

Mishra, P. 24

Moir, L. 20, 378

Moldova 302, 303

Molier, G. 426

Momtaz, D. 204–5, 210

Monroe Doctrine 43, 78, 85

Moore, C. 19

Moore, J. 375

moratorium, three-month moratorium, League of Nations Covenant 54, 58

Mosler, H. 263, 460

Moulier, I. 377, 379

Mozambique 116

Mujezinovic Larsen, K. 173

Müller, J. 281, 306, 307, 310

Mullins, C. 15

multinational forces, peace-keeping operations 303–4

Murphy, S. 418, 465

mutual respect principle, International Court of Justice 278

Nanda, V. 419

Naske, N. 238

Nasu, H. 142

nation-building work, peace-keeping operations 298

national solidarity in times of crisis, creating 13–14, 17

NATO 98, 101, 200, 203, 208, 209, 217, 249, 287, 299, 315, 414, 423

Naumann, J. 98

necessity

and proportionality issues 241–2, 243–4

self-defence as, UN Charter, Article 51 406–8, 411, 415–16

Neff, S. 3, 103

negative peace as short-term strategy 94–8

negative and positive peace, distinction between 25–6

nemo judex in causa sua principle, International Court of Justice 266–8

Neuhold, H. 389

neutrality concept, UN Charter see UN Charter, Chapter VII and neutrality concept

New World Order 103–5

Newman, M. 417

Nicaragua 109, 451, 468

Nigeria 451

Nollkaemper, A. 105, 232, 419

Nolte, G. 350, 406, 446

non-exhaustive powers, UN Charter, Article 41 146–7

non-intervention in the internal affairs of another State, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 334

non-Member States 78, 280–82, 283, 312–14, 327

non-military measures

Article 41 see UN Security Council, coercive powers, substantive powers, Article 41 (non-military measures)

legality where there is no delegation, UN Charter, Article 53 204–7

Nordquist, M. 136

‘normal course of trade’ principle, UN Charter, Chapter VII and neutrality concept 306

North Korea 108

Novak, G. 165, 206, 290, 291, 309

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 137

nuclear weapons 101–2, 108, 369–70

Nuremberg international military tribunal 72, 73, 75–6

O’Bannon, B. 419

obligation to carry out enforcement actions, UN Charter, Article 53 213–15

obligations, priority of see UN Security Council decisions, binding nature, UN Charter Article 103, priority of obligations over other international obligations

observer functions, peace-keeping operations 303

O’Connell, M. 203

O’Connor, L. 383

Oellers-Frahm, K. 260, 370

Oesterdahl, I. 106

Oette, L. 227

Oman 451

opposing side, self-defence disallowed against self-defence by opposing side, UN Charter, Article 51 405–6

Orakhelashvili, A. 130, 161, 192, 217, 286

Orford, A. 418, 419

Organisation of African Unity 216, 301

Organization of American States (OAS) 81, 98, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 209, 216, 301

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) 302–3

Osterdahl, I. 122

Otte, T. 43

outer space, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 329

Owada, H. 458

Pacreau, X. 18

Palchetti, P. 179

Panama 204, 374

Papa, M. 105, 232, 265, 268

parallelism between threat and use of force, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 332

Paroz, J. 100

Pasquali, L. 217

Pattison, J. 417, 418

Paulus, A. 246, 284, 285

Paust, J. 321, 377

Payandeh, M. 238, 257, 429

peace

international see international peace

short-term and long-term see short-term and long-term peace

spirit, tolerance, neighbourliness 91

threat to see threat to peace

‘peace before justice’ maxim 24–5, 91

peace as ideal 3–4

peace maintenance, effective measures, UN Charter, Article 51 357–8

peace as political reality 4–5

‘peace through justice’ maxim 25, 26, 92

peace as utopian ideal 38–9

peace-keeping operations 294–304

consent of States in whose territory or territories the force is to be stationed 297

extension of mandates 298

history 294–6

long-service missions and consolidation of peace 303

military personnel supplied on voluntary basis 297

multinational forces 303–4

nation-building work 298

observer functions 303

organisation of UN forces 296–7

powers to use force 298–9

regional operations 301–4

robust and multi-functional 297–301

and self-defence 297

and UN Security Council 206–7, 211–12, 295–6

‘Uniting for Peace’ Resolution 296

peaceful change problem 458–62

and League of Nations Covenant 459–60

and UN Charter, Article 14 460–62

Peevers, C. 20

Pellet, A. 215, 228, 230

Peltonen, H. 418

Pensa, H. 71

peremptory norms 237–40, 326–7, 344–5

Perkins, J. 452

Permanent Court of International Justice (PCIJ) 94

Lotus 6

Mossoul 266

Nationality Decrees 56

permitted wars, League of Nations Covenant 50–63

perpetual neutrality 306–7

see also UN Charter, Chapter VII and neutrality concept

personnel, immunity to personnel participating in international operations, UN Charter, Article 41150

