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A Transatlantic History of Public Administration

Analyzing the USA, Germany and France

Fritz Sager, Christian Rosser, Céline Mavrot and Pascal Y. Hurni

Intellectual traditions are commonly regarded as cultural variations, historical legacies, or path dependencies. By analysing road junctions between different traditions of Public Administration this book contests the dominant perspective of path-dependent national silos, and highlights the ways in which they are hybrid and open to exogenous ideas.
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Index

Fritz Sager, Christian Rosser, Céline Mavrot and Pascal Y. Hurni

academic boundary delineation 138

accountability 20, 38, 63, 69, 71

accounting 39, 46–7, 83, 133

actor-centered perspective 147

Adams, Herbert 31

administration

administration as an organ of the state 131

democratic administration 81, 94, 97

dysfunctions in administration see dysfunctions in administration

federal administration 48, 63–4, 81

German Administration see German

science of administration 43, 107, 115

see also administrative science; French Public Administration; German Public Administration; US Public Administration

US Public Administration see United States / USA

Administration Industrielle et Générale (Henri Fayol 1916) 39, 41–2

see also General and Industrial Management

administrative

administrative function 23, 34–5, 39, 43, 46, 108, 141

administrative ideas 1–4, 9, 13, 37, 67, 83, 98, 127, 129, 132–3, 140, 145, 151

see also transfer

administrative law see law

administrative malfunction 151

administrative practice 3, 5, 54, 64, 72, 102, 112, 116, 133, 136, 142, 150–53

administrative praxis 5, 104, 121, 143

administrative principles 9, 19, 48, 49, 78

administrative reality 109, 112–3, 123, 126

administrative scholars and practitioners 106

administrative science 1, 9, 42, 68–76, 79, 81–90, 93–6, 98, 100–102, 104–11, 113–15, 117, 121, 127–8, 134, 136, 141, 146, 148, 153

see also French Public Administration; German Public Administration; science of administration; US Public Administration

administrative state 8, 18, 124

administrative theory see theory

administrative toolbox 46

administrative traditions 4, 6, 9–10, 15, 130, 145, 148–50, 153

administrative training 147

Administrative Procedure Act (APA) 63–4

adoption 12, 15, 63, 135, 138, 140–41, 143–4, 147, 151

aggregate level 15

Allied control commission 80

Allied High Commission 96

American

American political science 148

Anglo-American 1, 105–6, 117–21, 129

Anglo-American Public Administration 106

see also US Public Administration

Anglo-American intellectual traditions 1

Native American 62

analysis

comparative analysis 4, 109

comparative text-analysis 15

functional analysis 39, 43

Anglo-American Public Administration see American

anti-etatism 146

asceticism 62

assessorism 74

Atlantic 13, 16, 28, 31, 36, 90, 129, 134

auditing 46–7, 57

external auditing 57

author 10, 13, 15, 19, 29–30, 38, 43, 55–6, 58, 64–5, 67, 84, 91, 94, 103, 110–11, 113–14, 119, 125, 127–8, 132–5, 138–9, 141–2, 145–6

