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Islamic International Law

Historical Foundations and Al-Shaybani’s Siyar

Khaled R. Bashir

In this work, Khaled Ramadan Bashir presents and discusses the precise nature of Mohammad Al-Shaybnai’s contribution to Siyar (Islamic International Law). He compares his work to other great contributions on international law made by renowned scholars including Augustine, Gratian, Aquinas, Vitoria and Grotius. Bashir affirms the view that Al-Shaybnai made a major contribution to the field of International law, which was unparalleled until Grotius wrote The Law of War and Peace. To date, Al-Shaybnai’s Siyar is still a cornerstone of the Islamic perspective of international law.
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Index

Khaled R. Bashir

Names beginning with Al- and El- appear in alphabetical sequence as though these prefixes are missing. For example, entries for Al-Shaybani appear under S and not A.

 

Abbasid Caliphate vii, 5, 26, 85, 176

Abou el Fadl, Khaled viii, 86

Aboul-Enein, Youssef H. 111, 118–19, 121

Abu-Hanifa, al-Nu’mān ibn Thābit (founder of Hanafi School) vii, 5, 25, 27, 39, 79, 80, 90, 194, 231–3

authorship of Al-Siyar Al-Saghir postulated 27

on peace 233

mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims) 35, 216, 230–33, 243–5

war for proselytism rejected 133, 134, 136, 231, 271

see also jihad (use of force)

see also Hanafi School of Islamic jurisprudence

Abu-Yusuf 5, 25, 27, 39, 44, 79

Afsah, Ebrahim 8–13

agreements see covenants; treaties

Alfazari, Abu-Ishaq 6

Ali, Moulavi Cherágh 189–90

ama’an (safe conduct) 34, 216, 227, 233

ambassadors, automatic right to 257, 258

see also diplomatic missions

authority to grant 239, 250, 252

definition and types 250–51, 253

legal consequences and validity 251–2

sacredness 253–6

musta’amanoon (persons protected by ama’an)

harming or killing prohibited 203, 247, 251, 253–4

hostages as 247

liabilities of 203, 212, 252, 259

ransom prohibited 207–8

war against prohibited 133, 203

war to protect 227

pre-Islamic roots of 110, 222, 226–7

travel and trade between warring states 170, 277

see also cross-border travel and trade

see also international relations, between Muslims and non-Muslims; peace

amān see ama’an (safe conduct)

ambassadors see diplomatic missions

Al-Ameeli’s edition of Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Leiden edition) 35, 36–8

see also Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Al-Shaybani)

An-Na’im, Abdullahi Ahmed 22–3

appropriation of land and property see law of war under Al-Siyar, ghanimah (spoils of war); spoils of war, non-Islamic thought

Aquinas, St Thomas 46, 67, 274

Islamic scholarship, influence on 62–3, 270

jus in bello 166, 175, 178

civilians, killing of 167, 169

lying to the enemy 172–3

just war theory 53, 62, 103, 152, 154

conditions of a just war 105, 149

forced conversion rejected 139

peace as the objective of war 123, 124

reprisal 154

self-defence 131

war to punish non-believers and sinners 105–6, 124, 127, 138, 139–40

Al-Shaybani compared with 96, 267, 269

just war theories see Aquinas, St Thomas, just war theory; jihad (use of force)

use of divine authority 73

spoils of war 183, 192–3

prisoners of war 185–6, 201, 203, 205, 206

Summa Theologica 62

Arabia

early Islamic era 55–6

pre-Islamic era 53–6, 59, 108–10, 187, 222–3

arbitration (sulih) 220, 227, 233, 244, 264–5

see also mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims); peace

Aristotle 62, 76, 95, 100, 219, 221

prisoners of war, enslavement 51, 59, 181, 205, 206

see also prisoners of war, non-Islamic thought, enslavement

spoils of war 88, 181

Askin, Kelly D. 183

Augustine, St 273–4

civitas terrenae and civitas dei division 82–3, 88

jus in bello 166, 167, 175, 178

civilians, killing of 165, 169

lying to the enemy 173

military tactics harming civilians 171

surrender 219

just war theory 52–3, 149, 154

biblical authority for war 71, 76, 103–4, 104, 142–3

peace as the objective of war 103–4, 122–3, 124, 126–7, 218

reprisal 154

self-defence 131

sovereign authority 103–4, 150, 151, 152, 162

war to punish non-believers and sinners 103–4, 106, 116, 123, 124, 126–7, 142–3, 165, 233

wars of conversion 106, 138

Al-Shaybani compared with 45–6, 94–5, 267, 269

just war theories see Augustine, St, just war theory; jihad (use of force)

on peace 232–3, 243

use of divine authority 71, 73

spoils of war 183, 192, 193

prisoners of war 185, 201, 203, 205

Averroes (philosopher, aka Ibn Rushed) 62

Al-awzai, Abd al-Rahman (founder of Awzai School) 25, 28, 42, 75

Ayala, Pedro López 63, 64, 67

Bader, Gamal 23

Bassiouni, M. Cherif 228

Bellamy, Alex J. 76, 149, 156, 171, 176, 243

Boisard, Marcel A. 62, 63, 228

booty see law of war under Al-Siyar, ghanimah (spoils of war); spoils of war, non-Islamic thought