Pescatore, P. 368–9

Petculescu, I. 105, 232

Peters, A. 111, 234, 235, 237, 239, 241, 245, 246, 255, 280

Petersohn, U. 417–18

Petrascu, N. 443

Peyró Llopis, A. 217

Philipse, A. 63

Phillips, D. 19

Picone, P. 176, 180, 196, 239, 246

Pinto, M. 375

Pintore, E. 389

piracy 136

Poli, L. 199, 419

policing measures and quasi-legislative measures, distinction between 247–8

policing power, UN Charter, Article 41 152–3

political regimes

and influence on peace 12–16

nature of State’s, UN Charter, Chapter VII 138–9

Politis, N. 8, 14, 15–16, 36, 62, 93, 120, 305, 308, 443

positive peace

as long-term strategy 90–94

and negative positive peace, distinction between 25–6

post facto (retrospective) authorisations, and delegation of power, UN Charter, Article 42186, 189–92

Potter, P. 49

powers to use force, peace-keeping operations 298–9

predatory activity, and right to resort to war 39–40

preservation of peace and forbidden and permitted wars, League of Nations Covenant 50–63

preventive self-defence and attack being imminent, UN Charter, Article 51 386–8, 391

problematic and forbidden authorisations, and delegation to a regional organisation, UN Charter, Article 53 209–13

Proessdorf, K. 219

prohibition against use of force, Article 2 § 4 see UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 and prohibition against the use of force

prohibition against the use of force, priority over other international obligations, UN Charter Article 103 285–6

prohibition against the use of force by States 5–11, 69

prohibition against the use of force, exceptions 349–457

armed reprisal 442–5

armed reprisal, and UN Charter 444–5

Court judgment implementation, and legality of use of force 454–6

international customary law 350

intervention by invitation 445–9

intervention by invitation, government status concerns 447–8

self-determination by colonial peoples and colonialism as permanent aggression 440–42

UN Charter, Articles 53/107 349

prohibition against the use of force, exceptions, armed intervention for benefit of nationals in danger in other countries 435–42

legality 437–40

‘lightning’ interventions 436, 437, 438–40

as police operations 440

prohibition against the use of force, exceptions, armed intervention in civil war 449–54

belligerent status 450

Brezhnev doctrine 22, 109, 287, 456

controversy among informed commentators 449–51

controversy among informed commentators, principle of discrimination 449–50

humanitarian intervention 454

negative equality 450–51

positive equality 451

Reagan doctrine 22, 109, 287, 433, 457

State practice 451–4

supply of arms to rebels 453–4

prohibition against the use of force, exceptions, humanitarian intervention 417–34

abuse and violence concerns 432

arguments against 431–3

arguments for legality in extreme cases 424–31

assessment 433–4

conditions to provide safeguards against abuses 426–31

functional sovereignty argument 425, 430–31

good intentions as condition 428

just cause as condition 427

as measure of last resort 428

necessity argument 425–6

no justification under international customary law 432

proportionality respect and international humanitarian law 428

reasonable prospect of success as condition 428–9

State practice, 19th century 420–22

State practice, 20th century 422–4

UN Security Council involvement 423–4, 429–31

as violation of law of Charter 431–2

prohibition against the use of force, exceptions, UN Charter, Article 51 and self-defence 350–417

armed attack concept 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367

assertion of rights by the use of force 372

attacks not seen as armed aggression 367

collective measures under Chapter VII over unilateral measures of self-defence 355

collective self-defence and collective security conflict 353–4, 360–62

‘continental’ and English-speaking conceptions of self-defence under international law, difference between 363–4, 394–9

drone attacks 374

effective measures to maintain peace, need for 357–8

efficacy of collective security system and right of self-help 367–9

and global treaties post-1945358–74

history 351–2

inspection and arrest of vessels on the high seas 365

and nuclear armaments, effects of 369–70

parallel but wider scope under international customary law 364–6

self-defence in derogation from the Charter 358

self-defence as interim power 353, 354–5

self-defence as a residual and exceptional power 352–4

self-defence as subordinate power 355–8

terrorist attacks 361–2, 374

UN Security Council measures and sacrifice of vital individual interests 356–7

UN Security Council practice of delegation 359–60

wider interpretation call and Article 39 of Charter 373–4

prohibition against the use of force, exceptions, UN Charter, Article 51 and self-defence, application conditions 374–417

allowing another State to use one’s territory to perpetrate acts of aggression 396

anticipatory self-defence 388–91

armed action to recover territory one claims 393

armed attack as result of error 401–2

armed attack scale and threshold 399–402

armed, concept of 402

armed or physical attack of a certain degree of intensity 394–9

attack must have emanated from a State 378

attack on State positions outside its territory 395

attacker identification 376–85

contextuality text 415–16

discretionary unilateral first strike 390

end of armed aggression and immediacy 391–5

entities controlling exclusively a parcel of territory 380–81

entities with no territorial base of their own 381–5

interceptive self-defence 388

invasion of State’s territory, bombardment and blockade 395

irregular forces sent into territory of another State 396–9

legal and political perspectives 414–17

person entitled to act by way of self-defence 375–6

preventive or pre-emptive self-defence 388

preventive self-defence and attack being imminent 386–8, 391

proportionality tests 407, 408–13

reactive self-defence 388

requesting assistance in case of collective defence 413–14

rescue operations and nationals in other countries 404–5

rights protected by prohibition against armed attacks 403–5

self-defence disallowed against self-defence by opposing side 405–6

self-defence as necessary 406–8, 411, 415–16

start of armed aggression 385–91

State as accomplice of terrorist group 378–9

terrorist groups, attacks by 376–7, 381–5

threats to use force 403

violation of agreements permitting stationing of armed forces in other countries 396