authority 27, 39–41, 45, 49–50, 53, 59–62, 64–5, 119

charismatic authority 61

legal-rational (authority) 60–61

traditional authority 61–2

see also domination

automation 69–70, 79, 82, 92–3, 97

Beamtenherrschaft 54

behavior 21, 41, 56, 61, 87, 105, 108, 112, 123–7, 152

behavioral 121–3, 142

behavioral revolution 21

behavioralist notion 136–7

Berkeley 54

Berlin 31, 96

Blau, Peter M. 55–8, 87

Bluntschli, Johann 23, 28–31, 34

body of knowledge 106, 116, 128, 146

body of sources 13–14, 16

Bonnin, Charles-Jean 38

bottom up 45, 119, 126

Braibant, Guy 108–10, 128

Brownlow, Louis 48

Brownlow Report 48

Brussels 42

Budget Bureau 47

budgeting 19, 43, 46–7, 87, 116, 118, 133

bureaucracy

blueprint for bureaucracy 145

dysfunctions of bureaucracy 56

see also dysfunctions in administration

federal bureaucracy 57

theory of bureaucracy 49, 52, 57, 132, 136

bureaucrat(s) 22, 27, 50, 53–4, 56–7, 59, 61, 63–4, 66, 132, 136–7, 143, 145

bureaucrats in transversal functions 143

negative image of (the) bureaucrat(s) 136–7

Bureaucratization 55, 58–9, 62

bureaucratization thesis 55, 58–9

Burgess, John 31–2, 84

burgher class 52

business 18, 38, 46, 112, 132

business administration and management 132

business culture 18

business plans 46

Cameralist 101

capitalism 36, 52, 59

case study 46, 106, 112–13, 115, 136, 143, 147

case study method see method

Cassin, René 107, 109–11, 113, 117, 128, 135, 142

cathartic watersheds 148

Center of Sociology of Organizations (CSO) 124, 126

chain of command 45, 53

charismatic 50, 52–3, 61

charismatic domination 53, 61

see also authority; domination

charismatic leadership 61

checks and balances 8, 26, 33, 140

citizens 7–8, 53, 57–8, 83, 92, 104, 108, 114, 116

civil

civil servant 23, 27, 30, 34, 76, 97, 116, 119, 121, 127

see also public servant

civil society 24–8

Civil Service Commission 47

clientelism 139

Cold War 80, 123

Coleman’s boat 16

collectivism 23

Columbia (University) 42, 54

commanding 39, 44–6

Committee on Administrative Management 19, 42, 48

common sense 2, 19

communication 39, 45, 83, 86–7, 101, 125

communication structure 87

communication theory see theory 86

comparative 1–2, 4, 6, 10, 13, 15, 64, 84–5, 96, 101, 108–11, 127, 129, 141–2, 147, 150

comparative law see law

comparative study of Public Administration see Public Administration

computer 70, 82–3

concept

conceptual map 1, 4, 151

concentration camp 61, 63

Congress 20–21, 42, 48, 63, 118, 123

conservative scholars 92

constitution 25, 28–30, 32, 35, 37, 72, 77, 85, 142

constitutional thought 18

constitutionalism 26

positive constitutionalism 26

negative constitutionalism 26

Constructivist 59

Continental Europe 1, 6–7, 9, 41, 129, 140

Continental European path 129

Continental European tradition 6, 140

continuing education 147

contract theories 8, 26, 29, 37

see also social contract;

control 26, 37, 45–7, 52, 57–8, 80, 92, 98, 109, 114, 119, 139–40

controlling 39–40, 46, 56, 74, 114, 128, 143

coordinating 19, 39–40, 43–4, 46, 91, 133

corruption 36, 93, 139

councilors of state 134

court 8, 18, 20, 48, 64

Crown 26–8, 75

Crozier, Michel 105–6, 121–8, 137–8, 142

culture 10, 18, 51

cybernetic 82, 86–7, 89, 92, 97, 100, 132, 135–6, 138, 140, 143–4, 147

cybernetic political theory 87, 89

cybernetic (systems theory) 86, 89

Debbasch, Charles 107–9, 113–14

decision-making 82, 86–8, 91, 108, 112, 115, 122, 126, 139

decision-making process 82, 86, 88, 91, 108, 122

decision theory see theory

deductive 1, 4

deed (Tat) 30, 34, 131

see also will, will and deed

demilitarization 80

democracy 25, 52, 57–9, 71–2, 75–7, 81, 91, 93–9, 102, 133, 135, 139–40, 142

Aristotelian democracy 25

liberal democracy 59

democratic 19, 32, 37–8, 48, 52, 58–60, 63, 69, 72, 75, 77, 79, 81, 86, 93–7, 130, 132, 135, 139, 142

democratic administration see administration

democratic dilemma 75, 79, 81, 93

democratization 18, 68, 70–72, 80, 86, 96, 134–5, 140

de-Nazification 80, 140

see also Nazi

Denhardt, Robert 59

depression 78, 90, 139

see also Great Depression

despotic power 8

Deutsch, Karl W. 86, 132, 136, 138

Dialectical 25

Dibble, Vernon K. 61–2

dichotomous 148, 150

dilemma(s) 11–12, 21, 36–7, 68–72, 75, 77–9, 81, 83, 90, 93, 104–5, 107, 110, 115, 123, 138–42, 144, 147, 151

