Show Less
You do not have access to this content

The Mobilities Paradox

A Critical Analysis

Maximiliano E. Korstanje

The theory of mobilities has gained great recognition and traction over recent decades, illustrating not only the influence of mobilities in daily life but also the rise and expansion of globalization worldwide. But what if this sense of mobilities is in fact an ideological bubble that provides the illusion of freedom whilst limiting our mobility or even keeping us immobile? This book reviews the strengths and weaknesses of the mobilities paradigm and in doing so constructs a bridge between Marxism and Cultural theory.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you


A Critical Analysis

Maximiliano E. Korstanje

Acemoglu, D., and Robinson, J.A. (2013). Why Nations Fail: The Origins of Power, Prosperity, and Poverty. New York, NY: Crown Business.

Achcar, G. (2015). Clash of Barbarisms: The Making of the New World Disorder. Abingdon: Routledge.

Adey, P., Bissell, D., Hannam, K., Merriman, P., and Sheller, M. (2014). The Routledge Handbook of Mobilities. London: Routledge.

Agamben, G. (1998). Homo Sacer: Sovereign Power and Bare Life (trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Ainsworth, M.S. (1974). The Development of Infant–Mother Attachment. Review of Child Development. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Altheide, D.L. (2006). Terrorism and the politics of fear. Cultural Studies, Critical Methodologies, 6(4): 415–439.

Althusser, L. (2006). Ideology and ideological state apparatuses (notes towards an investigation). The Anthropology of the State: A Reader, 9(1): 86–98.

Anderson, B. (2006). Imagined Communities (revised edition). London: Verso.

Anderson, J.W. (1972). Attachment Behaviour out of Doors. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anta Félez, J.L. (2013). Una etnografía del avión. Cuerpos sujetos a la disciplina del consumo viajero. AIBR. Revista de Antropología Iberoamericana, 8(3): 324–343.

Armitage, J. (ed.) (2000). Paul Virilio: From Modernism to Hypermodernism and Beyond. London: Sage.

Asad, T. (1991). Afterword: From the history of colonial anthropology to the anthropology of Western hegemony. In G.W. Stocking (ed.), Colonial Situations: Essays on the Contextualization of Ethnographic Knowledge. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press, pp. 314–324.

Augé, M. (1992). Non-lieux. Introduction à une anthropologie de la submodernité. Paris: Le Seuil.

Augé, M. (1996). Paris and the ethnography of the contemporary world. In M. Sheringham (ed.), Parisian Fields. London: Reaktion Books, pp. 175–181.

Augé, M. (1997). L’impossible voyage: le tourisme et ses images (The impossible journey: tourism and its images). Paris: Payot and Rivages.

Augé, M. (1999). An Anthropology for Contemporaneous Worlds. California, CA: Stanford University Press.

Augé, M. (2001). No-lugares y espacio público (Non-places and public space). Quaderns d’arquitectura i urbanisme, (231): 6–15.

Augé, M. (2002). Diario de Guerra: el mundo después del 11 de Septiembre (War Diary: the world after September 11). Barcelona: Gedisa.

Augé, M. (2008). Non-Places: An Introduction to Supermodernity (trans. John Howe). London and New York, NY: Verso.

Axtell, G. (2000). Introduction. In G. Axtell (ed.), Knowledge, Belief and Character: Reading in Virtue Epistemology. Boston, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, pp. xi–xxix.

Badiou, A. (2009). Logics of Worlds. New York, NY: Continuum.

Bærenholdt, J.O. (2013). Governmobility: the powers of mobility. Mobilities, 8(1): 20–34.

Barry, A., Osborne, T., and Rose, N.S. (eds) (1996). Foucault and Political Reason: Liberalism, Neo-liberalism, and Rationalities of Government. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Barthes, R. (1972). Mythologies (trans. Annette Lavers). New York, NY: Hill and Wang.

Baudrillard, J. (1981). For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign (vol. 262). St. Louis, MS: Telos Press.

Baudrillard, J. (1983). Simulations. New York, NY: Semiotext(e).

Baudrillard, J. (1992). Revolution and the end of utopia. In W. Stearns and W. Chaloupka (eds), Jean Baudrillard. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 233–242.

Baudrillard, J. (2003). The Spirit of Terrorism and Other Essays. London: Verso.

Baudrillard, J. (2006). Virtuality and events: the hell of power. Baudrillard Studies, 3(2): 1–9.

Baudrillard, J., and Evans, A.B. (1991). Simulacra and science fiction (Simulacres et science-fiction). Science Fiction Studies, 18(3): 309–313.

Bauman, Z. (1998). Globalization: The Human Consequences. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Bauman, Z. (2008). Liquid Fears: Contemporary Society and its Liquid Fears. Buenos Aires: Paidos Editorial.

Bauman, Z. (2011). Collateral Damage: Social Inequalities in a Global Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bauman, Z. (2013). Liquid Times: Living in an Age of Uncertainty. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Beck, U. (1992a). From industrial society to the risk society: questions of survival, social structure and ecological enlightenment. Theory, Culture & Society, 9(1): 97–123.

Beck, U. (1992b). Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (vol. 17). London: Sage.

Beck, U. (1995). Ecological Enlightenment: Essays on the Politics of the Risk Society. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.