prohibition against war, Geneva Protocol 68–9

proportionality considerations

and international humanitarian law 428

UN Charter, Article 42 162–4, 172

UN Charter, Article 51 407, 408–13

UN Security Council see UN Security Council, coercive powers, value and limits, proportionality issues

proxy vetoes and Cold War period 112–13

see also vetoes

psychological unilateralism problem 21–4

Pyrich, A. 195

‘quasi-judicial’ determinations, UN Charter, Article 41 158–9

quasi-legislation, and policing measures 247–8

Quigley, J. 168, 389

Rafaat, W. 68

Rajan, M. 123

Ramcharan, B. 139

Randelzhofer, A. 321, 331, 336, 337, 338, 342, 344, 350, 365, 366, 370, 371, 376, 385, 387, 394, 395, 400, 402, 403, 404, 406, 408, 435, 439, 440, 441

Rausch, A. 418

Ray, J. 444, 460

reactive self-defence, UN Charter, Article 51 388

Reagan doctrine 22, 109, 287, 433, 457

reasonable prospect of success as condition, humanitarian intervention 428–9

rebels, supply of arms to, armed intervention in civil war 453–4

regional arrangements, UN Charter 89–90, 97

regional delegation see UN Security Council, coercive powers, delegation to a regional organisation (Article 53 of Charter)

regional peace-keeping operations 301–4

Regout, R. 30, 32

Reibstein, E. 30

Reinisch, A. 165, 206, 290, 291, 309

Reinold, T. 419

Reisman, M. 109, 386, 456

Reisman, W. 391

Reiwald, P. 22

repressive element 26, 89

reprisals 41, 442–5

rescue operations and nationals in other countries, UN Charter, Article 51 404–5

‘reserved domain’ of exclusively domestic jurisdiction as lawful, League of Nations Covenant 54–7

residual power, self-defence as, UN Charter, Article 51 352–4

Ress, G 349

Reuter, P. 335

review body, absence of, UN Security Council 250

Richter, C. 389

Riklin, A. 307

Riznik, D. 461

Roberts, A. 164

Roberts, K. 104–5, 231–2

Rodogno, D. 421

‘rogue States’, policy of threatening 108

Ronen, Y. 80

Ronzitti, N. 358, 391, 435, 439

Roscher, B. 73

Roscini, M. 331, 336, 402–3

Rosenne, S. 276

Rossman, J. 164

Rostow, N. 465

Rothwell, D. 388

Roucounas, E. 13

Rousseau, J. 16

Rowe, P. 103

Rubin, B. 20

rule of law and limits of power 159–60, 230–33

Russel, F. 30

Russell, R. 353

Ruys, T. 336–7, 351, 377, 379, 383, 385, 389, 394, 406, 435

Rwanda 125, 134, 145, 147, 148, 167, 181, 423

Saavedra Lamas non-aggression Treaty (1933) 75, 81, 85

Sadoff, D. 389

Sadurska, R. 331, 333

Salvioli, J. 30

Sampford, C. 419

sanctions 98, 102, 107, 144–5

breaches of international law, UN Charter, Chapter VII 125–9

committees 227–9

non-State entities and individuals, UN Charter Article 25 283

and right of States to be heard, UN Charter Article 50 290–92

sanctioning Security Council when it exceeds its powers see UN Security Council, coercive powers, value and limits, sanctioning Security Council when it exceeds its powers

‘smart’ (targeted) sanctions, UN Charter Article 50 292–3

State’s failure to comply with its obligations, League of Nations Covenant 63–7

States not members of UN, UN Charter Article 25 281–2

and Stimson Doctrine of non-recognition 84

UN Charter, Chapter VII and neutrality concept 310, 316

see also vetoes

Sands, P. 321

Sapiro, M. 388

Sarooshi, D. 114, 161, 170, 173, 175, 195, 361

Scelle, G. 70–71

Schachter, O. 102, 103, 195, 263, 265, 322, 331, 393

Schäfer, A. 104, 115, 121, 134

Schaller, C. 144, 418

Schiffbauer, B. 389

Schindler, D. 42, 308, 449, 453

Schleicher, E. 19

Schloss, L. 389

Schmahl, S. 251

Schmidl, M. 351

Schmidt, J. 185

Schmitt, C. 48

Schmitt, M. 103, 342, 377, 403

Scholz, M. 383

Schrijver, N. 161

Schücking, W. 57, 59

Schulte, C. 268, 269

Schwarzenberger, G. 367, 368, 405, 421

Schwebel, S. 456

Schwehm, J. 388–9

Schweigman, D. 105, 195, 286–7

Schweisfurth, T. 109, 141, 456

Scott, J. 43–4

Second World War and state of law in 1939 86

security, collective see collective security

Security Council see UN Security Council

Séferiadès, S. 443

self-defence

claims, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 324–5, 326–7, 330, 332, 340, 342