Brown Scott, James 177

Bsoul, Labeeb Ahmed 4–5, 6–7, 18–19, 233, 244

Byzantium (Eastern Roman Empire) 53, 84, 107, 113, 184–5, 223

see also Roman international law

Cairo edition of Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (edited by Al-Munajjid) 30–38, 40, 45, 128

see also Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Al-Shaybani)

Carty, Anthony 10, 12, 13–14, 273

Casassa, Charles S. 52, 95

chattels, appropriation of see law of war under Al-Siyar, ghanimah (spoils of war); spoils of war, non-Islamic thought

Cherágh Ali, Moulavi 114, 190

children

ama’an, no right to grant 250, 252

see also ama’an (safe conduct)

child soldiers 168, 252

enslavement 204

see also civilians; women

China, ancient, views on peace 100, 221–2

Christianity

biblical authority for war 20, 71, 76–7, 103, 104, 136, 142–3

Christian and non-Christian relations see international relations, between Muslims and non-Muslims

Grotius’s views on 20–21, 77

Christian and natural law distinguished 76, 155–6

Judeo-Christian basis of Western international law 20–21, 268–9

pacifism 71, 102–4, 218

Cicero 155, 181, 217–18, 221

civilians

killing of

under Al-Siyar 117, 160, 161, 162–4, 168, 169, 277

Western jurisprudence 165–7, 168–9, 170, 172

military tactics harming

under Al-Siyar 164, 171, 172

Western jurisprudence 171

prisoners see prisoners of war, non-Islamic thought; prisoners of war, under Al-Siyar

see also children; women

conciliation (sulih) 220, 227, 233, 244, 264–5

see also mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims); peace

Confucianism 100, 221–2

conversion, religious see religious conversion

covenants

ama’an see ama’an (safe conduct)

dhimmi agreements (with non-Muslims in dar al-Islam) 4, 208, 209, 227

treaties see treaties

cross-border travel and trade 34, 91, 227, 229, 233, 255–6

between warring states 170, 277

see also ama’an (safe conduct); international relations

Crusades 60, 100, 142

customary law

customs of war see international humanitarian law, Western; law of war under Al-Siyar

Siyar as customary international law 21–2

see also Siyar (Islamic international law)

as source of Siyar 75–6, 275

see also Siyar (Islamic international law), sources

dar al-harb and dar al-Islam division 81–90, 202–3, 210

ama’an see ama’an (safe conduct)

cross-border travel and trade see cross-border travel and trade

diplomatic missions see diplomatic missions

ribat (safeguarding the borders of dar al-Islam) 120–21, 128–9

see also jihad (use of force)

see also international relations, between Muslims and non-Muslims

De Jure Belli ac Pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) (Grotius) 2, 20, 66, 97, 150–51, 157, 217, 230, 266

Decretum (Concordia Discordantium Canonum) (Gratian) 46, 53, 94, 126

dhimmis (non-Muslims in dar al-Islam under covenant) 250, 254, 277

dhimmi agreements 4, 208, 209, 227, 250

diplomatic missions 277

diplomatic immunities and privileges 221, 228

ama’an automatically granted 257, 258

see also ama’an (safe conduct)

dignified treatment 259–60

freedom of movement 259

support and protection 260

withdrawal 259, 261, 263

duties of ambassadors and sending states 260–61, 262

ambassadors exceeding missions 262–3

deception 263

messages, verifying 261–2

reciprocity 262

see also reciprocity doctrine of Al-Siyar

see also peace

dispute settlement (sulih) 220, 227, 233, 244, 264–5

see also mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims); peace

distribution of prisoners see prisoners of war, non-Islamic thought, enslavement; prisoners of war, under Al-Siyar, enslavement

divine authority

biblical authority for war 20, 71, 76–7, 103, 104, 136, 142–3

Shari’ah see Shari’ah

Donner, Fred M. 56

Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) 53, 84, 107, 113, 184–5, 236

see also Roman international law

emissaries see diplomatic missions

enslavement of prisoners of war see prisoners of war, non-Islamic thought, enslavement; prisoners of war, under Al-Siyar, enslavement

envoys see diplomatic missions

Eppstein, John 232

Al-Fizari, Abi-Ishaq 6

fiqh see Islamic jurisprudence

forced conversion see religious conversion; wars of conversion

foreigners

ambassadors see diplomatic missions

relations between Muslims and non-Muslims see international relations, between Muslims and non-Muslims