Beck, U. (2011). Convivir con el Riesgo Global. In D. Innerarity and J. Solana (eds), J En La Humanidad Amenazada: gobernar los riesgos globales. Madrid: Paidos, pp. 21–32.

Benko, S. (2005). Ethics, technology, and post human communities. Essays in Philosophy, 6(1): article 1.

Best, S., and Kellner, D. (1999). Debord, cybersituations, and the interactive spectacle. SubStance, 28(3): 129–156.

Bianchi, R., and Stephenson, M. (2014). Tourism and Citizenship: Rights, Freedoms and Responsibilities in the Global Order. Abingdon: Routledge.

Bissell, D. (2010). Passenger mobilities: affective atmospheres and the sociality of public transport. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 28(2): 270–289.

Bleicher, J., and Featherstone, M. (1982). Historical materialism today: an interview with Anthony Giddens. Theory, Culture & Society, 1(2): 63–77.

Bojanic, D.C., and Lo, M. (2016). A comparison of the moderating effect of tourism reliance on the economic development for islands and other countries. Tourism Management, 53: 207–214.

Boorstin, D. (1961). From traveler to tourist: the lost art of travel. In The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-events in America. New York: Atheneum, pp. 77–117.

Boscarino, J.A., Adams, R.E., Figley, C.R., Galea, S., and Foa, E.B. (2006). Fear of terrorism and preparedness in New York City 2 years after the attacks: implications for disaster planning and research. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 12(6): 505.

Bourdieu, P., and Wacquant, L.J. (1992). An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Bowlby, J. (2005). A Secure Base: Clinical Applications of Attachment Theory (vol. 393). London: Taylor & Francis.

Bowlby, J. (2008). A Secure Base: Parent–Child Attachment and Healthy Human Development. New York, NY: Basic books.

Bramwell, B. (2015). Theoretical activity in sustainable tourism research. Annals of Tourism Research, 54: 204–218.

Bramwell, B., and Lane, B. (2013). Getting from here to there: systems change, behavioural change and sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 21(1): 1–4.

Busby, G., Korstanje, M.E., and Mansfield, C. (2011). Madrid: literary fiction and the imaginary urban destination. Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice Volume, 3(2): 20–37.

Büscher, M., and Urry, J. (2009). Mobile methods and the empirical. European Journal of Social Theory, 12(1): 99–116.

Büscher, M., Urry, J., and Witchger, K. (eds) (2010). Mobile Methods. Abingdon: Routledge.

Buvinic, M. (2008). Un balance de la violencia en América Latina: los costos y las acciones para la prevención. Pensamiento iberoamericano, 2: 37–54.

Cameron, C. (2010). The unnatural history of heritage: what’s the future for the past? Journal of Heritage Tourism, 5(3): 203–218.

Campbell, E. (2010). The future(s) of risk: Barthes and Baudrillard go to Hollywood. Crime, Media, Culture, 6(1): 7–26.

Castel, R. (2006). The Social Insecurity ¿What Does it Mean to be Protected? Buenos Aires: El Manantial.

Castoriadis, C. (2006). Lo que hace a Grecia: Seminarios 1982–1983: La creación humana II. De Homero a Heráclito. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Centeno, M.A. (2002). Blood & Debt. War and the Nation-state in Latin America. Pennsylvania, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Chamorro, P.B. (2006). Ius Hospitii y ius civitatis. Gerión. Revista de Historia Antigua, 24(1): 207–235.

Chaturvedi, S., and Doyle, T. (2015). Climate Terror: A Critical Geopolitics of Climate Change. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Chermak, S. (2003). Marketing fear: representing terrorism after September 11. Journal for Crime, Conflict and the Media, 1(1): 5–22.

Conn, S. (1998). Museums and American Intellectual Life, 1876–1926. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Coser, L. (1961). Las Funciones del Conflicto Social. Buenos Aires: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Cosmides, L., and Tooby, J. (2000). Evolutionary psychology and the emotions. In M. Lewis and J.M. Haviland Jones (eds), Handbook of Emotions. London: Guilford Press, pp. 91–115.

Cresswell, T. (2001). ‘The production of mobilities. New Formations, 43(1): 11–25.

Cresswell, T. (2006). The right to mobility: the production of mobility in the courtroom. Antipode, 38(4): 735–754.

Cresswell, T. (2010). Towards a politics of mobility. Environment and Planning D, 28(1): 17–31.

Crimp, D. (1987). The postmodern museum. Parachute, 46: 61–95.

Danahay, M., and Rieder, D. (2005). The Matrix: Marx, and the Coppertop’s life. In W. Irwin (ed.), The Matrix and Philosophy. Chicago, IL: Open Courts, pp. 216–224.

Davidson, D. (2005). Truth, Language, and History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

De Sousa, R. (1987). The Rationality of Emotion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Dean, M. (2013). The Signature of Power: Sovereignty, Governmentality and Biopolitics. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Debord, G. (1967). The Society of the Spectacle (trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith). New York: Zone Books.

Debord, G. (2012). Society of the Spectacle. New York, NY: Bread and Circuses Publishing.

Derrida, J. (1997). Deconstruction in a Nutshell: A Conversation with Jacques Derrida (No. 1). New York, NY: Fordham University Press.

Derrida, J. (2005). The principle of hospitality. Parallax, 11(1): 6–9.