collective see collective self-defence

concept 60

delegation of power and legal nature of authorised action, UN Charter, Article 42 192–7

delegation to a regional organisation, UN Charter, Article 53 198, 202, 203–4

doctrine as diplomatic concept 40

and limitations on recourse to force, Kellogg-Briand Pact 75, 77–8

and peace-keeping operations 297

priority of obligations over other international obligations, UN Charter Article 103 284–5

right 95, 101, 102, 106

UN Charter, Article 51 see prohibition against the use of force, exceptions, UN Charter, Article 51 and self-defence

wars of self-defence as lawful, League of Nations Covenant 59–61, 71

self-determination by colonial peoples and colonialism as permanent aggression 440–42

self-preservation theory (19th century) 41–2

Serbia/Montenegro 281

Sereni, A. 287, 323

Seybold, T. 417

Seyersted, F. 167

Sharp, R. 80

Shaw, M. 105, 232

Shaygan, F. 229, 245

short-term and long-term peace 24–8

justice prevails, as a material condition of durable peace 27–8

negative and positive peace, distinction between 25–6

‘peace before justice’ maxim 24–5, 91

‘peace through justice’ maxim 25, 26, 92

peaceful resolution of disputes 27

repression of violence measure 26

Sicilianos, L. 161–2, 167, 171, 181, 185, 187, 189, 190, 191, 195, 210, 212, 284, 285, 312, 347, 354, 406, 444

Siekmann, R. 304

Sierra Leone 134, 138, 147, 148, 189, 191, 200, 201, 203, 211, 212, 217, 301

Silander, D. 419

silence and implied consent, delegation to a regional organisation, UN Charter, Article 53 209–10

Silvy, V. 377

Simma, B. 7, 47, 92, 94, 96

Simms, B. 421

Sloan, J. 297

‘smart’ (targeted) sanctions, UN Charter Article 50 292–3

Sofaer, A. 342, 416

Sohn, L. 220

Somalia 134, 136, 147, 149, 167, 178, 184–6, 252, 298, 299, 300, 302, 359, 379, 423

Sørensen, M. 110, 430

South Africa 80, 116, 134, 147, 159, 252

South Ossetia 302

Southern Rhodesia 82, 116, 132, 134, 138, 147, 148, 160, 194, 228, 252, 291

sovereignty

equality principle and sovereign rights 236

functional sovereignty argument and humanitarian intervention 425, 430–31

rights and just war doctrine decline 34–7, 39–40

Soviet Union, Brezhnev doctrine 22, 109, 287, 456

Sow, D. 191

Spencer, J. 66

Stahl, S. 420

Stahn, C. 106, 149, 382, 383

Starski, P. 379

start of armed aggression, and self-defence, UN Charter, Article 51 385–91

State as accomplice of terrorist group, UN Charter, Article 51 378–9

States

fear of abuses by 109–10

individual powers and duty of restraint 255–7

right to be heard see UN Security Council decisions, binding nature, UN Charter Article 50, right of States to be heard

States not members of UN 78, 280–82, 283, 312–14, 327

States willing to volunteer for military intervention, UN Charter, Article 42 166–7

Steinweg, R. 30

Stelter, C. 168, 325, 336, 338, 341, 342, 344, 382

Stimson Doctrine of non-recognition see limitations on recourse to force, historic development, Stimson Doctrine of non-recognition (1932)

Stockton, C. 41

Stone, J. 43, 54, 371, 455

Strupp, K. 71

Stürchler, N. 331

Sturzo, L. 14

subordinate power, self-defence as, UN Charter, Article 51 355–8

success, humanitarian intervention and reasonable prospect of success as condition 428–9

Sudan 135, 217–18, 302, 392

Suez 226, 294, 342–3

sui generis ‘authorisation’ category, and delegation of power, UN Charter, Article 42 171, 172

sunset clauses, and delegation of power, UN Charter, Article 42 180, 183–4

superiority culture, and psychological unilateralism problem 22–3

superpower interventions, civil war 103

supply of arms to rebels, armed intervention in civil war 453–4

Sur, S. 343, 352

‘surprise’ wars, elimination of, League of Nations Covenant 48, 61

suspension of economic relations, UN Charter, Article 41 145–6, 147–8

Sutter, P. 444

Suy, E. 255, 280

Swatek-Evenstein, M. 420–21

Switzerland

and Bernese Jura 124–5

neutrality 65, 281, 306, 308, 310–11, 314, 315–16

Youssef Mustapha Nada v SECO 238, 256

Syria 18, 100, 196, 341, 362, 379, 383–5, 468

Szabó, K. 389

Szasz, P. 150

Szetelnicki, K. 30

Szurek, S. 215, 230

Taft, W. 416

Tajikistan 207, 302, 303

Talmon, S. 281

Tams, C. 377

Tancredi, A. 191, 379, 381

Tansey, O. 149

Tanzi, A. 268

Tehindrazanarivelo, D. 247, 301

Tenekidès, G. 443

territorial base, lack of, UN Charter, Article 51 381–5

territorial control, entities controlling exclusively a parcel of territory, UN Charter, Article 51 380–81