historical dilemmas 138–9, 142

political dilemmas 139

social and economic dilemmas 139, 147

directing 19, 43–5, 133

discipline

emerging discipline 104, 114

new discipline 104, 108, 113, 142–3, 146, 148

scientific discipline 105–6, 128, 134, 144

discourse 12, 14–15, 28, 70, 72, 82, 89, 93, 102, 130, 135–6

disenchantment-thesis 59

division

division of labor 19, 44, 50, 140

division of power 43, 82, 89, 124, 148

dominant web of beliefs see web of beliefs

domination

charismatic domination 53, 61

see also authority

political domination 53

legal domination 50, 52, 61

legal-rational domination 60

see also authority

legal-rational type of domination 60

sociology of domination 55, 60–61

traditional domination 53, 61

see also authority

Downs, Anthony 22, 56

Drago, Roland 109–11, 135, 142

dysfunctionalities 151, 153

see also administrative malfunction

dysfunctions in administration 88

see also dysfunctions of bureaucracy

École nationale d’administration (ENA) 112, 117

economics 8, 122

Economy and Society (Max Weber) 54

education 9, 26–7, 31, 36, 41, 73, 76–7, 85, 95, 97, 106, 110–12, 117, 128, 143, 147, 151–2

education system 152

effectiveness 66, 69, 71, 76

efficiency 66, 69, 71, 76

substantive efficiency 66

technical efficiency 65

e-government see government

emerging discipline see discipline

Empire 68, 71–2, 74, 76, 99

see also German Empire

empirical 1, 4, 7–9, 15–16, 21, 50–51, 62, 64, 70, 79, 87, 102, 122, 124, 127, 131, 148, 150