Descartes, R. (1991). The Philosophical Writings of Descartes: Volume 3, the Correspondence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Descola, P. (2005). On anthropological knowledge. Social Anthropology, 13(1): 65–73.

Dewey, J. (1997). How we Think. New York, NY: Courier Corporation.

Diekmann, A., and Hannam, K. (2012). Touristic mobilities in India’s slum spaces. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(3): 1315–1336.

Diken, B. (2004). From refugee camps to gated communities: biopolitics and the end of the city. Citizenship Studies, 8(1): 83–106.

Diken, B. (2011). Fire as a metaphor of (im)mobility. Mobilities, 6(1): 95–102.

Diken, B., and Laustsen, C.B. (2002). Zones of indistinction: security, terror, and bare life. Space and Culture, 5(3): 290–307.

Donohue, K.G. (2003). Freedom from Want: American Liberalism and the Idea of the Consumer. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press.

D’Ors, A. (1953). Epigrafía jurídica de la España romana. Madrid.

Douglas, M., and Wildavsky, A. (1983). Risk and Culture: An Essay on the Selection of Technological and Environmental Dangers. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Doyle, T., and Chaturvedi, S. (2010). Climate territories: a global soul for the global south? Geopolitics, 15(3): 516–535.

Duclos, D. (1987). Le Risque: une construction sociale? In J. Fabiani, and J. Thyes (eds), La Societeé Vulnerable. Paris: Ecole Normale Superieure, pp. 91–92.

Durkheim, E. (2014). The Division of Labor in Society. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Eagleton, T. (2011). Trouble with Strangers: A Study of Ethics. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Eid, M. (2014). Exchanging Terrorism Oxygen for Media Airwaves: The Age of Terroredia. Hershey, PE: IGI Global.

Ekman, P. (1992). An argument for basic emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 6(3–4): 169–200.

Ekman, P.E., and Davidson, R.J. (1994). The Nature of Emotion: Fundamental Questions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Elias, N. (1982). The Civilizing Process (vol. 2). Oxford: Blackwell.

Elias, N. (2002). Humana conditio. Consideraciones en torno a la evolución de la humanidad, Barcelona, Península Ed.

Elias, N. (2010). The Loneliness of the Dying and Humana Conditio. Dublin: UCD Press.

Elias, N., and Dunning, E. (1986). Quest for Excitement: Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ellul, J., and Merton, R.K. (1964). The Technological Society. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Escobar, A. (2010). Latin America at a crossroads: alternative modernizations, post-liberalism, or post-development? Cultural Studies, 24(1): 1–65.

Esteva, G., and Prakash, M.S. (1998). Beyond development, what? Development in Practice, 8(3): 280–296.

Etienne, R., Le Roux, P., and Tranoy, A. (1987). La tessera hospitalis, instrument de sociabilité et de romanisation dans la Peninsule Ibérique, Sociabilite, pouvoirs et societe. Actes du colloque de Rouen 1983, Rouen, pp. 323–336.

Evans-Pritchard, E.E. (1985). Los Nuer. Barcelona: Anagrama.

Fabian, J. (1983). Time and the Other: How Anthropology makes its Object. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. London: Vintage.

Foucault, M. (2001). Fearless Speech. Los Angeles, CA: Semiotext(e).

Foucault, M. (2003). Society Must Be Defended: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1975–1976 (vol. 1). Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Foucault, M. (2008). Seguridad, territorio, población (vol. 265). Madrid: Ediciones Akal.

Foucault, M. (2009). Security, Territory, Population: Lectures at the College de France 1977–1978 (vol. 4). New York, NY: Macmillan.

Freire-Medeiros, B. (2014). Touring Poverty. Abingdon: Routledge.

Frenzel, F., and Koens, K. (2012). Slum tourism: developments in a young field of interdisciplinary tourism research. Tourism Geographies, 14(2): 195–212.

Freud, S. (1925). On Creativity and the Unconscious: Papers on the Psychology of Art, Literature, Love, Religion (vol. 45). New York, NY: Harper.

Gale, T. (2009). Urban beaches, virtual worlds and the end of tourism. Mobilities, 4(1): 119–138.

Ganser, D. (2005). NATO's Secret Armies: Operation GLADIO and Terrorism in Western Europe. London: Frank Cass Publishers.

García-Canclini, N. (2010). ¿Los Arquitectos y el Espectáculo les hacen mal a los museos? In A. Castilla (ed.), En El Museo en Escena. Política y Cultura en América Latina. Buenos Aires: Paidós, pp. 131–144.

Gee, J.P. (1986). Orality and literacy: from the savage mind to ways with words. Tesol Quarterly, 20(4): 719–746.

Geertz, C. (1980). Negara. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Germann-Molz, J. (2006). ‘Watch us wander’: mobile surveillance and the surveillance of mobility. Environment and Planning A, 38(2): 377–393.

Germann-Molz, J.G. (2012). Travel Connections: Tourism, Technology, and Togetherness in a Mobile World. Abingdon: Routledge.

Giddens, A. (1971). Capitalism and Modern Social Theory: An Analysis of the Writings of Marx, Durkheim and Max Weber. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self-Identity. Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. California, CA: Stanford University Press.

Giddens, A. (1999). The Consequences of Modernity. Madrid: Alianza Editorial.

