Show Less
You do not have access to this content

Islamic International Law

Historical Foundations and Al-Shaybani’s Siyar

Khaled R. Bashir

In this work, Khaled Ramadan Bashir presents and discusses the precise nature of Mohammad Al-Shaybnai’s contribution to Siyar (Islamic International Law). He compares his work to other great contributions on international law made by renowned scholars including Augustine, Gratian, Aquinas, Vitoria and Grotius. Bashir affirms the view that Al-Shaybnai made a major contribution to the field of International law, which was unparalleled until Grotius wrote The Law of War and Peace. To date, Al-Shaybnai’s Siyar is still a cornerstone of the Islamic perspective of international law.
Show Summary Details
This content is available to you

Bibliography

Khaled R. Bashir

Abdul Rahman, H. M., ‘Just War, Peace and Human Rights Under Islamic and International Law’ (MA Dissertation, the Institute of Islamic Studies, McGill University).

Abdullah, B-B., ‘Sina’at Al-fatwa’ (Youtube/binbayyah, 6 July 2014) <https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDE4dcMS9-s> (accessed 8 April 2016).

Abou El fadl, K., ‘The Use and Abuse of “Holy War”: Review of The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions, James Turner Johnson (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997)’ (Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs, 20 December 2000) <http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/journal/14/review_essays/216.html> (accessed 11 August 2016).

Aboul-Enein, Y. H. and Zuhur, S., Islamic Rulings on Warfare (Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College 2004).

Abū al-Wafā, A., Kitāb Al-Iʻlām Bi-Qawāʻid Al-Qānūn Al-Dawlī Wa-Al-ʻalāqāt Al-Dawlīyah Fī Sharīʻat Al-Islām [A Book of International Law and Relations in Islamic Shari’a], vol 1 (al-Ṭabʻah 2, Dār al-Nahḍah al-ʻArabīyah 2007).

Abū al-Wafā, A., Kitāb Al-Iʻlām Bi-Qawāʻid Al-Qānūn Al-Dawlī Wa-Al-ʻalāqāt Al-Dawlīyah Fī Sharīʻat Al-Islām [A Book of International Law and Relations in Islamic Shari’a], vol 14 (al-Ṭabʻah 2, Dār al-Nahḍah al-ʻArabīyah 2007).

Afsah, E., ‘Contested Universalities of International Law. Islam’s Struggle with Modernity’ (2008) 10 Journal of the History of International Law / Revue d’histoire du droit international 259.

Ahamat, H. and Kamal, M. H. M., ‘Modern Application of Siyar (Islamic Law of Nations): Some Preliminary Observations’ (2011) 25 Arab Law Quarterly 423.

Al-Ameeli, M. I. H. I. A. and Al-Sarakhsi, M. I. A., ‘Explanation of Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr of Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani; Dictated by Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Sarakhsi Written 800 Hijri. [Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabir Li-Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani – Imla Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Sarakhsi; Tama Sanat 800 Hijri] (Microfilm, Leiden University Library 2009, OR 373)’.

Al-Dawoody, A. M., ‘War in Islamic Law: Justifications and Regulations’ (University of Birmingham 2009).

Al-Dubyani, A. A., ‘The Clear Path in the Science of Principles of Jurisprudence; and Methods for Elicitation of the Rules [Almihaj Alwadih Fi Ilim Usool Alfiqih Wa Turoq Istinbat Al-Ahkam]’ (University of Garyunis 1995).

Al-Fizari, A-I., The Book of Siyar of the Sheikh of Islam the Imam Abi-Ishaaq Alfazari, Narrated by Mohammad Ibn Waddaah Alqortobi according to Abdulmalik Ibn Habib Al-Mesysi [Kitab Al-Siyar Li Shaykh Al-Islam Al-Imama Abi Ishaaq Al-Fizari: Riwayat Muhammad Ibn Wadaah Alqortobi A’an Abdu-Al-Malik Ibn Habeeb Al-Masisis A’anho: Dirasat Watahqeeq Farooq Hamadah] (Farouq Hamadah ed., Mo’asasat Al-Risalah 1987).

Al-Ghunaimi, M. T., The Muslim Conception of International Law and the Western Approach (Nijhoff 1968).