empirical validity 15

end of history 27

engineer 79, 82, 91, 133, 139

Entzauberung 52

epistemological 4, 31, 33, 50, 86, 100, 115, 127

epistemology 135

Erhard, Ludwig 81, 103

esprit de corps 27, 40, 50

ethos of vocation 50

Etzioni, Amitai 58, 61

Europe 1, 6–7, 9, 41, 85, 101, 108

European Recovery Program (ERP) 81

executive

chief executive 38–9, 42–9

executive branch 19–20, 35, 48, 60, 131, 135, 140

explorative 12

external auditing see auditing 57

family 14, 24–5, 77, 150

family building 150

Fayol, Henri 17, 38–48, 67, 125, 131–3, 141, 146

Fayol’s scientific management 131–2

see also management

Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) see Germany

finance, material, personal 118

Fiorina, Morris 63

formal and informal rules 139French

French administrative science 104–11, 113–15, 121, 127–8, 136

French Public Administration 3, 6, 14, 136, 138, 141–4, 147

French public administration 14, 113, 121, 127, 137

Frankfurter Schule 87

Friedrich, Carl J. 86, 96

foreseeing 39, 46

foresight 39, 44

freedom 24–5, 43, 53, 58, 62, 65, 123

free will 24

Fukuyama, Francis 27

Führerstaat 99, 139

funktionale Rationalität 137

game theory see theory

General and Industrial Management (Henri Fayol) 42

general good 24

Geneva 41

Germany

Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) 80–81

re-democratization of Germany 135

German

German administration 69, 71, 80, 101–2, 140

German administrative Theory 70, 72

German Democratic Republic (GDR) 81

German Empire 71–2, 74, 99

German Public Administration 3, 68–70, 87, 89, 133, 144

German public administration 69, 135

German Reich 76–7

post-war German politics 144

Germanic 1, 81, 129

Germanic tradition 129

Germanic tribe 81

global power 61

globalization 9

Gneist, Rudolph von 23, 28, 30–31, 74

goodness of fit 140–41, 152

Goodnow, Frank 23, 31–7, 95, 131

Goodsell, Charles 57

Gouldner, Alvin 59, 61

Gournay, Bernard 108–9, 113–14

governance 8–9, 69, 86, 90, 98, 122, 130

government

democratic government 19, 38, 48, 132

e-government 92

federal government 37

limited government 8

self-government 8, 25

Great Depression 78, 139

Gross, Bertram 56, 58, 63

guardian of the general will 30, 135

Gulick, Luther H. 19, 38, 41–8, 125, 133, 141, 146

Gunnell, John G. 18, 29–30

Halle 31

handbooks 13, 113–14

Harvard 54, 122

Hawthorne experiments 22

Hegel, Georg W.F. 17, 23–9, 31–3, 35–7, 67, 98

Hegelian organicism 37, 135, 137, 139

Hegelian organic state philosophy 132

see also organic state

Hegelian philosophy 28, 37, 131, 139, 140

Heidelberg 31

heuristic 14, 150

hierarchical model 60

hierarchy 44–5, 49, 119, 125, 137

high-level civil servant(s) 105–6, 115–16, 119, 127

historical

historical context 146

historical dilemmas see dilemma

historical institutionalism 3

historical investigation 152

historical relativity 33

historical treatise 153

history

history of administrative ideas 1, 9

history of ideas 5, 11

history of Public Administration see Public Administration

relational history 10

Hitler 76, 92, 133

how-to instruction 152

human rights 107, 110–11

hybridity 9, 129–31, 145, 147–9, 153

hybrid traditions 4, 129–30, 145

see also hybrid intellectual traditions

ideal-type 50–51, 53, 55–7, 61, 64–5, 125, 136–8, 144

ideal-type of bureaucracy 50–51, 53, 55, 57, 65, 125, 138, 144

ideal-typical 4, 11, 50–55, 61–2, 64–6, 137

ideal-typical narrative 4

ideational

ideational change 11, 15

ideational explanation 150–51

ideational path 129

identity building 138, 142, 151

immediate post-war see post-war

immigration 18

implementation

see also policy implementation

implementation studies 89–90

incremental change 1, 4, 149

individualism 9, 23, 37, 137

individual

individual freedom 24, 53, 65

individual liberty 8

individual rights 32, 64

inductive 2, 4, 12, 153

industrialization 18, 68, 72, 77

informal 21, 56, 58, 64, 73, 87, 113, 125–7, 139

information 4, 22, 41, 44, 46, 54, 56, 71, 87, 92, 120, 125, 144

information advantage 22, 54, 56

information management 46

input 65–6, 69, 97, 105, 115, 135, 137

Institut technique des administrations publiques (ITAP) 116–21, 127, 143, 152

institution(s) 7–8, 12, 24–6, 31, 58, 67, 73, 77, 82, 84, 89, 102–3, 111, 117, 139

institutionalization 47, 53, 100, 121, 143, 146, 152–3

intellectual curiosity 138

intellectual traditions 1–2, 6, 9–12, 16, 152

hybrid intellectual traditions 2

see also hybrid traditions

International Institute of Administrative Sciences (IIAS) 109, 128, 147

international level 111

International Management Institute 41

international platform 109, 147

internationalized scholar 109, 127

interpretative understanding 51

interwar period 71–2, 75, 132–3, 139–40

interwar years 133

ira et studium 53

judicial 21, 33, 35, 48, 57, 63–4, 92

judicial appeal 57

judicial oversight 21, 63–4

juridical

juridical approach 6, 104–6, 108, 118, 121–2, 124

juridical perspective 114–15, 125, 141

see also law

Juristenmonopol 73

see also lawyers’ monopoly

Kahn, Robert 60, 63, 126

Katz, Daniel 60, 63, 126

Kritische Theorie see theory

Kuhn, Thomas S. 149

laissez-faire 37

Langrod, Georges 102, 107–15, 128, 135–6, 142

language 15, 41, 55, 112

law

administrative law 13, 68, 70–71, 76–7, 85, 87, 101, 104–15, 123, 126–8, 134–7, 141–4, 146–7