Giddens, A. (2011). The Politics of Climate Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Glock, H.J. (2003). On Language: Thought and Reality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Goody, J. (1977). The Domestication of the Savage Mind. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gramsci, A. (1995). Further Selections from the Prison Notebooks. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Greco, M., and Stenner, P. (2013). Emotions: A Social Science Reader. Abingdon: Routledge.

Greenspan, P.S. (2014). Emotions And Reasons: An Inquiry into Emotional Justification. Abingdon: Routledge.

Guidotti-Hernández, N.M. (2011). Unspeakable Violence: Remapping US and Mexican National Imaginaries. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Haddington, P., Mondada, L., and Neville, M. (2013). Interaction and Mobility, Language and the Body in Motion. Berlin: De Gruyter.

Hallward, C., and Norman, J.M. (eds) (2015). Understanding Non-violence: Contours and Contexts. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hannam, K. (2009). The end of tourism? Nomadology and the mobilities paradigm. In J. Tribe (ed.), Philosophical Issues in Tourism. Bristol: Channel View Publications, pp. 55–70.

Hannam, K., Butler, G., and Paris, C.M. (2014). Developments and key issues in tourism mobilities. Annals of Tourism Research, 44: 171–185.

Hannam, K., Sheller, M., and Urry, J. (2006). Editorial: mobilities, inmobilities and moorings. Mobilities, 1(1): 1–22.

Harding, S. (1986), The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Harris, M. (1988). Culture, People, Nature: An Introduction to General Anthropology. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Harrison, F.V. (ed.) (1997). Decolonizing anthropology: Moving further toward an anthropology of liberation. Arlington, VA: Association of Black Anthropologists, American Anthropological Association.

Harvey, D. (1989). The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Harvey, D. (2004). La Condición de la Posmodernidad: investigación sobre los orígenes del cambio cultural. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu Editores.

Heilbroner, R.L. (2011). The Worldly Philosophers: The Lives, Times And Ideas of the Great Economic Thinkers. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Hewison, R. (1987). The Heritage Industry. London: Methuen.

Hobsbawm, E. (1994). The Age of Extremes: The Short 20th Century, 1914–1991. London: Abacus.

Hochschild, A.R. (2003). The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Holton, R.J. (2011). Globalization and the Nation State. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hopkins, A. (2005). Safety, Culture and Risk. Sydney: CCH Australia.

Hoskins, A., and O’Loughlin, B. (2009). Television and Terror: Conflicting Times and the Crisis of New Discourse. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Howie, L. (2011). Terror on the Screen: Witnesses and the Re-Animation of 9/11 as Image-event, Popular Culture and Pornography. Washington DC: New Academia Publishing.

Howie, L. (2012). Witnesses to Terror: Understanding the Meanings and Consequences of Terrorism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Huizinga, J. (1993). The Waning of the Middle Ages. Chicago, IL: Encyclopedia Britannica.

Huizinga, J. (2014). Homo Ludens Ils 86. London: Routledge.

Huntington, S.P. (1993). The clash of civilizations? Foreign Affairs: 22–49.

Illouz, E. (2008). Saving the Modern Soul: Therapy, Emotions, and the Culture of Self-help. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Ingold, T. (2000). The Perception of the Environment: Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill. London: Routledge.

Ingold, T. (2011). Being Alive. Essays on Movement. London: Routledge.

Irwin, W. (2005). Computers, caves and oracles: Neo and Socrates. In W. Irwin (ed.), The Matrix and Philosophy. Chicago, IL: Open Courts, pp. 2–15.

Ivanov, S.H., and Webster, C. (2013). Tourism's contribution to economic growth: a global analysis for the first decade of the millennium. Tourism Economics, 19(3): 477–508.

James, T. (2012). Elite Statecraft and Election Administration: Bending the Rules of the Game. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

James, W. (1884). What is emotion? Mind, 9(1): 188–205.

Joll, J. (1979). The Anarchists. Cambridge: Methuen.

Jonassen, D.H. (1991). Objectivism versus constructivism: do we need a new philosophical paradigm? Educational Technology Research and Development, 39(3): 5–14.

Jones, K. (2008). Quick or smart: modularity and the pro emotion consensus. In Modularity and the Nature of Emotions. Special issue. Faucher, L. and C. Tappolet (eds), The Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 369(1): 3–28.

Kahan, D.M., Braman, D., Gastil, J., Slovic, P., and Mertz, C.K. (2007). Culture and identity-protective cognition. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 4(3): 465–505.

Kaplan, C. (2006a). Mobility and War: the Cosmic View of US Air Power. Environment and Planning A, 38(2): 395–407.

Kaplan, C. (2006b). Precision Targets: GPS and the Militarization of US Consumer Identity. American Quarterly, 58(3): 693–714.

Kelly, J.D., and Kaplan, M. (2001). Nation and Decolonization: Toward a New Anthropology of Nationalism. Anthropological Theory, 1(4): 419–437.

Kessler, G. (2009). El sentimiento de inseguridad: sociología del temor al delito. Buenos Aires: Siglo Veintiuno Editores.

Klein, N. (2007). The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. New York, NY: Macmillan.

Korsmeyer, C. (2005). Seeing, Believing, Touching, Truth. In W. Irwin (ed.), The Matrix and Philosophy. Chicago, IL: Open Courts, pp. 41–52.

Korstanje, M. (2006). El viaje: una crítica al concepto de ‘no lugares’. Athenea Digital, 10: 211–238.