Ali, M. C., ‘Critical Exposition of the Popular “Jihad,” Showing That All the Wars of Mohammad Were Defensive; and That Aggressive War, or Compulsory Conversion, Is Not Allowed in The Koran. With Appendices Proving That the Word “Jihad” Does Not Exegetically Mean “Warfare,” and That Slavery Is Not Sanctioned by the Prophet of Islam’ (1885).

Ali, S. S., ‘Resurrecting Siyar through Fatwas? (Re) Constructing “Islamic International Law” in a Post-(Iraq) Invasion World’ (2009) 14 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 115.

Ali, S. S. and Rehman, J., ‘The Concept of Jihad in Islamic International Law’ (2005) 10 Journal of Conflict and Security Law 321.

Allain, J., ‘M. A. Gazi (Ed.), the Shorter Book of Muslim International Law Reviews’ (2016) 1 Jus Gentium: Journal of International Legal History 183.

Al-Shafi’i, M. H. M. I., Explanation of Al-Siyar Al-Kabier of Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani; Dictated by Muhammad Ibn Ahmad As-Sarakhsi [Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabir Li-Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani – Imla Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Sarakhsi] (Dar Al-kutob Al-ilmiyah 1997).

Alwazir, I., ‘The Relationship between the Ruler and the Ruled’ (Alhewar) <http://www.alhewar.com/Wazir.html> (accessed 21 January 2018).

Al-Zuhili, W., ‘Islam and International Law’ (2005) 78 International Review of the Red Cross.

An-Na’im, A. A., ‘Islamic Law and International Law’ (2004) <http://www.aals.org/am2004/islamiclaw/international.htm> (accessed 29 January 2010).

Askin, K., ‘Prosecuting Wartime Rape and Other Gender-Related Crimes under International Law: Extraordinary Advances, Enduring Obstacles’ (2003) 21 Berkeley Journal of International Law 288.

As-Sarakhsī, M. I. A., Explanation of Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr of Muḥammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybānī [Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabir Li-Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani – Imla Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Sarakhsi], vol 1 (Salah Al-Deen Al-Munajjid ed., Ma’had Al-Makhtu’tat 1971).

As-Sarakhsī, M. I. A., Explanation of Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr of Muḥammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybānī [Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabir Li-Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani – Imla Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Sarakhsi], vol 2 (Salah Al-Deen Al-Munajjid ed., Ma’had Al-Makhtu’tat 1971).

As-Sarakhsī, M. I. A., Explanation of Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr of Muḥammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybānī [Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabir Li-Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani – Imla Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Sarakhsi], vol 3 (Salah Al-Deen Al-Munajjid ed., Ma’had Al-Makhtu’tat 1971).

As-Sarakhsī, M. I. A., Explanation of Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr of Muḥammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybānī [Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabir Li-Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani – Imla Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Sarakhsi], vol 4 (Salah Al-Deen Al-Munajjid ed., Ma’had Al-Makhtu’tat 1971).

As-Sarakhsī, M. I. A., Explanation of Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr of Muḥammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybānī [Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabir Li-Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani – Imla Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Sarakhsi], vol 5 (Salah Al-Deen Al-Munajjid ed., Ma’had Al-Makhtu’tat 1971).

Augustine, St., The City of God Against the Pagans, vol iv (Philip Levine tr., William Heinemann 1966).

Aynatābī al-Istanbūlī M. M. ibn, A. A., The Book of Facilitating the Understanding of the Commentary on Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr. [Tayseer Al-Maseer Fi Sharih Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr Istaktabahu Mualifahu Al-Sayed Mohamad Muneeb Ibn Al-Haj Al-Intabi Alistanbuli] (Handwritten in 1215 Hijri, 1800).

Baderin, M. A., International Human Rights and Islamic Law (Oxford University Press 2003).

Baderin, M. A. (ed.), International Law and Islamic Law (Ashgate 2008).

Badr, G. M., ‘Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems’ (1978) 26 The American Journal of Comparative Law 187.

Bainton, R. H., Christian Attitudes toward War and Peace: A Historical Survey and Critical Re-Evaluation (Hodder and Stoughton 1961).

Bashier, Z., War and Peace in the Life of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him) (Islamic Foundation 2006).

Bashir, K., ‘Article Review, Ebrahim Afsah, “Contested Universalities of International Law. Islam’s Struggle with Modernity”, Journal of the History of International Law 10 (2008) 259–307’ (July 2008) <http://www.islamic-laws.com/articles/universalityarticle.htm> (accessed 19 February 2018).