common law 18

comparative law 108, 111, 127, 142

law faculties 108, 112, 114, 117

natural law 37

public and administrative law 82

universal law principles 109, 111

lawyers’ monopoly 72–3, 77, 83

see also Juristenmonopol

leadership 19, 48, 54, 61, 71, 74, 76, 78, 80, 119

legal

legal domination 50, 52

legal framework 114

Legality 109, 128

legalistic tradition 141–2

see also juridical

legislation 29–30, 34–5, 111

legislative 21, 30, 33, 35, 48, 54, 57, 60, 63, 78

legislative branch 35, 60

legislative oversight 57

legislature 8, 21, 26, 29, 35, 43, 48, 135

legitimacy 7, 52–3, 69, 71, 79, 85, 105, 109, 122

legitimation 30, 62, 68, 78

Leitbilder 13

Lieber, Francis 23, 28–31

Liberalism 18

Liberal 8, 28, 57, 59, 72, 77, 99, 123, 130, 140

liberal tradition 8

liberal democracy see democracy 59

Library of Congress 42

Locke, John 8

logical method see method

logic of collective action 22

Lower Saxony 81

loyalty 53, 61, 75

machine 20, 29, 41, 43, 52, 59–61, 63, 78, 82–3, 92–3

machine era 43

machinelike organizations 59

machine theory 63

macro focus 122

macro-level 1, 4, 16, 145, 149–50

Mainzer, Lewis C. 56, 58

management

information management see information

orthodox management 17, 19

orthodox management models 19

scientific management 38, 41–2, 48–9,70, 79, 91, 99, 131–3. 141, 146

scientific management movement 132

top management 39, 41, 46

see also New Public Management

manager 8–9, 41, 97, 120

managerial 2–3, 18, 20, 38–9, 41, 47, 63, 118, 132, 146

managerial approach 20, 63, 132

managerial reforms 2

March, James G. 61, 63, 122–3, 125, 138

market failure 23

Marshall Plan 144

Mayntz, Renate 50, 61, 87–8, 90, 98, 101

maxim of conduct 53

mechanism 2, 22, 52, 56–7

mechanization 118

mediation 12, 31, 130, 138

Mediterranean 148

meritocratic system 36

Merriam, Charles 48

meso-level 149

metaphysical 27, 32, 76

method

case study method 106, 112–13, 115, 136, 143, 147

logical method 148

research method 84

methodological 2, 9, 12, 54, 68–70, 78, 83, 87–8, 128, 135–7, 140, 151

methodological discussions 135–6

methodological individualism 9, 137

methodological instrument 83, 87

methodological paradigm see paradigm

micro-level 4, 16

micro point of view 122

militarism 74, 99

misinterpretation 65–6, 136

modernization 7, 36, 70, 115, 119–20

modernizing and industrializing society see society

monarch 26–8, 30, 69, 72

monarchic 72, 93

monarchy 28, 69, 71, 75, 140

Montesquieu, Charles Louis de Secondat 8, 26, 29, 33–4

moral 27, 32, 41, 56, 139, 146

moral identity 139

moral standard 41, 139

Morris, Georg 31, 63

Morstein-Marx, Fritz 81, 85–8, 92, 95–7

mutual fertilization 4

Napoleonic 1, 129

narrative 4, 8, 11, 28, 102

national

national idiosyncrasies 4

national path 4

National Resource Committee 47

National Socialism 76

National Socialist 72, 75–7, 80, 94–6, 99, 135, 139

National Socialist Party (NSDAP) 76

Nazi 61, 69, 72, 99, 139–40, 144, 147

negative image of the bureaucrat(s) see bureaucrat

Neo-Progressivism 2

Neo-Verwaltungswissenschaft 89, 135, 138, 140, 143–4, 147

Neo-Weberian State see Weber

New Deal 139

new discipline see discipline

New Public Management (NPM) 2, 9, 116, 121, 129

New School for Social Research 54

New York 54

nineteenth century 17–18, 28, 36, 68, 72, 74, 83, 98, 104, 128, 130–32, 139, 141, 145, 148

Niskanen, William A. 22, 56

Nobel Peace Prize 110, 142

normative 7–8, 20–21, 25, 54, 59, 62, 64, 76, 82, 87, 93, 98, 102, 105, 109, 122, 141, 148