Vitoria on the rights of 255–6

see also Vitoria, Francisco de

Gaber, Mohammad Hosny Mohammad 16–17, 58

Gazi, Mahmood A. 18, 19, 20, 21, 27, 28, 30, 31, 41

Gentili, Alberico 8, 47, 63, 64, 147

Gentilis see Gentili, Alberico

ghanimah (spoils of war) see law of war under Al-Siyar, ghanimah (spoils of war)

Al-Ghunaimi, Muhammad Tal’at 39, 53–4, 64, 107, 141, 146

Gratian 274

Decretum (Concordia Discordantium Canonum) 46, 53, 154

jus in bello 166, 172, 175, 178

civilians, killing of 167, 168, 169

lying to the enemy 173

just war theory 53, 130, 142, 154, 178

peace as the objective of war 123, 124, 126

sovereign authority 149, 150, 151, 152

war to punish non-believers and sinners 104, 105–6, 123, 124, 126, 127, 143

wars of conversion 106, 138

Al-Shaybani compared with 46, 267, 269

just war theories see Gratian, just war theory; jihad (use of force)

use of divine authority 71, 73, 76

spoils of war 183, 185, 192, 193

prisoners of war 201, 203, 205

Greece, ancient 50–51, 52, 59

Aristotle see Aristotle

just war theory 88, 99, 108, 154

peace, views on 217, 220, 221

Plato 99–100, 181, 221

refugees and asylum 220

spoils of war 88, 181

Groot, Hugo de see Grotius, Hugo

Grotius, Hugo 8, 15–16, 46, 47, 97, 274

Christianity, views on 20–21, 77

Christian and natural law distinguished 76, 155–6

Islamic scholarship, influence on 2, 38, 63, 65, 66–8, 270

jus in bello 166, 175–6, 178

civilians, killing of 167, 168

military tactics harming civilians 171

just war theory 20–21, 122

alternatives to war 148–9

Christian and natural law distinguished 76, 155–6

conditions of a just war 157

enforcement of legal rights 156

neutrality 153

peace as the objective of war 123–4

pious intent in fighting, need for 149, 157

reprisal 156

self-defence 131–2, 151, 156, 157

sovereign authority 150–51, 152–3, 157, 159

war to punish non-believers and sinners 139, 143, 144, 146, 156, 159

peace 177, 266

arbitration 265

definition of 229

diplomatic missions 221, 256–7, 258–9, 260–61, 263

as good faith 217–18

peace treaties see Grotius, Hugo, treaties

tribute to secure peace 236

promises 252–3

of refuge or safe conduct 255, 266

see also ama’an (safe conduct)

Al-Shaybani compared with 29, 42, 65, 73, 269, 274

just war theories 155–9

see also Grotius, Hugo, just war theory; jihad (use of force)

peace theories see Grotius, Hugo, peace; peace

scope of international law theory 95, 97, 130

treaties see Grotius, Hugo, treaties; treaties, under Al-Siyar

use of divine authority 20, 71, 76

use of sources 92, 269, 271

spoils of war 158, 183, 192, 214–15

land occupation 256

prisoners of war 185, 186, 199, 203, 206, 247–8

treaties 230, 266

see also treaties

breach, consequences of 243

cancellation and nullification 248–9

implementation 238

interpretation rules 241, 245–6

pacta sunt servanda principle 65, 196, 226, 234–5

ratification 237

reinstating original situation 242

Al-Shaybani’s views compared see treaties, under Al-Siyar

terms breaching jus cogent norms 238

written treaties 235

works

De Jure Belli ac Pacis (On the Law of War and Peace) 2, 20, 66, 97, 150–51, 157, 217, 230, 266

Truth of Christian Religion 66–7

Hamadah, Farouq 6

Hamidullah, Muhammad 7, 14, 15, 51–2, 53, 63–4, 189

Hanafi School of Islamic jurisprudence 5, 25, 40, 79–80, 136

see also Abu-Hanifa, al-Nu’mān ibn Thābit (founder of Hanafi School)