Bashir, K. R., ‘Reconsideration of Khadduri’s The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani’s Siyar by Majid Khadduri, The Johns Hopkins Press, 1966, ISBN 978-0801869754’ (2013) 9 Journal of Islamic State Practice in International Law.

Bassiouni, M. C., ‘Protection of Diplomats Under Islamic Law’ (1980) 74 American Journal of International Law 609.

Bellamy, A. J., Just Wars: From Cicero to Iraq (Polity Press 2006).

Bigongiari, D., The Political Writings of St. Augustine (Henry Paolucci tr., Regnery Gateway 1962).

Blank, L. R., ‘The Laws of War in Shakespeare: International Vs. Internal Armed Conflict’ (Social Science Research Network 1998) SSRN Scholarly Paper ID 1502850 <https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=1502850> (accessed 22 January 2018).

Boisard, M. A., ‘On the Probable Influence of Islam on Western Public and International Law’ (1980) 11 International Journal of Middle East Studies 429.

Borger, J. and Macalister, T., ‘The Race Is on for Libya’s Oil, with Britain and France Both Staking a Claim’ (the Guardian, 1 September 2011) <http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/sep/01/libya-oil> (accessed 22 January 2018).

Bouzenita, A. I., ‘The Siyar – An Islamic Law Of Nations?’ (2007) 35 Asian Journal of Social Science 19.

Bsoul, L. A., International Treaties (Muʻāhadāt) in Islam: Theory and Practice in the Light of Islamic International Law (Siyar) according to Orthodox Schools (University Press of America 2008).

Bsoul, L. A., ‘Historical Evolution of Islamic Law of Nations/Siyar: Between Memory and Desire’ (2008) 17 Digest of Middle East Studies 48.

Carty, A., Philosophy of International Law (Edinburgh University Press 2007).

Carty, A., ‘The Yearning for Unity and the Eternal Return of the Tower of Babel’ (2007) 1 European Journal of Legal Studies <http://cadmus.eui.eu/handle/1814/6841>(accessed 6 June 2018).

Carty, A., ‘The Moral Theologian, Oliver O’Donovan and International Law’ (2008) 9 Political Theology 339.

Casassa, C. S. and Vitoria, F. de, The Political Thought of Francisco de Vitoria (Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies 1946).

Cockayne, J., ‘Islam and International Humanitarian Law: From a Clash to a Conversation between Civilizations’ (2002) 84 International Review of the Red Cross <https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/article/other/5fld2f.htm> (accessed 5 September 2017).

‘Collection Arabic Manuscripts’ (Leiden University Library) <https://socrates.leidenuniv.nl/R/TNPF53LH5IIAVYG43XC629RAF3JDJVG84TIFSKL98JBA19M676-01728?func=results-jump-full&set_entry=000005&set_number=002656&base=GEN01-EAD> (accessed 4 October 2010).

Dawud, The Office of the Judge (Kitab Al-Aqdiyah). Book 24: Hadith 3585.

Dmeriyah, A. J., ‘The Imam Mohammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani and His Book Al-Siyar Al-Kabir (2-2) [Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Al-Hasan Al-Shaybani Wa Kitabuhu Al-Siyar Al-Kabir 2-2]’ (Midad, 29 December 2007) <http://www.midad.me/arts/view/aut/10691> (accessed 27 November 2011).

Dumbauld, E., The Life and Legal Writings of Hugo Grotius (1st ed., University of Oklahoma Press 1969).

Dyson, R. W., Aquinas’ Political Writings (Cambridge University Press 2002).

Elagab, O. Y., The Legality of Non-Forcible Counter-Measures in International Law (Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press 1988).

El-Kosheri, S. A., ‘Islam’ in R. Bernhardt (ed.), Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law (1981).

El-sharawy, M. M., ‘Contemplations of Sheikh Muhammad Mutwali El-Sharawy [Khawater Al-Shiekh Muhammad Mowali Al-Sharawi]’ <http://www.elsharawy.com/books.aspx?mstart=1033049&mend=1033050>(accessed 1 March 2018).

El-sharawy, M. M., ‘Contemplations of Sheikh Muhammad Mutwali El-Sharawy [Khawater Al-Shiekh Muhammad Mowali Al-Sharawi]’ <http://www.elsharawy.com/books.aspx?mstart=1004036&mend=1004040> (accessed 1 March 2018).