Korstanje, M. (2009a). Non-places and tourism: towards an understanding of travel. Antrocom, 5(2): 103–106.

Korstanje, M.E. (2009b). Miedos democráticos: nuevas expresiones del temor en Latinoamérica. Eikasia: revista de filosofía, (28): 109–123.

Korstanje, M.E. (2010). Elemental forms of hospitality. Revista Brasileira de Pesquisa em turismo, 4(2): 1–10.

Korstanje, M. (2012). Reconsidering cultural tourism: an anthropologist's perspective. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 7(2): 179–184.

Korstanje, M.E. (2013). Preemption and terrorism. When the future governs. Cultura, 10(1): 167–184.

Korstanje, M.E. (2015a). A portrait of Jost Krippendorf. Anatolia, 26(1): 158–164.

Korstanje, M.E. (2015b). A Difficult World, Examining the Roots of Capitalism. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Korstanje, M.E. (2016a). The Rise of Thana Capitalism and Tourism. Abingdon: Routledge.

Korstanje, M.E. (2016b). Terrorism in a Global Village, How Terrorism Affects Our Daily Lives. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers.

Korstanje, M.E. (2017). Terrorism, Tourism and the End of Hospitality in The West. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Korstanje, M., and Busby, G. (2010). Understanding the Bible as the Roots of Physical Displacement: the Origin of Tourism. E-Review of Tourism Research, 8(3), 95–111.

Korstanje, M.E., and Clayton, A. (2012). Tourism and terrorism: conflicts and commonalities. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 4(1): 8–25.

Korstanje, M.E., and George, B.P. (2012). Falklands/Malvinas: a Re-examination of the Relationship between sacralisation and tourism development. Current Issues in Tourism, 15(3): 153–165.

Korstanje, M.E., and George, B.P. (2015). The media or the message? An examination of myths as resources to understand the tourism phenomenon. International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, 4(2): 122–141.

Korstanje, M.E., and Mansfield, C. (2017). Critical notes on the use of heritage in tourism studies. In Prayer Elmo Raj (ed.), Literature and Society: Critical Perspectives. New Delhi: Authorspress, pp. 373–395.

Korstanje, M.E., and Olsen, D.H. (2011). The discourse of risk in horror movies post 9/11: hospitality and hostility in perspective. International Journal of Tourism Anthropology, 1(3–4): 304–317.

Korstanje, M., and Seraphin, H. (2017). Revisiting the sociology of consumption in tourism. In S.K. Dixit (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Consumer Behaviour in Hospitality and Tourism. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 2–16.

Korstanje, M.E., and Skoll, G. (2013). An essay on the social costs and benefits of technology evolution. Human & Social Studies. Research and Practice, 2(2): 13–39.

Korstanje, M., and Skoll, G. (2014). Biopolitics and clonation, the roots of paradise. International Journal of Human Potential Development, 3(1): 20–33.

Korstanje, M.E., and Tarlow, P. (2012). Being lost: tourism, risk and vulnerability in the post-9/11 entertainment industry. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change, 10(1): 22–33.

Krippendorf, J. (1982). Towards new tourism policies: the importance of environmental and sociocultural factors. Tourism Management, 3: 135–148.

Krippendorf, J. (1986). The new tourist: turning point for leisure and travel. Tourism Management, 7: 131–135.

Krippendorf, J. (1987a). Ecological approach to tourism marketing. Tourism Management, 8: 174–176.

Krippendorf, J. (1987b). The Holiday-Makers: Understanding the Impact of Travel and Tourism. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Kurkul, E. (1997). Trapped in a web of covert killers. Covert Action Quarterly (winter): 6–12.

Larsen, J., and Urry, J. (2011). Gazing and performing. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 29(6): 1110–1125.

Larsen, J., Urry, J., and Axhausen, K.W. (2007). Networks and tourism: mobile social life. Annals of Tourism Research, 34(1): 244–262.

Lash, S. (2000). Risk culture. The Risk Society and Beyond: Critical Issues for Social Theory. London: Sage, pp. 47–62.

Lash, S., and Urry, J. (1993). Economies of Signs and Space (vol. 26). London: Sage.

Lashley, C., and Morrison, A. (2001). In the Search of Hospitality. London: Butterworth Heinmann.

Law, J. (1994). Organizing Modernity. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Law, J., and Mol, A. (2001). Situating technoscience: an inquiry into spatialities. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space, 19: 609–621.

Lévi-Strauss, C. (1955). The structural study of myth. The Journal of American Folklore, 68(270): 428–444.

Lloyd, J. (2003). Dwelltime: airport technology, travel and consumption. Space and Culture, 6: 96–109.

Lopes, M.M. (2010). Compartir Espacios, colgar ballenas y apoyar a las Universidades. In A. Castilla (ed.), El Museo en Escena. Política y Cultura en América Latina. Buenos Aires: Paidós, pp. 39–52.

Luhmann, N. (1993). Communication and Social Order: Risk: A Sociological Theory. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Luhmann, N. (2006). Risk: A Sociological Theory. Mexico: Universidad Iberoamericana.

Lynch, P. (2005). Sociological impressionism in a hospitality context. Annals of Tourism Research, 32(3): 527–548.

Lynch, P., Molz, J.G., McIntosh, A., Lugosi, P., and Lashley, C. (2011). Theorizing hospitality. Hospitality & Society, 1(1): 3–24.