territorial integrity, ‘last 23 words’, interpretation problem, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 342–4, 425

territorial invasion, irregular forces sent into territory of another State, UN Charter, Article 51 396–9

territory issues

allowing another State to use one’s territory to perpetrate acts of aggression, UN Charter, Article 51 396

attack, State positions outside its territory, UN Charter, Article 51 395

recovery, armed action to recover territory one claims, UN Charter, Article 51 393

violation of agreements permitting stationing of armed forces in other countries, UN Charter, Article 51 396

terrorism

delisting process for suspected terrorists 100

State as accomplice of terrorist group, UN Charter, Article 51 378–9

terrorist attacks and self-defence, UN Charter, Article 51 361–2, 374

UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 328, 341

UN Charter, Article 41 150

war on terror 98, 100, 107, 108, 129, 135–6, 137

Tesón, F. 425

Thakur, R. 418–19

Thallinger, G. 239, 256

Thielen, O. 298

Thierry, H. 231, 371

third states, action against, UN Charter, Article 53 208–9

Thirlway, H. 264

threat to peace

categorisation 104–5, 107

and delegation of power, UN Charter, Article 42 177–8

determination of, UN Charter, Chapter VII 118–22, 127–8, 132–4, 135–6, 157

ultimatum as, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 332

threat of war, Kellogg-Briand Pact 79

threats to use force 469

and self-defence, UN Charter, Article 51 403

UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 331–4

see also force, use of

Thürer, D. 427

Tibori-Szabó, K. 377

time considerations, limited duration of mandate, UN Charter, Article 42 181–4

tolerance, neighbourliness and spirit of peace, UN Charter 91

Toman, J. 42

Tomuschat, C. 156, 219, 277, 377, 386, 404, 425

Treves, T. 136

Tsagourias, N. 345, 378, 379, 403

Tunisia 116

Turkey, Imia rock 120

Tzanakopoulos, A. 126, 417

Uganda 199, 423, 438

UK, Torrey Canyon incident 242

ultimatum as threat, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 332

see also threat to peace

UN Charter

Article 2 § 4 see UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 and prohibition against the use of force

Article 14 and peaceful change problem 460–62

Article 24 § 2, purposes and principles 235–7

Article 25 and UN Security Council decisions see UN Security Council decisions, binding nature, UN Charter Article 25

Article 39 and breaches of international law 127–9

Article 39 as keystone 113–14

Article 39 not delegated by Security Council 114–15

Article 41 (non-military measures) see UN Security Council, coercive powers, substantive powers, Article 41 (non-military measures)

Article 42, military action and delegation of power see UN Security Council, coercive powers, substantive powers, Article 42 (military action) and delegation of power

Article 43 military contingent provision 164–71

Article 50, right of States to be heard see UN Security Council decisions, binding nature, UN Charter Article 50, right of States to be heard

Article 51 and self-defence see prohibition against the use of force, exceptions, UN Charter, Article 51 and self-defence

Article 53, delegation to a regional organisation see UN Security Council, coercive powers, delegation to a regional organisation (Article 53 of Charter)

Article 94 § 2, International Court of Justice, judgment execution and implementation 260–61, 263–6, 267, 268–9

Article 103, priority of obligations over other international obligations see UN Security Council decisions, binding nature, UN Charter Article 103, priority of obligations over other international obligations

Chapter VII, automatic jurisdiction under, and International Court of Justice 276–8

Chapter VII, collective measures over unilateral measures of self-defence 355

Chapter VII, decision that a situation requires action see UN Security Council, coercive powers, decision that a situation requires action (Chapter VII of Charter)

Chapter VIII and self-defence 198, 202, 203–4

dispute resolution mechanisms and threats to peace 50

humanitarian intervention see humanitarian intervention

‘peace before justice’ maxim 24–5, 91

‘peace through justice’ maxim 25, 26, 92

prohibition against the use of force by States 5–11, 69

prohibition against the use of force by States, as norm of international order 7–9

self-defence concept 60

self-defence in derogation from the Charter 358

UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 and prohibition against the use of force 321–48

applicability (location) 328–9

applicability (personal) 327–8

applicability (subject matter) 329–45

armed conflict, knowing when it has ended 338–9

armed force restriction and interpretation 334–6

breach consequences 345–8

demarcation and armistice lines, recognising 339–40

derogations or exceptions 326–7, 344–5

disputed territory, recovery after hostilities ended 340

dual sources, problems arising from 324–5

economic, social and political coercion 335

exception reliance 324

failed States 341–2

force and state of war 329–30

indirect force 337

intentional use of force 337

internal conflict becoming internationalised 338

international organisations 328

in international relations 337–42

‘last 23 words’, interpretation problem (territorial integrity or political independence of any state) 342–4, 425