Eppstein, J., The Catholic Tradition of the Law of Nations (Burns Oates & Washbourne Ltd 1935).

Fadl, K. A. E., ‘The Rules of Killing at War: An Inquiry into Classical Sources’ (1999) 89 The Muslim World 144.

Fārūqī Ḥārith Sulaymān, al-Muʻjam al-qānūnī: ʻArabī-Inkilīzī: yashtamilu ʻalá muṣṭalaḥāt al-fiqh, al-qadīm wa-al-ḥadīth, wa-al-ṭibb al-sharʻī wa-al-tijārah wa-al-bunūk wa-al-taʼmīn wa-al-diblūmāsīyah wa-qawānīn al-batrūl wa-al-ṭayarān al-madanī [Faruqi’s Law Dictionary: Arabic- English] (Ṭabʻah jadīdah, Maktabat Lubnān 2006).

Fassbender, B. et al. (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the History of International Law (1st ed., Oxford University Press 2012).

Frick, M-L. and Müller, A. T. (eds), Islam and International Law: Engaging Self-Centrism from a Plurality of Perspectives (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 2013).

Frick, M-L. and Oberprantacher, A. (eds), Power and Justice in International Relations: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Global Challenges (Ashgate 2009).

Friedman, L. (ed.), The Law of War: A Documentary History, vol 1 (Greenwood 1972).

Gaber, M. H. M., ‘The Early Islamic State with Special Reference to the Evolution of the Principles of Islamic International Law, 632–750 A.D.’ (PhD Thesis, American University of Washington 1922).

Ǧanzūrī ʿAbd-al-ʿAẓīm al- and Ǧanzūrī ʿAbd-al-ʿAẓīm, Mabādiʾ al-qānūn ad-duwalī al-islāmī wa-’l-qānūn ad-duwalī al-ʿāmm [The Principles of Islamic International Relations and Contemporary International Relations] (Ṭabʿa 1, Maktabat al-Ālāt al-Ḥadīṯa 1992).

Gibb, H. A. R., Mohammedanism: An Historical Survey (Oxford University Press 1962).

Gray, C. D., International Law and the Use of Force (2nd ed., Oxford University Press 2004).

Grotius, H., The Truth of the Christian Religion. In Six Books. Corrected, and Illustrated with Notes, By Le Clerc. (John Clarke tr., William Baynes 1829) <http://www.ccel.org/ccel/grotius/truth.pdf> (accessed 12 December 2017).

Grotius, H., Hugo Grotius. The Law of War and Peace: De Jure Belli Ac Pacis Libri Tres (Francis W. Kelsey tr., Indianapolis 1925).

Grotius, H., De Jure Belli Ac Pacis, Libri Tres. Introduction by James Brown Scott (Francis W. Kelsey and others trs, Oceana 1964).

Hallaq, W. B., A History of Islamic Legal Theories: An Introduction to Sunnī ‘uṣūl Al-Fiqh’ (Cambridge University Press 1999).

Hallaq, W. B. (ed.), The Formation of Islamic Law (Ashgate/Variorum 2004).

Hamidullah, M., The Muslim Conduct of State (5th ed., SH Muhammad Ashraf 1968).

Heath, K. D., ‘Could We Have Armed The Kosovo Liberation Army? The New Norms Governing Intervention In Civil War’ (1999) 4 UCLA J. Int’l L. & For. Aff.

Heer, F., The Medieval World: Europe 1100–1350 (Janet Sondheimer tr., New American Library 1962).

International Committee of the Red Cross, ‘Debate on Humanitarian Law, Policy and Action: Protection of Victims of Armed Conflict under Islamic Law and International Humanitarian Law’ (29 June 2006) <https://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/feature/2006/islamic-law-ihl-feature-010606.htm> (accessed 22 January 2018).

‘International Law Association Reports of the Seventy-Fifth Conference Held in Sofia 2012’ (ILA 2012).

Interview with Hamzah Abu-Fars (March 2010).

Jackson, A., ‘The Etiquette of Disagreement’ (Islamic Research Foundation International, Inc., 2006) <http://www.irfi.org/articles4/articles_5001_6000/the%20etiquette%20of%20disagreementhtml.htm> (accessed 14 December 2017).

Janaby, M. G., The Legal Regime Applicable to Private Military and Security Company Personnel in Armed Conflicts (Springer Berlin Heidelberg 2016).