North-Baden-Wuerttemberg 81

Northern American study of Public Administration see United States / USA

North-Rhine-Westphalia 81

null hypothesis 130

ontological 31, 102

organic 6, 26, 28–9, 31–5, 37, 40, 76, 131–2, 139–40

organic metaphor 40

organic notion of the state 6

organic state 31–2, 35, 131–2, 139–40

see also Hegel

organic state theory 33

organicism 37, 135, 137, 139

organism 25–6, 29, 37, 61

organization

organization and methods 117

organization theory see theory

sociology of organizations see sociology

organizational

organizational and procedural design 133

organizational behavior 87, 105, 123–4, 126

organizational science 137

organizational sociology see sociology

organizing 19, 39, 43–4, 46–7, 91, 110, 133

orthodox management see management

output 65–6, 69, 97, 105, 137

O&M 117–8

pacifist project 110–11, 127

see also Nobel Peace Prize; world peace

Papers on the Science of Administration (Gulick and Urwick 1937) 42–3

Papers on the Science of Management (1937) 48

paradigm(s) 14, 17–18, 20–22, 72, 76, 78, 83, 88, 90, 97, 100, 102, 116, 121, 127, 129, 131–2, 134, 136, 143, 145, 148–9, 151

methodological paradigm 88

paradigm shift 136

productivity paradigm 116, 127

Parkinson’s laws of administrative growth 88

Parsons, Talcott 54–5, 98, 136, 145

participation 22, 28, 31, 63, 123–4, 140

path dependency 3

Perrow, Charles 57

philosophy 23–4, 28–9, 31–3, 37, 91, 123, 131–2, 139–40, 148

Philosophy of Right (Georg W.F. Hegel 1821) 23–4, 28, 131

physical force 51

planning 19–20, 43–4, 46–7, 79, 87, 89–90, 95, 115–16, 118, 130, 133

Planning, Programming and Budgeting System (PPBS) 116, 121

polemic 57, 81

policy

economic policy 37, 79

policy cycle 89

policy implementation 29, 57, 90

public policy 37, 82, 87, 90

social policy 30, 37, 90, 99

political

political analysis 148

political authority 53

political cybernetics 82, 86–7, 89, 100, 136

political dilemmas see dilemma

political domination see domination

political-economic system 91

political evaluation 89

political freedom 62

political institutions 8, 102

political leadership 54, 75–6

political legitimacy 53

political outcome 149

political philosophy 23, 28–9, 32–3, 131, 148

political planning 89

political reform 28

political science 8, 18, 29, 70, 74, 84–9, 90, 93, 100, 102, 105, 108, 110, 114, 126, 128, 133, 135, 144, 148

political suitability 152

political theory 30, 87

politics

partisan politics 18–9

politics-administration dichotomy 70, 82, 86, 97, 100, 112–13, 129, 131–3, 135–6, 140, 147