MacCannell, D. (1973). Staged authenticity: arrangements of social space in tourist settings. American journal of Sociology, 79(3): 589–603.

MacCannell, D. (1976). The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

MacCannell, D. (1992). Empty Meeting Grounds: The Tourist Papers. New York, NY: Routledge.

MacCannell, D. (2001). Tourist agency. Tourist Studies, 1(1): 23–37.

MacCannell, D. (2002). The ego factor in tourism. Journal of Consumer Research, 29(1): 146–151.

MacCannell, D. (2011). The Ethics of Sightseeing. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

MacCannell, D., and MacCannell, J.F. (1993). Social class in postmodernity. In C. Rojek, and B.S Turner (eds), Forget Baudrillard. London, Routledge, pp. 124–145.

Main, M. (2001). The organized categories of the attachment in the infant, in the boy and in the adult: flexible attention versus inflexible low stress related with the attachment. Magazine of Psychoanalysis, Psychoanalytical Journal, 8(1): 100–120.

Malinowski, B. (1948). Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays (vol. 23). Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Marcuse, H. (1968). One Dimensional Man: The Ideology of Industrial Society. New York, NY: Sphere Books.

Martell, L. (2017). The Sociology of Globalization. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Marx, K. (1964). Selected Writings in Sociology and Social Philosophy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Marx, K. (1967). Capital Volume 1: The Process of Capitalist Production, edited by Frederick Engels; translated from the third German edition by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling. New York, NY: International Publishers.

Marx, K. (1972). The Marx–Engels Reader (vol. 4). New York, NY: Norton.

Marx, K., and Engels, F. (1970). The German Ideology (vol. 1). New York, NY: International Publishers Co.

Marx, K., and Engels, F. (2002). The Communist Manifesto. New York, NY: Penguin Press.

Mattelart, A. (1994). Mapping World Communication: War, Progress, Culture. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

McLuhan, M., Gordon, W.T., Lamberti, E., and Scheffel-Dunand, D. (2011). The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

McMichael, P. (2011). Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective. New York, NY: Sage.

Merton, R.K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Meskimmon, M (2011). Contemporary Art and the Cosmopolitan Imagination. London: Routledge.

Míguez, D., and Isla, A.R. (2010). Entre la inseguridad y el temor: instantáneas de la sociedad actual. Buenos Aires: Paidós.

Moore, S.E., and Burgess, A. (2011). Risk rituals? Journal of Risk Research, 14(1): 111–124.

Motta, R. (2010). Museo de Arte en Brasil: entre lo moderno y lo contemporáneo. In A. Castilla (ed.), El Museo en Escena. Política y Cultura en América Latina. Buenos Aires: Paidós, pp. 185–206.

Mowforth, M., and Munt, I. (2015). Tourism and Sustainability: Development, Globalisation and New Tourism in the Third World. Abingdon: Routledge.

Musgrave, A. (1993). Common Sense, Science and Scepticism: A Historical Introduction to the Theory of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nixon, D.M. (2005). The Matrix possibility. In W. Irwin (ed.), The Matrix and Philosophy. Chicago, IL: Open Courts, pp. 28–40.

O’Beirne, E. (2006). Navigating ‘non-lieux’ in contemporary fiction: Houellebecq, Darrieussecq, Echenoz, and Augé. The Modern Language Review, 388–401.

O’Gorman, K. (2006). Jacques Derrida’s philosophy of hospitality. Hospitality Review, 8(4): 50–57.

Oh, C.O. (2005). The contribution of tourism development to economic growth in the Korean economy. Tourism Management, 26(1): 39–44.

Oliver-Smith, A. (2002). Theorizing disasters, nature, power and culture? In S. Hoffman, and A. Oliver-Smith (eds), Catasthrope and Culture: The Anthropology of Disasters. Oxford: School of American Research James Currey, pp. 23–47.

Oswin, N., and Yeoh, B. (2010). Introduction: mobile city Singapore. Mobilities, 5(2): 167–175.

Pagden, A. (1995). Lords of all the World: Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France c. 1500–c. 1800. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Parsons, T. (1935). HM Robertson on Max Weber and his school. Journal of Political Economy, 43(5): 688–696.

Paul, R. (2000). Critical thinking, moral integrity and citizenship. In G. Axtell (ed.), Knowledge, Belief and Character: Reading in Virtue Epistemology. Boston, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, pp. 163–176.

Penchaszadeh, A.P. (2014). Politica y Hospitalidad: disquisiciones urgentes sobre la figura del extranjero. Buenos Aires: Eudeba.

Podgorny, I. (2010). Naturaleza, Colecciones y Museos y Museos en Iberoamérica. In A. Castilla (ed.), El Museo en Escena. Política y Cultura en América Latina. Buenos Aires: Paidós, pp. 53–70.

Pratt, M.L. (2007). Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation. New York, NY: Routledge.

Prentice, A.M. (2006). The emerging epidemic of obesity in developing countries. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(1): 93–99.

Press, A.L (1991). Women Watching Television: Gender, Class and Generation in the American Television Experience. Philadelphia, MA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Prinz, J.J. (2006). Is emotion a form of perception? Canadian Journal of Philosophy, 36(sup1): 137–160.