Janaby, M. G. and Bashir, K. R., ‘The Right of Individuals to Take Judicial Action Against International Persons: The Case of NATO’s Intervention in Libya’ (2012) 1 Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law 162.

Janis, M. W. and Evans, C. (eds), Religion and International Law (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1999).

Johnson, J. T., Ideology, Reason, and the Limitation of War: Religious and Secular Concepts 1200–1740 (Princeton University Press 1975).

Johnson, J. T., The Quest for Peace: Three Moral Traditions in Western Cultural History (Princeton University Press 1987).

Johnson, J. T., The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions (Pennsylvania State University Press 1997).

Johnson, J. T. and Kelsay, J. (eds), Cross, Crescent and Sword: The Justification and Limitation of War in Western and Islamic Tradition (Greenwood Press 1990).

Kassim, H., Sarakhsi, Hugo Grotius of the Muslims: The Doctrine of Juristic Preference and the Concepts of Treaties and Mutual Relations (Austin & Winfield 1994).

Kawar, I., ‘The Arabs in the Peace Treaty of A.D. 561’ (1956) 3 Arabica 181.

Kelsay, J., ‘Al-Shaybani and the Islamic Law of War’ (2003) 2 Journal of Military Ethics 63.

Kelsay, J. and Johnson, J. T. (eds), Just War and Jihad: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives on War and Peace in Western and Islamic Traditions (Greenwood Press 1991).

Khadduri, M., ‘Islam and the Modern Law of Nations’ (1956) 50 The American Journal of International Law 358.

Khadduri, M., ‘Islam and the Modern Law of Nations’ (1956) 50 The American Journal of International Law 358.

Khadduri, M., War and Peace in the Law of Islam (1st AMS ed., AMS Press 1979).

Knight, W. S. M., The Life and Works of Hugo Grotius (Oceana Pub, Inc 1962).

Koskenniemi, M., ‘Colonization of The “Indies” – The Origin of International Law’ (University of Zaragoza, December 2009) <http://www.helsinki.fi/eci/Publications/Koskenniemi/Zaragoza-10final.pdf> (accessed 22 January 2018).

Koskenniemi, M., ‘Histories of International Law: Dealing with Eurocentrism’ (2011) 2011 Rechtsgeschichte – Legal History 152.

Lee, R. W., Hugo Grotius (H. Milford 1930).

Lesaffer, R., European Legal History: A Cultural and Political Perspective (Jan Arriens tr., Cambridge University Press 2009).

Mahmassani, S., ‘The Principles of International Law in the Light of Islamic Doctrine’ (1966) 117 Recueil Des Cours <http://www.ppl.nl/plinklet/?sid=bib:recueil&ppn=163403627&genre=a&issn=&isbn=&title=TheprinciplesofinternationallawinthelightofIslamicdoctrine/SobhiMahmassani&aulast=Mahmassani&aufirst=Sobhi&au2last=&au2first=&au3last=&au3first=&edlast=&edfirst=&ed2last=&ed2first=&ed3last=ed3last&ed3first=&source=Recueildescours&year=1966&volume=&issue=I&spage=&bibliography=recueil&id=465&url=&keyword1=&keyword1ppn=&brillid=19956>).

Mansour, A. A., The Islamic Sharia and Public International Law [Al-Shari’ah Al-Islamiah Wa Al-Qanoon Al-Dawli Al-A’am] (Al-majlis Al-a’ala Li Al-shu’on Al-islamiyah 1971).

Muldoon, J., Popes, Lawyers, and Infidels: The Church and the Non-Christian World, 1250–1550 (University of Pennsylvania Press 1979).

Nardin, T. (ed.), The Ethics of War and Peace: Religious and Secular Perspectives (Princeton University Press 1996).

Neff, S. C., War and the Law of Nations: A General History (Cambridge University Press 2005).

Nussbaum, A., A Concise History of the Law of Nations, Revised Edn (Macmillan 1954).

Onuma, Y. (ed.), A Normative Approach to War: Peace, War, and Justice in Hugo Grotius (Clarendon Press; Oxford University Press 1993).

Onuma, Y., ‘When Was the Law of International Society Born?’ (2000) 2 Journal of the History of International Law / Revue d’histoire du droit international 1.