POSDCORB 19, 38, 43, 47–8, 133, 141

positive liberty 32

positivistic 59, 86

post-war

immediate post-war 115

post-war German politics see German

post-war period 79, 81, 100, 104–8, 115, 120, 147

practical relevance 2, 153

pragmatist (notion) 137

predictability 51–2, 65, 125

presidency 47–8

US precidency 47

president 8, 19–20, 42, 47, 128

presidential power 48

President’s Committee on Administrative Management 19, 42

pre-World War I period 133

primary sources 4

prime minister 47

principles of administrative management 40, 43, 101

privatization 57

productivity 105, 107, 115–20, 127, 132, 147

productivity paradigm see paradigm

Progress 3, 28, 91, 97, 102, 126, 133

progressive 17–19, 23, 28, 32–3, 36–7, 48, 86–7, 131–3, 139, 146

Progressive Era 18

Progressive movement 131, 139, 146

progressive reform 48

progressive reformers 18

progressivists 95

Protestant 52, 58–9

Protestant ethic 52, 59

Protestant work ethic 62

Protestantism 52, 58, 62

Prussia 28

Psychoanalyst 60

public

public choice 22–3, 55–7, 103, 136

public good 7, 72

public interest 7–8

public policy see policy

public servant(s) 7, 36–7, 73–4, 108, 112, 117, 127

see also civil servant

public service 22, 31, 47, 73–4, 83, 132

public service production and delivery 132

Public Administration

comparative Public Administration 2, 4, 6, 150

comparative study of Public Administration 2, 129

history of Public Administration 4, 129–30

post-World War II Public Administration 134

see also post-war

Public Administration as a discipline 132, 148

public and administrative law see law

Puget, Henry 109, 113–14, 128

purpose-rational 53

pursuit of happiness 24

pyramid structure 60

qualitative comparative text analysis 15

rationality 21, 25, 49, 51, 53, 61–2, 64–5, 78, 122, 125, 137

formal rationality 53, 65

rationalization 49–53, 58–9, 62, 82, 115–16

rationalization thesis 58

reception 12, 15, 23, 28, 38, 54–5, 58, 60, 87, 89, 91, 99, 101, 130, 136–8, 140, 145, 147