Holy Qura’an see Shari’ah, Holy Qura’an

hostages 187, 198, 219, 246–8

as musta’amanoon (persons protected by ama’an) 247

see also ama’an (safe conduct)

ransom 188, 197, 207–8

see also prisoners of war, non-Islamic thought; prisoners of war, under Al-Siyar

human rights 277

humanitarian intervention 133

Ibn Rushed (philosopher, aka Averroes) 62

India, ancient 100–101

international humanitarian law, Western

anticipated by Siyar 22, 43, 62, 63–4, 65, 109, 214

historical development 99–108

jurists see Aquinas, St Thomas; Augustine, St; Gratian; Grotius, Hugo; Vitoria, Francisco de

jus in bello

civilians, killing of 165–7, 168–9, 170, 172

defensive force, response to 166–7

lying to the enemy 172–3

military tactics harming civilians 171

prisoners of war see prisoners of war, non-Islamic thought

just war theory see just war theory

modern era 155, 176–7, 191, 272–3

spoils of war see spoils of war, non-Islamic thought

see also international law; international relations; jihad (use of force); law of war under Al-Siyar

international law

customary law 21–2, 75–6

international humanitarian law see international humanitarian law, Western; law of war under Al-Siyar

Islamic see Siyar (Islamic international law)

treaties see treaties

Western

ancient Greek sources of see Greece, ancient

Eurocentrism of 3, 8, 13–14, 23

Judeo-Christian basis 20–21, 268–9

perceived deficiencies of 10, 14, 16

Roman sources of see Roman international law

Siyar comparison 18–21

Siyar influence on 22, 43, 60–68, 270

Westphalian system 9

international relations

between Muslims and non-Muslims

ama’an see ama’an (safe conduct)

dar al-harb and dar al-Islam division 81–91, 192, 202, 207, 210–13, 226, 245, 248, 254, 257–60

dhimmis see dhimmis (non-Muslims in dar al-Islam under covenant)

diplomatic missions see diplomatic missions

forced conversion see religious conversion; wars of conversion

Islamic hostility to non-Islamic world refuted 81–90, 228

reciprocity doctrine 8, 11, 59–60, 76, 202, 262, 275, 276

travel and trade see cross-border travel and trade

treaties see treaties

war for proselytism see jihad (use of force), war for proselytism

Western jurisprudence 8, 51–2, 59, 88–90

see also just war theory, war to punish non-believers and sinners

peace see peace

war see international humanitarian law, Western; jihad (use of force); just war theory; law of war under Al-Siyar

international travel and trade see cross-border travel and trade

Isidore of Seville 104, 184

Islamic international law see Siyar (Islamic international law)

Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) 12, 14, 31, 68, 78

Awzai School see Al-awzai, Abd al-Rahman (founder of Awzai School)

Hanafi School 5, 25, 40, 78, 80, 136

see also Abu-Hanifa, al-Nu’mān ibn Thābit (founder of Hanafi School)

Maliki School 25–6, 80–81

see also Malik

Shafi’i School 26, 78

Shari’ah see Shari’ah

Islamic law see Shari’ah

‘Islamic law of nations’ controversy 9–11

see also Siyar (Islamic international law)

Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani’s Siyar (Khadduri) 39–41, 42

istinqaad (humanitarian intervention) 133

Italy, Islamic intellectual legacy 63–4, 65, 270

Japanese model of Western engagement 10–11

Jewish law

Judeo-Christian basis of Western international law 20–21, 268–9

on peace 217

on war 100

jihad (use of force) 13, 34, 176–8, 223–4

definition 86, 120–22

‘war of words’ connotation 83

istinqaad (humanitarian intervention) 133

jus in bello see law of war under Al-Siyar, jus in bello

musta’amanoon see ama’an (safe conduct), musta’amanoon (persons protected by ama’an)

neutrality 153

peace as the objective of war 124–6, 127–8

secured with jiziyah (tribute or poll tax) 83, 133–4, 135, 137–8, 142, 148, 227–8, 236

readiness for war, need for 127–8

reprisal 156–7

ribat, relationship with 120, 128–9

self-defence 116, 131–2, 156, 174

sovereign authority 151, 152, 162, 177

threshold of injury justifying war 153–4

war for proselytism 133–42, 146–9, 271–2

alternatives to war 83, 133–4, 135, 137, 138, 142, 148

forced conversion rejected 83, 113, 134, 138–9, 272

pious intent in fighting, need for 128, 149, 177–8

Shari’ah basis for 137, 140

Al-Shaybani’s and Abu-Hanifa’s views contrasted 133, 134, 136, 231, 271

Al-Shaybani’s and Vitoria’s views contrasted 135–6, 144

Al-Shaybani’s views explained 141–2, 146–8

war to punish sinners 164–5

see also law of war under Al-Siyar

jiziyah (tribute or poll tax) to secure peace 83, 133–4, 135, 137–8, 142, 148, 227–8, 236

see also jihad (use of force); peace

Johnson, James Turner 155–6, 170, 171, 175, 176

jus ad bellum see jihad (use of force); just war theory

jus in bello

Al-Shaybani’s views on see law of war under Al-Siyar, jus in bello

Western jurisprudence see international humanitarian law, Western, jus in bello

just war theory 52–3, 62–3

of ancient Greece 88, 99, 108, 154

biblical authority for war 20, 71, 76–7, 103, 104, 136, 142–3

conditions of a just war 105, 149, 157

humanitarian intervention 133

Islamic see jihad (use of force)