Quine, W.V.O. (2013). Word and Object. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Ramos y Loscertales, J. (1948). Hospicio y Clientela en España Cética. Revista Emérita, 10(1): 308–337.

Rawls, J. (1999). The Law of Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Richardson, J. (2010). The certainty of uncertainty: risk management revisited. Foresight, 12(4): 47–64.

Robin, C. (2004). Fear: The History of a Political Idea. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rorty, R. (1961). Pragmatism, categories, and language. The Philosophical Review, 70(2): 197–223.

Rorty, R. (1982). Consequences of Pragmatism: Essays, 1972–1980. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Sageman, M. (2014). The stagnation in terrorism research. Terrorism and Political Violence, 26(4): 565–580.

Sahlins, M.D. (1963). Poor man, rich man, big-man, chief: political types in Melanesia and Polynesia. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 5(3): 285–303.

Sahlins, M.D. (1965). Exchange-value and the diplomacy of primitive trade. In J. Helm (ed.), Essays in Economic Anthropology: Dedicated to the Memory of Karl Polanyi. Seattle: University of Washington Press, pp. 95–129.

Sahlins, M.D. (1972). Stone Age Economics. New York, NY: Transaction Publishers.

Said, E.W. (1989). Representing the colonized: anthropology's interlocutors. Critical Inquiry, 15(2): 205–225.

Salazar, N.B. (2012a). Tourism imaginaries: a conceptual approach. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(2): 863–882.

Salazar, N.B. (2012b). The (im)mobility of tourism imaginaries. In M. Smith and G. Richards (eds), Routledge Handbook of Cultural Tourism. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 34–39.

Sather-Wagstaff, J. (2011). Heritage that Hurts, Tourists in the Memory-Scapes of September 11. California, CA: Left Coat Press.

Scheffler, S. (2001). Boundaries and Allegiances: Problems of Justice and Responsibility in Liberal Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Scheper-Hughes, Nancy (1992). Death Without Weeping: The Violence of Everyday Life in Brazil. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Schick, T. (2005). Fate, freedom and foreknowledge. In W. Irwin (ed.), The Matrix and Philosophy. Chicago, IL: Open Courts, pp. 87–98.

Scribano, A. (2016). Sociología de las Emociones en Carlos Marx – Sociology Of Emotions In Karl Marx. Raleigh, NC: Editorial A Contracorriente.

Searle, J.R. (1987). Reiterating the differences: a reply to Derrida. AUT, (217–218): 200–210.

Selsam, H., Goldway, D., and Martel, H. (1970). Dynamics of Social Change: A Reader in Marxist Social Science. New York, NY: International Publishers.

Sennett, R. (2011). The Corrosion of Character: The Personal Consequences of Work in the New Capitalism. New York, NY: WW Norton & Company.

Sheller, M. (2004). Automotive emotions feeling the car. Theory, Culture & Society, 21(4–5): 221–242.

Sheller, M., and Urry, J. (2006). The new mobilities paradigm. Environment and Planning A, 38(2): 207–226.

Simon, J. (2007). Governing Through Crime. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Singer, P. (2005). Ethics and intuitions. The Journal of Ethics, 9(3–4): 331–352.

Skoll, G.R. (2007). Meanings of terrorism. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law, 20(2): 107–127.

Skoll, G.R. (2010). Social Theory of Fear: Terror, Torture, and Death in a Post-Capitalist World. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Skoll, G. (2014). The Dialectics of Social Thoughts. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Skoll, G. (2016). Globalization of American Fear Culture: The Empire in the Twenty-First Century. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.

Skoll, G.R., and Korstanje, M.E. (2012). Risks, totems, and fetishes in Marx and Freud. Sincronía, (2): 11–27.

Skoll, G.R., and Korstanje, M.E. (2013). Constructing an American fear culture from red scares to terrorism. International Journal of Human Rights and Constitutional Studies, 1(4): 341–364.

Slovic, P. (1987). Perception of risk. Science, 236(4799): 280–285.

Sorokin, P. (1962). Dinámica Social y Cultural. Madrid: Instituto de Estudios Políticos.

Sosa, E. (2000). Reliabilism and intellectual virtue. In G. Axtell (ed.), Knowledge, Belief and Character: Reading in Virtue Epistemology. Boston, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, pp. 19–32.

Soyinka, W. (2005). The Climate of Fear: The Quest for Dignity in a Dehumanized World. New York, NY: Random House.

Stampnitzky, L. (2013). Disciplining Terror: How Experts Invented Terrorism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Stilz, A. (2009). Liberal Loyalty: Freedom, Obligation and the State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Sunstein, C.R. (2002a). Probability neglect: emotions, worst cases, and law. Yale Law Journal, 61–107.

Sunstein, C.R. (2002b). Risk and Reason: Safety, Law, and the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sunstein, C.R. (2006). Laws of Fear: Beyond the Precautionary Principle (vol. 6). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Szerszynski, B., and Urry, J. (2006). Visuality, mobility and the cosmopolitan: inhabiting the world from afar. British Journal of Sociology, 57(1): 113–131.

Tang, C.F., and Tan, E.C. (2015). Does tourism effectively stimulate Malaysia's economic growth? Tourism Management, 46: 158–163.

Thomas, N. (1994). Colonialism's Culture: Anthropology, Travel and Government. Cambridge: Cambridge: Polity Press.