League of Nations principles 346–7

maritime law 329

and non-intervention in the internal affairs of another State 334

non-Member States 327

as norm of international customary law 325

outer space 329

parallelism between threat and use of force 332

as peremptory norm 326–7

as peremptory norm of international law 344–5

prohibition sources 323–7

prohibition under international customary law 327–8

self-defence claims 324–5, 326–7, 330, 332, 340, 342

State practice assessment 323–4

terrorist groups 328, 341

threats to use force 331–4

threats to use force, and international law 333–4

threats to use force, unlawful threats 332–3

threshold for recourse to force 336–7

ultimatum as threat 332

UN Charter, Chapter VII and neutrality concept 305–17

belligerents, dealing with 305–6, 316

collective security 307–11

collective security, outside 311–14

decline 314–17

differentiated neutrality 308, 309–11, 312, 313–14

double game of practising and abandoning neutrality 314

neutrality abandonment situations 311–12, 314

non-belligerency 308–9

non-members of UN 312–14

‘normal course of trade’ principle 306

ordinary neutrality 305–6

perpetual neutrality 306–7

resurgence 317

sanctions 310, 316

‘Uniting for Peace’ Resolution 311–12

UN Charter, scheme and structure 89–110

civil war interventions 103

Cold War period 99–103

collective security and centralising right to use force 95–8, 99, 102–3

collective security and centralising right to use force, weaknesses 97–8

collective self-defence 101

‘Dean Acheson’ Resolution 102–3

dispute resolution 93–4, 156–7

Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) 92, 93

fear of abuses by States 109–10

Great Powers’ influence 99, 100–101, 106–7

ideals and realities post-World War Two 99–101

international cooperation for economic and social progress of peoples 92

international disputes to be resolved in accordance with requirements of justice and international law 91–2

Member States to combine forces 91

NATO’s parallel action independent of UN 98

negative peace as short-term strategy 94–8

New World Order 103–5

nuclear weapons and international control 101–2, 108

positive peace as long-term strategy 90–94

preventive element 89

regional arrangements 89–90, 97

repressive element 89

right to intervene on humanitarian grounds 106, 109

right to use force and coalitions of the willing 107

‘rogue States’, policy of threatening 108

schematic development 101–8

Secretary-General’s political role 103

self-defence right 95, 101, 102, 106

strong executive, quest for 111

‘threat to the peace’ categorisation 104–5, 107

tolerance, neighbourliness and spirit of peace 91

unilateralism and collective action intermingled 106–8

war on terror 98, 100, 107, 108

UN Emergency Force (UNEF) 221

UN General Assembly

controls, sanctioning Security Council when it exceeds its powers 251–2

and International Court of Justice, judgment execution and implementation 269–71

Resolution 3314 on wars of aggression 52

UN Security Council

delegation practice 359–60

delisting process for suspected terrorists 100

discretionary assessment on threats to peace 50

Great Powers’ influence 100–101

humanitarian intervention involvement 106, 423–4, 429–31

and International Court of Justice, judgment execution and implementation 261–3, 265–9

measures and sacrifice of vital individual interests, UN Charter, Article 51356–7

parallel competences with ICJ see International Court of Justice, exercise of parallel competences by Security Council

and peace-keeping operations 206–7, 211–12, 295–6

sanctions see sanctions

Security Council/Assembly and Security Council/Court relationships 272–4

‘threat to the peace’ categorisation 104–5, 107

UN Security Council, coercive powers 91, 111–259

dispute resolution 141

double veto 112

incidental powers 141–3

incidental powers, investigations and challenges 141–2

incidental powers, provisional measures 142–3

proxy vetoes and Cold War period 112–13

right of veto 111–12

sanctions committees 227–9

sanctions committees, problems with 229

UN Security Council, coercive powers, authorisation by UN General Assembly for use of Force 218–27

collective action over any international treaty obligation conflict 223–4

collective security obligations by Member States 224–5

and collective self-defence 222–3, 225–6

and primary responsibility of Security Council 221–2

and UN Emergency Force (UNEF) 221

‘Uniting for Peace’ Resolution (Dean Acheson Resolution) 218–27

‘Uniting for Peace’ Resolution (Dean Acheson Resolution), practice 226–7

‘Uniting for Peace’ Resolution (Dean Acheson Resolution), scope 220–26

UN Security Council, coercive powers, decision that a situation requires action (Chapter VII of Charter) 113–40

acts of aggression, determination of 116–17, 128

AIDS pandemic 139

breach of the peace, determination of 117–18

disarmament 136–7

discretionary power to act following determination 130–33

environmental issues 140

evaluation process 115–22

existence of armed conflict or threat of it 133

failed States 139–40

failure to comply with obligations assumed under its authority 137–8

human rights violations 133–5

internal conflicts 123–5, 133–4

nature of State’s political regime 138–9

piracy 136

requirement that situation is a danger to international peace 123–5

sanction for breaches of international law 125–9

sanction for breaches of international law, Dumbarton Oaks project 128–9

sanction for breaches of international law, prior violation of international law 125–7