Rechtsstaat 73–4, 76–7

see also rule of law

reconstruction 38, 50, 71, 79, 81, 107, 109, 115, 140

re-democratization 86, 135, 140

re-democratization of Germany see Germany

see also democracy; democratic

red tape 22–3

re-education 95

reform 2, 18–19, 28, 48, 79, 81, 87, 98, 105, 116–19, 121, 123, 142, 146

rejection 12, 15, 33, 57, 81, 93, 99, 112–13, 122–3, 147–8

religion 58

reporting 19, 43, 46, 119, 133

representativeness 20

research method see method

responsibility 37, 39, 43, 47, 52, 63, 131–2

responsiveness 20

road junction 4

Roosevelt, Franklin D. 19, 48,

Ruckhäberle, Eugen 85, 94–5

rule of law 53, 58, 64, 73, 76–7, 93

see also Rechtsstaat

Schumann, David 59–60

science of administration see administration

scientific

scientific ambition 152

scientific discipline see discipline

scientific management see management

see also Fayol

scientific method 102

scientific revolution 149

scientific standards 70

selection 12, 54, 74, 89, 98, 130–31, 138, 143

self (Ich) 1, 3, 8, 11, 20, 24–7, 30–32, 59, 62, 72, 119, 130, 134

self-fulfilling prophecy 59

semantic context 15

separation of politics and administration 86, 96, 131

see also politics–administration dichotomy

separation of powers 18, 33, 140

see also trias politica

Simon, Herbert A. 61, 63, 86–8, 122–3, 125, 135, 138

sine ira et studio 53, 56

slavery 62

social

social contract 8, 26, 29, 31, 37

social contract theory 8, 26, 29, 37

social policy see policy

social problem 91, 139, 151

social psychology 124, 126, 132

social science 68, 70, 84–7, 89–90, 96, 100, 110, 133–7, 142

see also political science; sociology

social structure 39, 62

social tensions 18, 36

social and economic dilemmas see dilemma

socialism 59, 76

society

modernizing and industrializing society 139

sociological

sociological form 138

sociology 8, 55, 60–61, 87, 105–6, 114, 121–34, 126–8, 135, 137–8, 143, 145

organizational sociology 87, 122, 138

sociology of organizations 105–6, 114, 121, 123–4, 126–8, 137

US sociology see United States / USA

sovereign 27, 29–30, 74

Soziale Frage 70

spoils system 18, 38, 93–4, 99, 139

Staatsdiener 132, 137

Standardization 118

state

organic state see organic

Prussian state 28

rational state 23–5, 27

servants of the state 72

state bureaucracy 51, 54

state failure 22

state employee 139

state power 8, 36, 89

state’s will 34–5

state theory 23, 33

strong state 7, 140, 142

US state see United States / USA

weak-state 7–8

weak-stateness 8

welfare state 68, 70, 72–4, 77, 85, 146

western state 51

working state 7, 79, 101

Stein, Lorenz von 7, 23, 28, 30–32, 34–5, 74, 84, 101

study of administration 88, 104–6, 114, 121, 127, 153

symbolic use 136

systems theory see theory

Taylor, Frederick W. 38–9, 91

Taylor Society 41

Taylorism 41

technical

technical developments 70

technical knowledge 73, 77, 139

technical progress 97

technocracy 75, 78, 91, 99, 132–3, 139, 152

technocrat 79, 90–91, 133

technocratic 68, 70, 72, 75, 78–9, 82, 90, 133, 139–40

technocratic administration 70

technocratic movement 78, 133

technological 68, 70, 79, 81, 83–4, 91, 99, 102

textbooks 13, 49, 134

theoretical

theoretical and methodological grounding 70

theoretical concept 83–4, 130

theory

administrative theory 5, 14, 42–3, 68, 70, 72, 87, 89, 150, 153

theory of bureaucracy see bureaucracy

communication theory 86

cybernetic political theory see cybernetic

decision theory 88

game theory 22, 88

Kritische Theorie 87

organic state theory see organic

organization theory 21, 55, 88, 123

social contract theory see social

state theory see state

systems theory 86, 89

The study of administration (1887) see Wilson

Thompson, Victor 38, 58

Toolkit 48

top down 39, 45

traditional

traditional authority see authority

traditional domination see domination

traditional flavors 4, 129–30, 140, 145, 153

see also intellectual traditions

transfer

culture transfer 10

sociologically driven transfer 147

transatlantic transfer of ideas 130–31

transfer of administrative ideas 2, 4, 13, 83, 98, 127, 133, 140, 145

transfer of ideas 2–4, 13, 15, 69, 99–100, 129–31, 134, 136, 149, 151

transfer-of-ideas approach 1–2, 9–12, 16, 129

translation 15, 41–2, 44, 54, 62, 103, 128, 136–7, 144

transparency 63

trias politica 26, 29–30, 33–4

see also separation of powers

twentieth century 6, 13–14, 19, 36, 48, 61, 64, 71, 73, 84, 98–9, 104, 129, 131–3, 140–41, 145, 149

tyranny 25

uncertainty reduction 65

unification 76, 92, 109, 111

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) 110

universal class 27

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) 110–11

universal law principles see law

United States / USA

Northern American study of Public Administration 146

US Public Administration 1, 3, 8–9, 14, 17, 18, 23, 30, 38, 63–4, 84, 102, 104–7, 109, 111–13, 115, 127–8, 131, 133, 136–7, 141–2, 144–7, 152

US public administration 14, 66

US presidency see presidency

US sociology 145

US state 7–8, 86, 94, 139

university 42, 54, 86, 109, 112, 117, 122, 127

University of Chicago 54

University of Wisconsin 54

urbanization 18, 68, 72–3, 77

Urwick, Lyndall F. 19, 41–4, 46, 133, 141, 146

USA see United States / USA

utilitarianism 62

value 2, 8, 14, 19–21, 24, 49, 51–3, 61, 63, 94, 98, 126

value-rational 53

Vernunft 137

Vivien, Alexandre 38

vocational training 105, 116–18, 121, 128

Völkische Staat 76

wartime economy 91

Weber, Max 17, 49–66, 77–8, 94, 97–8, 125, 131–2, 134–8, 140, 144–5, 147, 152

misinterpretations (of Weber) 65–6, 136–7, 144

Neo-Weberian State 2

stereotypization of Weber’s model of bureaucracy 137

Weberian bureaucracy 50, 54, 57, 59, 62, 66, 131, 134

Weberian ideal-type 125

see also ideal-type

web(s) of belief(s) 107, 111, 123, 126, 138, 141, 143, 146

changes in the webs of beliefs 148

dominant web of beliefs 138, 146

Weimar Republic / Weimarer Republik 71–2, 75, 78

welfare 24, 27, 68, 70, 72–4, 77, 81, 85, 146

welfare state see state

welfare system 77, 81

White, Leonard D. 17–18, 95, 131

Wilhelminian Reich 51, 54

will (Wille) 30

see also deed

will and deed 34, 131

Wilson, Woodrow 32, 31–7, 84, 93, 96, 98, 101, 131, 146

The study of administration (1887) 34, 146

world peace 106–7, 134, 141, 147

World War I 3, 72, 77, 91, 99, 133, 139, 148

World War II 3, 20–21, 38, 62–3, 79, 82, 84–6, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, 104, 106–7, 111, 115, 131, 134–5, 138, 140, 142