Oppenheim, L., International Law: A Treatise, vol 2 Disputes, War and Neutrality (Hersch Lauterpacht ed., 7th ed., Longmans 1952).

‘Othman, Interview with Yusuf Al-Qaradawi, Head of the “World Organisation of Islamic Scholars”’, Aldeen Wa-adunia; A-Shariah Wa-alhayah (20 June 2010).

Pagden, A. and Lawrance, J., Francisco de Vitoria; Political Writings (Cambridge University Press 1991).

Phillipson, C., The International Law and Custom of Ancient Greece and Rome, vol 2 (Macmillan and Co, Ltd 1911).

Pickthall, M. W. (tr.), The Glorious Qurʼan: Translation (Tahrike Tarsile Qurʼan 2009).

Ramsey, P., War and the Christian Conscience: How Shall Modern War Be Conducted Justly? (Duke University Press 1961).

Russell, F. H., The Just War in the Middle Ages (Cambridge University Press 1979).

 āfiʿī MI-I aš- and ʿAbd-al-Muṭṭalib, R. F., al- Umm (Dār al-Wafāʾ li-ṭ-Ṭibāʿa wa-’n-Našr wa-’t-Tauzīʿ 2008).

 aibānī MI-Ḥasan aš-, The Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybānī’s Siyar (Majid Khadduri tr., Johns Hopkins Press 1966).

Scott, J. B., The Spanish Origin of International Law. Francisco de Vitoria and His Law of Nations (Clarendon Press 1934).

Shakir, M. H. (tr.), Holy Qurʼan =: Al-Qurʼān Al-Ḥakīm (1st US ed., Tahrike Tarsile Qurʻan 1982).

 haybānī, M. ibn al-Ḥasan aš-, The Shorter Book on Muslim International Law (Mahmood Gazi tr., Ed., Adam 2007).

Simpson, E. (ed.), The Spoils of War: World War II and Its Aftermath: The Loss, Reappearance, and Recovery of Cultural Property (Harry N Abrams in association with the Bard Graduate Center for Studies in the Decorative Arts 1997).

Stumpf, C. A., ‘Christian and Islamic Traditions of Public International Law’, (2005) 7 Journal of the History of International Law.

Stumpf, C. A., The Grotian Theology of International Law: Hugo Grotius and the Moral Foundations of International Relations (De Gruyter 2006).

‘The Institute of Arabic Manuscripts’ <http://www.malecso.org/institute/who-we-are> (accessed 31 December 2017).

Tooke, J. D., The Just War in Aquinas and Grotius (SPCK 1965).

Tuck, R., The Rights of War and Peace: Political Thought and the International Order from Grotius to Kant (Oxford University Press 1999).

Vitoria, F. de, De Indis De Ivre Belli Relectiones, Text of 1696 (Ernest Nys ed., John Pawley Bate tr., The Carnegie Institution of Washington 1917).

Vollenhoven, C. van, The Framework of Grotius’ Book De Iure Belli Ac Pacis (1625) (Noord-Hollansche 1932).

Walker, T. A., A History of the Law of Nations: From the Earliest Times to the Peace of Westphalia, 1648, vol 1 (Cambridge University Press 1899).

Weeramantry, C. G., Islamic Jurisprudence: An International Perspective (Macmillan 1988).

Wells, H. G. and Postgate, R., The Outline of History: Being a Plain History of Life and Mankind, vol 2 (Doubleday & Co 1961).

Wheaton, H., History of the Law of Nations in Europe and America: From the Earliest Times to the Treaty of Washington, 1842 (Gould, Banks & Co 1845).

Wilson, G. G. and Tucker, G. F., International Law (5th ed., Silver and Burdett and Company 1910).

Winroth, A., The Making of Gratian’s Decretum (Cambridge University Press 2000).

Witkam, J. J., ‘Inventories of Collections of Oriental Manuscripts Vol 1; Compiled by Jan Just Witkam’ <http://www.islamicmanuscripts.info/inventories/leiden/or01000.pdf> (accessed 4 October 2010).

Zahid, M. A. and Shapiee, R. B., ‘Considering Custom in the Making of Siyar (Islamic International Law) Notes and Comments’ (2010) 3 Journal of East Asia and International Law 123.

SELECTED WEBSITES

www.archive.org: Internet Archive

www.icj-cij.org: International Court of Justice

www.icrc.org: International Committee of the Red Cross

www.un.org: United Nations