modern era 155, 176–7, 191, 272–3

neutrality 153

peace as the objective of war 122–7, 218

see also peace

of pre-Islamic Arabia 55, 108–10

reprisal 154, 156

Roman law 101–2, 108, 147, 148

self-defence 131–2, 151, 156, 157

under Al-Siyar see jihad (use of force)

sovereign authority 103–4, 149–51, 152–3, 157, 159, 162

war to punish non-believers and sinners 99, 102, 113–14

Aquinas 105–6, 124, 127, 138, 139–40

Augustine 103–4, 106, 116, 123, 124, 126–7, 142–3, 165

Gratian 104, 105–6, 123, 124, 126, 127, 143

Grotius 139, 143, 144, 146, 156, 159

Vitoria 63, 105, 135–6, 143–6

wars of conversion see wars of conversion

Western jurists see Aquinas, St Thomas, just war theory; Augustine, St, just war theory; Gratian, just war theory; Grotius, Hugo, just war theory; Vitoria, Francisco de, just war theory

see also international humanitarian law, Western; law of war under Al-Siyar

Kelsay, John 96, 120, 160

Khadduri, Majid 8, 27, 35–6, 68, 250

Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani’s Siyar 39–41, 42

kharaj (land tax) 202, 204, 210

Koran see Shari’ah, Holy Qura’an

El-Kosheri 82, 223–4

Lammers, S.E. 175, 176

land, appropriation of see law of war under Al-Siyar, ghanimah (spoils of war); spoils of war, non-Islamic thought

land tax (kharaj) 202, 204, 210

law of nations see international law

law of war under Al-Siyar 34, 98–9, 110–12, 118–19, 276

ghanimah (spoils of war) 180, 187, 190, 191–2, 193, 200, 203–4, 208–9

see also spoils of war, non-Islamic thought

division of 213–14

earnings, treatment as 212

gifts, treatment as 211–12

land occupation 209–10

non-Muslims excluded from 121

prisoners see prisoners of war, under Al-Siyar

property or chattels, appropriation 210–11

spoils obtained by prisoners abroad 212–13

jus ad bellum see jihad (use of force)

jus in bello 115, 117–18, 160–61, 178

casualties, treatment of 117, 161, 173

child soldiers 168, 252

civilians, killing of 117, 160, 161, 162–4, 168, 169

flags, colour of 119

horses, use in war 119

laying siege 161

lying to the enemy 161, 172

military tactics harming civilians 164, 171, 172

mistaken killing, remedies for 173–4

travel and trade between warring states 170, 277

unnecessary suffering and punishment 164–5, 171

war crimes 173–4

just war theory see jihad (use of force)

peace see peace

prisoners of war see prisoners of war, under Al-Siyar

ribat (safeguarding the borders of dar al-Islam) 120–21, 128–9

Al-Shaybani’s realist approach to 96, 147–8

soldiers, permission for combat 119

Western international humanitarian law anticipated 22, 43, 62, 63–4, 65, 109, 214

see also international humanitarian law, Western; Siyar (Islamic international law)

Leiden University

Islamic manuscript collection 65–6

Leiden edition of Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (edited by Al-Ameeli) 35, 36–8

see also Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Al-Shaybani)

Malik 24, 25, 79, 80

Maliki School of Islamic jurisprudence 25–6, 78–81

Al-Muwatta (Malik) 24, 80

Maximus of Turin, St 183

mediation (sulih) 220, 227, 233, 244, 264–5

see also mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims); peace

Montesquieu 50

mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims) 35, 216

cancellation or nullification 248–50

definition 243–5

guarantees under 246–8

interpretation rules 245–6

Al-Sarakhsi’s commentary on 230, 231, 247

Al-Shaybani’s and Abu-Hanifa’s views compared 231, 232, 233

see also law of war under Al-Siyar; peace; sulih (dispute settlement); treaties

Muldoon, James 52, 95, 130, 139

Al-Munajjid’s edition of Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Cairo edition) 30, 31, 33–6, 37–8

see also Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Al-Shaybani)

Muslim and non-Muslim relations see international relations, between Muslims and non-Muslims

‘Muslim law of nations’ controversy 9–11

see also Siyar (Islamic international law)

musta’amanoon see ama’an (safe conduct), musta’amanoon (persons protected by ama’an)