Tierney, K. (1994). Sociology’s unique contributions to the study of risk. Disaster Research Center, Repository DRC, University of Delaware. Preliminary Paper, 204.

Timmermann, F. (2014). El Gran Terror. Miedo, Emoción Y Discurso. Chile, 1973–1980. Santiago de Chile: Copygraph.

Trask, H.K. (1991). Natives and anthropologists: the colonial struggle. The Contemporary Pacific, 3(1): 159–167.

Tzanelli, R. (2007). The Cinematic Tourist: Explorations in Globalisation, Culture and Resistance. London and New York, NY: Routledge.

Tzanelli, R (2013). Heritage in Digital Era, Cinematic Tourism and the Activist Cause. London: Routledge.

Tzanelli, R. (2015). On Avatar's (2009) semiotechnologies: from cinematic utopias to Chinese heritage tourism. Tourism Analysis, 20(3): 269–282.

Tzanelli, R. (2016). Thanatourism and Cinematic Representations of Risk: Screening the End of Tourism (vol. 176). Abingdon: Routledge.

Tzanelli, R., and Korstanje, M.E. (2016). Tourism in the European economic crisis: mediatised worldmaking and new tourist imaginaries in Greece. Tourist Studies, 16(3): 296–314.

Tzanelli, R., and Yar, M. (2009). Paradoxes of belonging: migration, exclusion and transnational rights in the Mediterranean. Development, 52(4): 473–478.

Urry, J. (1988). Cultural change and contemporary holiday-making. Theory, Culture & Society, 5(1): 35–55.

Urry, J. (1992). The tourist gaze and the environment. Theory, Culture & Society, 9(1): 1–26.

Urry, J. (1999). Mobile cultures. Department of Sociology, Lancaster University. Lancaster: (accessed September 20, 2017).

Urry, J. (2002). The global complexities of September 11th. Theory, Culture & Society, 19(4): 57–69.

Urry, J. (2003). Global Complexity. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Urry, J. (2004). The system of automobility. Theory, Culture & Society, 21(4–5): 25–39.

Urry, J. (2005). The complexities of the global. Theory, Culture & Society, 22(5): 235–254.

Urry, J. (2007). Mobilities. Cambridge: Cambridge: Polity Press.

Urry, J., and Larsen, J. (2011). The Tourist Gaze 3.0. London and Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Uteng, P., and Cresswell, T. (2008). Gendered Mobilities. Abingdon: Routledge.

Vannini, P. (2012). Ferry Tales: Mobility, Place, and Time on Canada's West Coast. New York, NY: Routledge.

Vannini, P., and Williams, J.P. (eds) (2009). Authenticity in Culture, Self, and Society. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing.

Veblen, T. (2009). The Theory of the Leisure Class. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Virilio, P. (1986). Speed and Politics: An Essay on Dromology. New York, NY: Semiotext(e).

Virilio, P. (1989). War and cinema. The Logistics of Perception. London: Patrick Camiller.

Virilio, P. (1997). The overexposed city. In N. Leach (ed.), Rethinking Architecture: A Reader in Cultural Theory, part V. London: Routledge, pp. 380–390.

Virilio, P. (2005a). Desert Screen: War at the Speed of Light. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

Virilio, P. (2005b). City of Panic. Oxford: Berg.

Virilio, P. (2005c). Desert Screen: War at the Speed of Light. New York, NY: A&C Black.

Virilio, P. (2006). Speed and Politics: An Essay on Dromology [Velocidad y política: Ensayo sobre dromología] (M. Polizzotti, ed.). Los Angeles, CA: Semiotext (e).

Virilio, P. (2010). University of Disaster. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Virilio, P. (2012). The Great Accelerator. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Walters, W. (2016). Border/control. In A. Amelina, K. Horvath, and B. Meus (eds), An Anthology of Migration and Social Transformation. Berlin: Springer International Publishing, pp. 151–165.

Waters, E. et al. (2002). Bowlby’s secure base theory and the social/personality psychology of attachment style: work in progress. Attachment and Human Development, 4(1): 230–242.

Waterton, C., and Wynne, B. (1999). Can Focus groups access community views? In R. Barbour, and J. Kitzinger (eds), Developing Focus Group Research: Politics, Theory and Practice. London: Sage, pp. 127–143.

Weber, M. (1978). Economy and Society: An Outline of Interpretive Sociology. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Weber, M. (2002). The Protestant Ethic and the ‘Spirit’ of Capitalism and Other Writings. New York, NY: Penguin.

World Tourism Organization Report (2015). International arrivals up 4% reaches a record of 1.2 billons in 2015.

Yar, M. (2002). Panoptic power and the pathologisation of vision: critical reflections on the Foucauldian thesis. Surveillance & Society, 1(3): 254–271.

Yoo, J. (2008). The Powers of War and Peace: The Constitution and Foreign Affairs After 9/11. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Zagzebski, L. (2000). From reliabism to virtue epistemology. In G. Axtell (ed.), Knowledge, Belief and Character: Reading in Virtue Epistemology. Boston, MA: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, pp. 113–122.

Zimmet, P. (2000). Globalization, coca‐colonization and the chronic disease epidemic: can the Doomsday scenario be averted? Journal of Internal Medicine, 247(3): 301–310.

Žižek, S. (1989). The Sublime Object of Ideology. London: Verso.

Žižek, S. (2012). Mapping Ideology. London: Verso.