threats to peace, determination of 118–22, 127–8, 132–4, 135–6, 157

UN Charter Article 39 and breaches of international law 127–9

UN Charter Article 39 as keystone 113–14

UN Charter Article 39 not delegated by Security Council 114–15

violations of international humanitarian law 124

war on terror 129, 135–6, 137

UN Security Council, coercive powers, delegation to a regional organisation (Article 53 of Charter) 168, 189, 197–218

action against third states 208–9

authorisation after the fact 210–11

authorisation by General Assembly and Security Council blockages 215–16

centralisation of ‘coercive’ action at regional level 197–201

ex post facto authorisation 211–13, 217

humanitarian intervention 199–200

legality of non-military measures where there is no delegation 204–7

obligation to carry out enforcement actions 213–15

peace-keeping operations 206–7, 211–12

practice of 216–18

problematic and forbidden authorisations 209–13

regional ‘collective security’ 203

regional organisations definition 202–4

Security Council authorisation primacy 198–201

self-defence and UN Charter Chapter VIII 198, 202, 203–4

silence and implied consent 209–10

UN Security Council, coercive powers, substantive powers, Article 41 (non-military measures) 143–61

ad hoc orders to States 149–51

ad hoc tribunals 148–9, 159

arms embargoes 144, 147

breaking-off of diplomatic relations 146

criminal tribunals 146, 147

dispute resolution limitations 155–9

economic and diplomatic restrictions 147–8

immunity to personnel participating in international operations authorised by Security Council 150

implementation of measures 160–61

international administration of territories 149

and international humanitarian law 151

legislative powers, lack of 154–5

limits to Security Council’s powers 151–9

measures available 145–51

non-exhaustive 146–7

as policing power 152–3

proportionality considerations 163–4

‘quasi-judicial’ determinations 158–9

rule of law as test for limits to powers 159–60

sanctions 144–5

suspension of economic relations 145–6

terrorism 150

UN Charter Article 42 relationship 162–4

UN Security Council, coercive powers, substantive powers, Article 42 (military action) and delegation of power 161–97

carte blanche 178, 180–81

centralisation and decentralisation balance 186, 188, 193–4

deal-making concerns 191–2

discretion as to use of force limited by precise criteria 171–3

dual command 185–6

ex post or implicit authorisations 185

Great Powers intervention 179–80

implied (improper) 186, 187–9

and legitimate self-defence as mixed cases 194–7

limited duration of mandate 181–4

post facto (retrospective) authorisations 186, 189–92

proportionality considerations 163–4, 172

public law mandate 171

reverse vetoes 183, 184

Security Council authorisation of military action that is only recommended 207

self-defence, authorising collective 193–4, 195

self-defence and legal nature of authorised action 192–7

silence giving assent 190

States willing to volunteer for military intervention 166–7

sui generis ‘authorisation’ category 171, 172

sunset clauses 180, 183–4

and threat to peace 177–8

to Member States 173–8

to Member States, problems relating to 179–86

to Member States, setting out precise objectives 179–81

‘trigger termination’ clauses 183–4

UN Charter Article 41 relationship 162–4

UN Charter Article 43 relationship and military contingent provision 164–71

and unilateral actions 181–2, 190, 192

unilateral withdrawal of troops 184–5

UN Security Council, coercive powers, value and limits 229–59

conforming to will of international community 249–50

discretionary power 229–34

discretionary power, limits to 234–50

equality principle and sovereign rights 236

and fundamental human rights 237, 238–9

legitimacy and effectiveness connection 233

peremptory norms of international law (jus cogens) 237–40

prohibition against aggression 239–40

review body, absence of 250

rule of law and limits of power 230–33

subjective margin of appreciation 233–4

UN Charter Article 24 § 2, purposes and principles 235–7

UN Security Council, coercive powers, value and limits, justice and international law 245–9

dispute resolutions 248–9

general limitation 247–8

policing measures and quasi-legislative measures, distinction between 247–8

specific limitations 248–9

UN Security Council, coercive powers, value and limits, proportionality issues 236, 241–5

and capacity 241

narrow sense 242–3, 245

and necessity 241–2, 243–4

and objective of maintaining international peace 243–4

UN Security Council, coercive powers, value and limits, sanctioning Security Council when it exceeds its powers 251–7

individual powers of States and duty of restraint 255–7

judicial review by International Court of Justice 252–7

national reviews and inherent risks 254

political approach 253

UN General Assembly controls 251–2

UN Security Council decisions, binding nature 279–93

UN Security Council decisions, binding nature, UN Charter Article 25279–83

irreversible conflict between a treaty or customary obligation 289

legal effects 288–90

sanctions against non-State entities and individuals 283

States not members of UN 280–82

States not members of UN, sanctions 281–2

temporary conflict between treaty provision and concrete measures decided by an organ of UN 289–90

treaty between Member State and non-Member State 288

treaty between two Member States 288

treaty between two non-Member States 288

UN Security Council decisions, binding nature, UN Charter Article 50, right of States to be heard 290–93

empirical phase 291–2

financial assistance 291

sanctions, effects of 290–92

‘smart’ (targeted) sanctions 292–3

‘synthetic’ phase 292–3

UN Security Council decisions, binding nature, UN Charter Article 103, priority of obligations over other international obligations 283–90