Al-Muwatta (Malik) 24, 80

Neff, Stephen C. 107, 111–12, 116, 155, 221

negotiations to avoid war

arbitration 220, 227, 233, 244, 264–5

diplomatic missions see diplomatic missions

see also mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims); peace

neutrality 153

see also jihad (use of force); just war theory

non-combatants see civilians

non-Muslim and Muslim relations see international relations, between Muslims and non-Muslims

Nussbaum, Arthur 47, 100, 145, 182–3, 207, 214

O’Donovan, Oliver 13–14

On the Law of War and Peace (De Jure Belli ac Pacis) (Grotius) 2, 20, 66, 97, 150–51, 157, 217, 230, 266

Oppenheim, Lassa 1–2, 21, 108

Ottoman Empire 57

pacta sunt servanda principle 65, 196, 226, 234–5

see also treaties

pacts see covenants; treaties

peace

ama’an see ama’an (safe conduct)

ancient Chinese views on 100, 221–2

ancient Greek views on 217, 220, 221

arbitration 220, 227, 233, 244, 264–5

Christian pacifism 71, 102–4, 218

defined as the absence of war 218–19, 228–9

diplomatic missions see diplomatic missions

Grotius on see Grotius, Hugo, peace

Islam, peace as tenet of 223–5

Islamic hostility to non-Islamic world refuted 81–90, 228

as the objective of war, under Al-Siyar 124–6, 127–8

see also jihad (use of force)

secured with jiziyah (tribute or poll tax) 83, 133–4, 135, 137–8, 142, 148, 227–8, 236

as the objective of war, Western jurisprudence 122–7, 218

see also just war theory

peace treaties see treaties, peace treaties

pre-Islamic Arabia, views on 222–3

Roman views on see Roman international law, peace

Al-Shaybani’s general writings on 96, 177, 216, 229, 232–3, 266, 276

see also international humanitarian law, Western; law of war under Al-Siyar

Plato 99, 181, 221

plunder see law of war under Al-Siyar, ghanimah (spoils of war); spoils of war, non-Islamic thought

poll tax (jiziyah) to secure peace 83, 133–4, 135, 137–8, 142, 148, 227–8, 236

see also peace

prisoners of war, non-Islamic thought 182–3

civilian prisoners

see also civilians

killing of 184, 186, 188, 198, 199

women, rape and sexual slavery 183

combatants, killing of 198–9, 201, 203

enslavement 183, 184–6, 205, 206

Aristotle’s views on 51, 59, 181, 205, 206

hostages 187, 198, 219, 247–8

prisoners of war, under Al-Siyar 34, 187–90, 192, 194–5, 215

agreements on prisoner protection 195–6, 202, 204

becoming subjects of the state 208

benevolent freeing of 188, 197, 206–7

capture of enemy settlements 202, 204, 208

civilian prisoners, killing of 188, 196, 199, 202

combatants, killing of 196–200, 201–3

enslavement 188, 189, 205

‘distribution’ term preferred 203–4

mothers and children 204

Muslims exempted 205

slavery prohibited except for POWs 189–90

upper class prisoners 206

hostages 246–8

as musta’amanoon 247

see also ama’an (safe conduct), musta’amanoon (persons protected by ama’an)

ransom 188, 197, 207–8

humane treatment 188

Muslim converts 203, 208, 247

Muslims in enemy hands 188, 208

see also law of war under Al-Siyar

promises 65, 196, 226, 234–5, 252–3

see also covenants; treaties

property, appropriation of see law of war under Al-Siyar, ghanimah (spoils of war); spoils of war, non-Islamic thought

proselytism, war for see jihad (use of force), war for proselytism; just war theory, war to punish non-believers and sinners; wars of conversion

punishment

prisoners of war see prisoners of war, non-Islamic thought; prisoners of war, under Al-Siyar

war as see just war theory, war to punish non-believers and sinners

Qura’an, Holy see Shari’ah, Holy Qura’an

reciprocity doctrine of Al-Siyar 8, 11, 59–60, 76, 202, 262, 275, 276

see also international relations, between Muslims and non-Muslims; Siyar (Islamic international law)

religious conversion

converts to Islam, prisoner status 203, 208, 247

forced conversion

rejected in Western jurisprudence 136, 139, 272

rejected under Al-Siyar 83, 113, 134, 138–9, 272

wars of conversion see wars of conversion

war as punishment see just war theory, war to punish non-believers and sinners

war for proselytism see jihad (use of force), war for proselytism

wars of conversion see wars of conversion

ribat (safeguarding the borders of dar al-Islam) 120–21, 128–9

see also law of war under Al-Siyar

Roman international law 51–2, 57, 59, 88–9

of Byzantium (Eastern Roman Empire) 53, 84, 107, 113, 184–5, 236

just war theory 101–2, 108, 147, 148

peace 217, 218–19, 221, 222

arbitration 220

Cicero on 217–18, 221

pax Romana 82

tribute to secure peace 236

Seneca 98

spoils of war 181–2, 213

prisoners of war 184–5

safe conduct (ama’an) see ama’an (safe conduct)