international law obligations 286–7

prohibition against the use of force 285–6

right of self-defence 284–5

UNESCO Constitution 12

unilateral actions 468

and collective action intermingled 106–8

and delegation of power, UN Charter, Article 42 181–2, 190, 192

discretionary unilateral first strike, UN Charter, Article 51 390

psychological 21–4

withdrawal of troops, UN Charter, Article 42 184–5

‘Uniting for Peace’ (‘Dean Acheson’) Resolution 102–3, 215, 218–27, 296, 311–12

‘unjust’ judgments, International Court of Justice 268–9

unlawful threats, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4332–3

unlawful wars and League of Nations Covenant

limitations on recourse to force 51–4

war against a State which was in compliance with a legal judgment 54

war begun prior to expiry of three-month moratorium 54

wars of aggression 51–3, 60, 61, 72–3

see also lawful wars

US

and Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris) 74

Bryan Treaties 43–4, 47, 54

Caroline 364–5, 366, 370

Cold War period 13

Ministries 405

Monroe Doctrine 43, 78

psychological unilateralism 22–3

Reagan doctrine 22, 109, 287, 433, 457

September 11 attacks 193–4, 317

Vallat, F. 222

Van Staden, A. 19

Van Steenberghe, R. 7, 351, 377, 389, 391, 394, 406

Vanderpol, A. 30

Vashakmadze, M. 419, 430

Verdebout, A. 5, 49

Verdross, A. 96

Verhoeven, J. 84, 383, 391

Verhoeven, S. 383

Verlage, C. 418

Verplaetse, J. 313

Versailles Peace Treaty and rights of possession 48

Verzijl, J. 305

vetoes

double 112

and International Court of Justice, judgment execution and implementation 265–8, 269

proxy vetoes and Cold War period 112–13

right of veto 111–12

see also sanctions

Vianès, E. 149

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 289, 335, 446

Villani, U. 204, 205, 206, 212, 213, 214

violation of agreements permitting stationing of armed forces in other countries, UN Charter, Article 51 396

violence

concerns, and humanitarian intervention 432

repression of violence measure 26

see also abuse

Vité, S. 260, 454

volunteering, States willing to volunteer for military intervention, UN Charter, Article 42 166–7

Von Steinäcker, G. 313

Vulcan, C. 455

Waldock, C. 365, 372, 436

Waldock, H. 385

Wallace, D. 419

Walt, S. 391

Walter, C. 97, 190, 197, 198, 199, 202, 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 211, 212, 213, 215, 216, 218

Walters, F. 68, 78, 108, 402

Walzer, M. 30

Wandscher, C. 383

war on terror 98, 100, 107, 108, 129, 135–6, 137

see also terrorism

war where Council do not succeed in establishing report within six months, as lawful, limitations on recourse to force, historic development, League of Nations Covenant (1919) 58–9

wars

between States parties and non-State parties, Kellogg-Briand Pact 78

lawful, League of Nations Covenant (1919) 54–63, 71, 78

state of war and use of force, UN Charter, Article 2 § 4 329–30

unlawful see unlawful wars and League of Nations Covenant

Warsaw Pact, collective self-defence 101, 287

Watkin, K. 465

Watson, G. 104, 231

Waxman, M. 89, 403

Wedgwood, R. 107, 373

Wehberg, H. 30, 57, 59, 68, 73, 80, 112, 338

Weissbrodt, D. 421

Wellens, K. 179

Weller, M. 20

Wenzel, M. 418

Weston, B. 168

White, N. 106, 117, 161, 297, 429

Whiteman, M. 205

Whitton, J. 49

Wild, P. 80

Wilde, R. 149

Wildhaber, L. 281, 306, 307, 310

Willoughby, W. 62, 78

Wilson, G. 161

Wilson, H. 68, 440

Wilson, R. 308

withdrawal, unilateral withdrawal of troops, UN Charter, Article 42 184–5

Wittich, S. 351

Wolf, J. 365

Wolfrum, R. 227

Wollbrink, S. 126

Wood, M. 465

Wouters, J. 388

Wright, Q. 73, 79, 187, 322, 443, 467

Wyler, E. 70

Yemen 379, 411, 448–9

Yoo, J. 179, 182, 416

Yugoslavia (former)

Bosnian war and Dayton Accords 83, 217, 315–16

compliance measures 160

humanitarian intervention 134

independence moves 338

International Criminal Tribunal, Tadic 146, 147, 148–9, 234, 252, 382, 397, 398, 399

Kosovo see Kosovo

nationalism 15

NATO intervention 208, 209

non-recognition principle 82, 83

peace-keeping operations 299, 301

sanctions and arms embargo 144, 145, 281, 284, 290, 291, 292, 310

Yusuf, A. 200, 375

Zacklin, R. 195

Zambelli, M. 104, 105, 115, 121, 127, 133, 227, 232

Zambia 445

Zemanek, K. 237, 255

Zimmermann, A. 112, 260, 266

Zimmern, A. 66

Zöckler, M. 461

Zourek, J. 335, 441, 443

Zwanenburg, M. 216–17

Zyberi, G. 419