St Augustine see Augustine, St

St Maximus of Turin 183

St Thomas Aquinas see Aquinas, St Thomas

Al-Sarakhsi, Muhammad Ibn Ahmad 31

commentary on Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr see Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Al-Shaybani), Al-Sarakhsi’s commentary on

self-defence, war in

under Al-Siyar 116, 131–2, 156, 174

see also jihad (use of force)

Western jurisprudence 131–2, 151, 156, 157

see also just war theory

Seneca 98

Al-Shafi’i (Imam Al-Shafi’i) 26, 91

Al-Sharawi, Muhammad Mutwali 189

Shari’ah 7, 61, 68

Holy Qura’an 7, 70–71, 72, 111

on equality of mankind 224

on fighting non-Muslims 137, 140

on prisoners of war 197

on readiness for war 127

ijma’a (consensus of opinion) 68, 73–4

qiyas (analogy) 73, 74

as source of Siyar

hierarchy of sources 69–70, 72–3

sourcing principles 68–9

Sunnah 71–3

Al-Shaybani, Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan

biography 24–7, 79

eminence as international jurist, views on 24, 29, 42, 43

Islam, view of 141–2

methodology and reasoning style see Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Al-Shaybani), methodology and reasoning

sources see Siyar (Islamic international law), sources

Western jurists, compared with

see under Aquinas, St Thomas; Augustine, St; Gratian; Grotius, Hugo; Vitoria, Francisco de

works

Al-Muwatta (Malik), version of 24

Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr see Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Al-Shaybani)

Al-Siyar Al-Saghir (Shorter Book of International Law) 27–8, 42–3, 160–61, 162

writing style 26, 68

sinners, war to punish

under Al-Siyar 164–5

see also jihad (use of force)

non-Islamic thought see just war theory, war to punish non-believers and sinners

Siyar (Islamic international law)

concept 6–16, 18–20

critiques of 10–13, 81–2

as customary international law 21–2

as divinely based law 7, 8, 11, 12, 16–17, 20, 57

see also Shari’ah, as source of Siyar

doctrines

ama’an see ama’an (safe conduct)

jihad see jihad (use of force)

non-Muslims, relations with see international relations, between Muslims and non-Muslims

peace see peace

reciprocity 8, 11, 59–60, 76, 202, 262, 275, 276

sulih (dispute settlement) 220, 227, 233, 244, 264–5

see also mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims)

on treaties see treaties

unity of human race 275, 276

early scholars of 5–6

forced conversion rejected 83, 113, 134, 138–9, 272

see also religious conversion; wars of conversion

importance of 16–23, 268

individual application of 19–20, 93, 276

international law character, controversy 7–11, 15

‘Islamic law of nations’ controversy 9–11

neglect by Western jurists 1–2, 62, 267, 274

origins 4–5

rationality of 11

recognition of 17–18

Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr see Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Al-Shaybani)

sources

ancient Greek 50–51, 52, 59

see also Greece, ancient

customary law 75–6, 275

non-Islamic sources generally 56–60, 75

pre-Islamic Arabian 53–6, 59, 108–10, 269

Roman 51–2, 57, 59, 88–9, 269

see also Roman international law

Shari’ah see Shari’ah, as source of Siyar

taxation

jiziyah (tribute or poll tax) 83, 133–4, 135, 137–8, 142, 148, 227–8, 236

kharaj (land tax) 202, 204, 209

war

conduct of see law of war under Al-Siyar

justification of see jihad (use of force)

Western international law

see also international law, Western

comparison with 18–21

influence on 22, 43, 60–68, 270

Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr (Al-Shaybani) 5, 24

background to 28

editions 32–3, 269

Cairo edition (edited by Al-Munajjid) 30, 31, 33–6, 37–8

Leiden edition (edited by Al-Ameeli) 35, 36–8

English language studies of 39

Islamic Law of Nations: Shaybani’s Siyar (Khadduri) 39–41, 42

influence on Western international law 22, 43, 60–68, 270

method of analysing

Islamic historical sources, treatment of 44–5, 49

sources, non-Islamic see Siyar (Islamic international law), sources

translations and citations 47–8

methodology and reasoning 26, 68, 90–97

casuistic method 6, 90, 275

Hanafi and Maliki School influences 90

Al-Sarakhsi’s commentary on (ie: Sharih Kitab Al-Siyar Al-Kabīr) 30–32, 37, 40–41, 137, 154, 196, 210

on diplomatic missions 257

distinguished from Al-Shaybani’s text 40, 125–6, 129

editions 32–3, 269

Cairo edition (edited by Al-Munajjid) 30, 31, 33–6, 37–8

Leiden edition (edited by Al-Ameeli) 35, 36–8

juristic value 32, 35

on mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims) 35, 216, 230–33, 243–5, 247, 249

themes see Siyar (Islamic international law), doctrines

slavery see prisoners of war, non-Islamic thought, enslavement; prisoners of war, under Al-Siyar, enslavement

Spain, Islamic intellectual legacy 60–61, 63–4, 65, 67, 270

spoils of war, non-Islamic thought

ancient Greece 88, 181

modern era 191

pre-Islamic Arabia 187

prisoners of war see prisoners of war, non-Islamic thought

Roman law 181–2, 213

Western jurisprudence 158, 182–4, 192–4, 214–15, 256

see also law of war under Al-Siyar, ghanimah (spoils of war)

Stumpf, Christoph A. 20–21

sulih (dispute settlement) 220, 227, 233, 244, 264–5

see also mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims); peace

Sunnah 71–3

see also Shari’ah

taxation, Islamic see Siyar (Islamic international law), taxation

Al-thawri, Sufyan 134, 137, 140

travel and trade, cross-border see cross-border travel and trade

treaties

pacta sunt servanda 65, 196, 226, 234–5

peace treaties 50, 107, 217, 219–20, 230, 233

see also peace

as bar to war under Al-Siyar 133, 134, 136, 225–6

cease fire agreements 228

dhimmi agreements 4, 208, 209, 227

guarantees under 246–8

mowada’ah see mowada’ah (peace treaties with non-Muslims)

in pre-Islamic Arabia 54, 222–3

under Al-Siyar 266, 276, 277

breach, consequences of 243

flexibility in negotiations 235

fulfilment of promises 65, 196, 226, 234

Grotius’s and Al-Shaybani’s views compared see Grotius, Hugo, treaties

implementation 237–8

interpretation rules 240–41, 245–6

limited application of 239–40

period of treaty 242

ratification 236–7

reinstating original situation 242

status 140, 196, 225–6, 233

termination 241–2

terms breaching domestic rules 239

terms breaching jus cogent norms 236, 238

written treaties 235–6

see also covenants; international law; Siyar (Islamic international law)

tribute (jiziyah) to secure peace 83, 133–4, 135, 137–8, 142, 148, 227–8, 236

see also peace

Tuck, Richard 157, 158–9

Vitoria, Francisco de 46–7, 67, 96–7, 274

biblical authority, use of 71, 76–7, 136

foreigners

Christian and non-Christian relations 89–90

rights of 255–6

Islamic scholarship, influence on 2, 62, 64, 270

jus in bello 176

civilians, killing of 168–9, 170, 172

defensive force, response to 166–7

just war theory 106–7, 129–30, 178–9

defence of religious freedom/proselytism 63, 105, 135–6, 143–6, 271–2

forced conversion rejected 136, 272

humanitarian intervention 133

neutrality 153

peace as the objective of war 124

self-defence 132

sovereign authority 150, 152

war to punish sinners 165–6

peace 124, 230, 266

Al-Shaybani compared with 29, 71, 73, 76–7, 95, 269, 271

acceptance of alternative legal systems 89–90

individual application of international law 93–4

just war theories see jihad (use of force); Vitoria, Francisco de, just war theory

reasoning style 65

use of divine authority 71, 76–7

spoils of war 158, 192, 193–4, 214–15

land occupation 256

prisoners of war 198–9, 203, 204–5

Vollenhoven, Cornelius van 97, 229, 230

al-Wafā, Abū 3, 24, 33, 39

on arbitration 264–5

on dar al-harb and dar al-Islam division 81–9, 210

on humanitarian intervention 133

on Al-Shaybani’s eminence as jurist 24, 42

on sourcing principles of Al-Siyar 68–9

on treaties 234, 238, 239

Walker, Thomas A. 116–17

war, under Al-Siyar see law of war under Al-Siyar

wars of conversion

under Al-Siyar 83, 113, 134, 138–9

Crusades 60, 100, 142

Western jurisprudence 105, 106, 108, 113, 124, 138

rejected 136, 139

Weeramantry, Christopher G. 2, 12, 22, 43, 64, 82, 190

Wells, H.G. 141

Western international law see international law, Western

Wheaton, Henry 2–3

women

ama’an, right to grant 250, 252

see also ama’an (safe conduct)

killing of see civilians, killing of

mother and child slaves 204

rape and sexual slavery 183

see also children; civilians

wrongdoers, war to punish

under Al-Siyar 164–5

see also jihad (use of force)

non-Islamic thought see just war theory, war to punish non-believers and sinners

Al-Zuhili, Wahbeh 112–13